双语:美国损害环境事实清单

摘要

Full Text: Fact Sheet on Environmental Damage by the US

美国损害环境事实清单

Fact Sheet on Environmental Damage by the US

 

作为当今世界最先进的发达国家,美国在环境领域劣迹斑斑,不仅在国内环境保护政策上大开“倒车”,还严重损害全球环境治理的公平、效率和成效,是公认的“共识破坏者”和“麻烦制造者”。美国在环境问题上的所作所为,既无法向美国内民众交代,也欠世界人民一个说法。

 

As the most advanced developed country in the world today, the United States has a poor track record in the environmental field. It has not only backpedaled on its domestic environmental protection policies but also seriously undermined the fairness, efficiency and effectiveness of global environmental governance. It is widely viewed as a consensus-breaker and a troublemaker. With regard to what it has done to the environment, the US has yet to justify itself to its own people and to other people in the world.

 

一、温室气体排放 美国是全球历史第一排放大国、全球累积温室气体排放最多的国家,其1751年至2010年间能源和工业部门排放占全球的27.9%,累积排放量约是中国的3倍。美国还是当前第二排放大国,排放全球占比约为15%。美国人均碳排放居高不下,2017年人均化石燃料排放二氧化碳14.6吨,是全球平均水平的3.3倍,中国的2倍多。美国还是全球累积航空碳排放最多的国家。

 

1. On Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Historically, the US has been the world’s largest emitter with the most greenhouse gas emissions in cumulative terms. Between 1751 and 2010, emissions from US energy and industrial sectors accounted for 27.9% of the global total. Cumulative emissions from the US are about three times that of China. Today, the US is the second largest emitter in the world with about 15% of global carbon emissions. In per capita terms, the US has long been among the biggest carbon emitter, registering 14.6 tons of per capita CO2 emissions from fossil fuel in 2017, 3.3 times the global average and more than twice that of China. The US also has the largest cumulative aviation emissions in the world.

 

二、气候变化

2. On Climate Change.

 

气候变化立场重大倒退。特朗普政府多次称全球变暖是骗局,挑战国际社会应对气候变化的共识。特朗普政府取消了奥巴马政府的清洁能源计划,持续放松化石能源行业发展相关环境约束,废止美行政部门相关气候变化政策举措。据《纽约时报》统计,特朗普政府执政以来,直接或以其他方式撤销了近70项重大环境政策,还有30多项处于撤销进行中,预计将极大增加美国温室气体排放和空气污染致死人数。美国自然资源保护协会等环保机构针对特朗普政府降低环保标准及相关环保问题提起了多项诉讼。由于美消极立场,2017年以来,二十国集团峰会连续三年领导人宣言无法就气候变化内容达成共识,最后均采取“19+1”模式作为妥协。

 

Major retrogression on climate change. The Trump administration has repeatedly called global warming a hoax, challenging the international consensus on climate change. The Trump administration scrapped the Obama administration’s Clean Power Plan, kept relaxing environmental restrictions on the development of the fossil fuel industry, and rescinded climate-related policy measures of the executive branch. According to The New York Times, since the Trump administration took office, nearly 70 major environmental policies have been reversed, revoked or otherwise rolled back and more than 30 additional rollbacks are still in progress. This is expected to greatly increase greenhouse gas emissions and the death toll resulted from air pollution. US environmental protection agencies such as the US Natural Resources Defense Council have filed a number of lawsuits against the Trump administration over lowering environmental standards and causing related environmental issues. Due to the negative stance of the US, the leaders’ declarations of the G20 summits failed to reach consensus on climate change for three consecutive years starting from 2017, and each time the "19+1" approach was adopted as a compromise.

 

退出气候变化《巴黎协定》。2017年6月1日,特朗普政府宣布将退出《巴黎协定》,停止实施“国家自主贡献”。2019年11月4日,美正式启动退约程序。按照有关退约条款规定,美将于2020年11月4日正式退出《巴黎协定》,成为迄今为止唯一一个退出《巴黎协定》的缔约方。美国既不批准《京都议定书》,又悍然退出《巴黎协定》,严重破坏全球气候治理与合作。

 

Withdrawal from the Paris Agreement. On 1 June 2017, the Trump administration announced that the US would withdraw from the Paris Agreement and cease implementing its Nationally Determined Contributions. On 4 November 2019, the US officially launched the withdrawal procedure. Pursuant to the withdrawal clause, the US will formally withdraw from the Agreement on 4 November 2020, making it the only party to withdraw thus far. The US failure to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and its withdrawal from the Paris Agreement have seriously undermined global climate governance and cooperation.

