双语:美国损害全球环境治理报告

摘要

Full Text: Report on US Damage to Global Environmental Governance

美国损害全球环境治理报告

Report on US Damage to Global Environmental Governance

 

人类只有一个地球,人与自然是生命共同体。保护生态环境、推动可持续发展是各国共同责任。构建并执行公平合理、合作共赢的全球环境治理机制,才能全面、完整、高效、经济地实现可持续发展,实现我们想要的未来。为此,国际社会推动制定了系列多边环境条约,涉及应对气候变化、生物多样性治理、保护臭氧层、防治化学品污染等方方面面,为合作保护全球环境提供了基本法律框架和遵循。作为最先进的发达国家,美国在参与和遵守多边环境条约方面劣迹斑斑,极大地损害了全球环境治理的公平、效率和成效。

 

Humankind has only one earth, and humans and nature are a shared community. It is the common responsibility of all countries to preserve ecological environment and promote sustainable development. Only by building and implementing a fair, equitable, and win-win global environmental governance mechanism can we achieve sustainable development in a comprehensive, complete, efficient and economical way, and attain the future we want. To this end, the international community has worked to formulate a series of multilateral environmental treaties, covering various aspects including climate change, biodiversity conservation, ozone layer protection, and chemical pollution prevention and control. These treaties provide a basic legal framework and guidance for international cooperation. As the most advanced developed country, the US has a poor track record in its engagement and compliance with multilateral environmental treaties, which has greatly damaged the fairness, efficiency, and effectiveness of global environmental governance.

 

一、退出气候变化《巴黎协定》

I. Withdrawal from the Paris Agreement on Climate Change

 

《联合国气候变化框架公约》生效20多年来,在各方共同努力下,全球应对气候变化工作取得积极进展。为加强公约的实施,2011年底至2015年,包括