 

气候行动承诺落实不彰。自1992年10月批准《联合国气候变化框架公约》以来,美排放量仍持续快速增长,且增长趋势保持了15年之久。2010年,美承诺到2020年将在2005年温室气体排放基础上全经济范围减排17%。但截至2018年底,美温室气体排放量比2005年仅下降10.2%,勉强完成其减排目标的60%。2017年,特朗普政府擅自撕毁承诺,宣布拒不履行“到2025年在2005年温室气体排放基础上排放下降26%-28%”的气候行动目标。自2018年起,美连续三年拒绝履行提交“双a年报告”和“国家信息通报”等义务。

 

Insufficient implementation of climate action commitments. After the ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in October 1992, US emissions continued to grow rapidly on an upward trajectory that lasted for 15 years. In 2010, the US pledged to cut its economy-wide carbon emissions by 17% from 2005 levels by 2020. Nevertheless, as of the end of 2018, the US only managed to bring its greenhouse gas emissions 10.2% lower than its 2005 figure, barely meeting its 60% emission reduction target. In 2017, the Trump administration reneged on the US commitment by announcing its refusal to meet its climate action goal of 26-28% emissions reduction below 2005 levels by 2025. For three consecutive years since 2018, the US has refused to fulfill its obligations of submitting Biennial Reports and National Communication.

 

拒不兑现资金承诺。美国在全球环境基金历史欠款额度最大,总共欠款1.11亿美元,占比95.7%。特朗普政府上台后,宣布停止向绿色气候基金捐资,且拒绝兑现奥巴马政府时期未完成的20亿美元捐资承诺。美还多次以所谓人口贩运、侵犯人权等无端理由,蓄意打压发展中国家项目,严重损害发展中国家用资权利。自2018年起,美拖欠《联合国气候变化框架公约》会费高达1354.7万余欧元。

 

Failure to honor funding commitments. In the history of the Global Environment Fund (GEF), the US holds the largest share of contributions arrears, which stand at US$111 million, or 95.7% of the total arrears. Since taking office, the Trump administration has announced a suspension of US funding to the Green Climate Fund (GCF), and refused to provide the outstanding US$2 billion committed by the Obama administration. The US has repeatedly blocked projects for developing countries citing unfounded reasons such as human trafficking and human rights violations, thus seriously undermining the developing countries’ right to use the funding. Since 2018, the US has stacked up over €13.547 million in deferred contributions to the UNFCCC.

 

三、生物多样性 美国未批准《生物多样性公约》,且未加入生物多样性领域三个重要议定书,包括《关于获取遗传资源和公正和公平分享其利用所产生惠益的名古屋议定书》《卡塔赫纳生物安全议定书》及《关于赔偿责任和补救的名古屋-吉隆坡补充议定书》,彻底游离于全球生物多样性保护合作体系之外。

 

3. On Biodiversity. The US has not ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity. Nor has it acceded to the three important protocols on biodiversity, namely the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from Their Utilization, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, and the Nagoya-Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress. It has stayed completely outside the global biodiversity conservation cooperation system.

 

四、濒危野生动植物种保护 2019年8月12日,美国政府正式批准修改《濒危物种法》中的关键条文,为在野生动物栖息地开展采矿、石油和天然气钻探等商业活动扫除了法律障碍,弱化了濒危物种保护力度。美国是全球第一大虎养殖国,但对人工繁育虎缺乏监管。美国是将全球8种穿山甲从《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》(CITES)附录II升级到附录I的主要背后推手,但美国内至今只将南非穿山甲列为濒危物种

 

4. On Protecting Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. On 12 August 2019, the US government formally approved the revision of key provisions in the Endangered Species Act to remove legal obstacles for commercial activities such as mining and oil and gas exploration in wildlife habitats, thus reducing protection of endangered species. The US has the world’s largest captive tiger population, but regulation is lacking in this area. While the US is the primary force pushing behind the scene for the elevation of eight pangolin species from Appendix II to Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), only Temminck’s ground pangolin (manis temminckii) has been listed among endangered species in the US.

 

五、野生动物贩运 美国是野生动物及其制品贩运的最大目的国和消费国之一。据联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室(UNODC)发布的世界野生动物犯罪报告,2005年至2018年世界野生动物罚没共享数据中,北美占38.5%。美国是水生龟鳖、陆龟、狮子及其制品、CITES附录海参等动物最大的贩运目的国。美国也是全球主要的鲨鱼捕捞国,并大量销售鲨鱼油等制品,对鲨鱼资源破坏严重。近年来,美国大量捕捞、出口鲨鱼物种,仅2018年美国就出口了近300万公斤的鲨鱼肉和鱼翅。美高调呼吁全球开展打击野生动物非法贸易,却对其自身进口CITES附录Ⅰ的活体非洲象、加利福尼亚湾石首鱼以及开展象牙贸易避而不谈。

 

5. On Wildlife Trafficking. The US is one of the largest destinations of wild animals trafficking and one of the major consumers of their products. According to the World Wildlife Crime Report released by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), North America accounted for 38.5% of the shared data on world wildlife confiscation from 2005 to 2018. The US is the largest trafficking destination country for aquatic turtles, tortoises, lions and their products, and sea cucumbers listed in CITES appendices. The US is also a major shark fishing country and sells a large number of products such as shark oil, seriously damaging shark resources. In recent years, the US has fished and exported a large number of sharks. In 2018 alone, the US exported nearly 3 million kilograms of shark meat and shark fins. While calling on others to join in the global fight against illegal wildlife trade, the US has evaded the question of its importing of live African elephant (loxodonta africana) and MacDonald’s weakfish (totoaba macdonaldi) listed in CITES Appendix I, and its involvement in ivory trade.

 

六、废物管理 美国是世界上最大固体废弃物出口国和人均塑料消费大国,但迄今不予批准《控制危险废物越境转移及其处置巴塞尔公约》,阻挡全球塑料垃圾管控进程,阻挠关于加强管控塑料废物修正案的通过。美国罔顾广大发展中国家的环境利益和人民健康,长期将处理能力欠缺的发展中国家作为塑料废物的最终处置场所。据非政府组织巴塞尔行动网络(BAN)发布的调查报告,美国公司2020年仍在非法向发展中国家出口危险电子废物。自2017年7月中国将废塑料等“洋垃圾”纳入《禁止进口固体废物目录》以来,美出于解决自身垃圾出口需求,多次攻击和无理指责中方禁止“洋垃圾”来华,蛮横要求中方撤销禁令。

 

6. On Waste Management. As the world’s largest exporter of solid waste and a major consumer of plastic in per capita terms, the US has not ratified the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, impeding the global management and control of plastic waste and frustrating the adoption of relevant amendments aiming to strengthen the regulations. The US has long taken developing countries whose handling capacity are still inadequate as the final dumping site of plastic waste, disregarding the environmental interests and people’s health of these developing countries. According to a report released by the NGO Basel Action Network (BAN), US companies are still illegally exporting hazardous electronic waste to developing countries in 2020. Since July 2017 when China began to include plastic waste and other imported hazardous wastes into its Catalog of Prohibited Imports of Solid Waste, the US has attacked China’s legitimate policy of not importing those wastes, and even asked China to revoke the ban for the single purpose of finding a way out for their own wastes.

 

七、化学品管理 美国迄未批准化学品三公约,包括《控制危险废物越境转移及其处置巴塞尔公约》《关于在国际贸易中对某些危险化学品和农药采用事先知情同意程序的鹿特丹公约》以及《关于持久性有机污染物的斯德哥尔摩公约》,长期不受约束和管控。联合国环境署《全球汞评估报告》显示,汞的环境排放中50%-60%以上是由于历史原因造成的二次排放。其中,19世纪前汞的环境排放量远大于20世纪以来的汞排放,主要源自美洲地区金矿或银矿的开采。

 

7. On Chemical Management. The US has not yet ratified three major international chemical conventions, namely, the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade, and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, and thus has long stayed free from restrictions and controls prescribed in those conventions. The United Nations Environment Program’s Global Mercury Assessment shows that more than 50%-60% of mercury emissions are re-emissions from the past. Among them, emissions before the 19th Century were far greater than those since the 20th Century, mainly caused by gold or silver mining in the Americas.

 

八、防治荒漠化 《全球土地展望》显示,美西部灌溉农田、中南部牧场均面临可能引发土地退化等压力。据联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)报告,美国西部草原发现了灌木入侵现象,且仍在快速蔓延中。美1999年至2019年欠缴《联合国防治荒漠化公约》会费共计305.8万余欧元。

 

8. On Combating Desertification. The Global Land Outlook shows that irrigated farmlands in western US and pastures in the central and southern US are facing pressures of degradation. According to a report by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), bush encroachment has taken place in the grasslands in western US and is spreading at a faster speed. The outstanding contributions of the US to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification from 1999 to 2019 have reached a total of more than €3.058 million.

 

九、森林管理 1989年至2018年,美国发生山火总计2210546次,火场面积总计68059232公顷,其中火灾次数年均增长0.6%,火场面积年均增长5.7%。近30年来,美国火灾总次数是中国的11.5倍,火场总面积是中国的10.9倍。截至目前,美加州山火已持续燃烧近两个月,过火面积超过1.6万平方公里,空气质量指数多次爆表,山火产生的碳排放惊人。据统计,今年以来,加州已发生了8200多起山火,造成30多人死亡,超过8400座建筑被毁。

 

9. On Forest Management. From 1989 to 2018, a total of 2,210,546 wildfires broke out in the US, burning 68,059,232 hectares of land, registering a 0.6% annual increase of the number of fires and a 5.7% annual increase of area burned. In the past 30 years, the total number of wildfires in the US is 11.5 times that of China, and the area burned is 10.9 times. By the time of the release of this Fact Sheet, wildfires in California have been burning for nearly two months, spreading over 16,000 square kilometers. As a result, air pollution went off the charts multiple times, and carbon emissions are beyond imagination. Statistics show that just this year, more than 8,200 wildfires have occurred in California, claiming more than 30 lives and destroying over 8,400 buildings.

 

十、木材非法采伐 2018年美国人均木材消费量为1.73立方米,是世界人均0.61立方米的近3倍,是中国的4倍。美国内非法采伐和毁林十分严重。美国林务局统计表明,美国每年生产木材中有10%属于盗伐木材,对林主及国有林造成了巨大经济损失,严重破坏了当地环境。同时,美国进口大量不明来源木材,助推了非法采伐活动。

 

10. On Illegal Logging. Per capita timber consumption in the US in 2018 was 1.73 cubic meters, which was nearly three times of the world’s average of 0.61, and four times that of China. Illegal logging and deforestation are rampant in the US. Statistics from the US Forest Service show that illegal logging accounts for 10% of timber produced every year in the US, causing huge economic losses to forest owners and state-owned forests, and severe damage to the local environment. At the same time, the US imports a large amount of timber from unknown sources, which has emboldened illegal logging.

 

十一、水污染 美国水资源管理不善,水利基础设施年久失修,洪旱灾害频发。水源地遭到污染,清洁饮用水供给不足。水生态环境恶化,每年爆发大规模的蓝藻和水华事件,地下含水层呈长期污染趋势。

 

11. On Water Pollution. In the US, water resources are poorly managed, water conservancy infrastructure is in disrepair, and floods and droughts are frequent. Water sources are polluted and the supply of clean drinking water is insufficient. The water ecological environment is deteriorating, as evidenced by the annual outbreaks of large-scale cyanobacterial and water blooms and the long-term pollution of underground aquifer.

 

十二、甲烷泄漏 美国页岩气开采存在大量甲烷气体泄漏,对环境危害巨大。根据IPCC相关评估报告,同等质量的甲烷所导致全球增温的潜力是二氧化碳的25倍。2020年8月,美国环保署对甲烷泄漏管制的相关规定进行大幅修改,进一步放松了对油气开采企业甲烷泄漏的管制,引起美国国内众多环保机构的强烈反对。

 

12. On Methane Leaks. Shale gas mining in the US has created a large quantity of methane gas leakage, which is a huge environmental hazard. According to the assessment report of IPCC, methane is 25 times stronger than carbon dioxide as a heat-trapping gas. In August 2020, the US Environmental Protection Agency made substantial amendments to its regulations on methane leak management, further loosening requirements on oil and gas mining companies. This has caused strong opposition from many American pro-environment institutions.

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  • 版权声明 本文源自 外交部 整理 发表于 2020年10月19日18:40:13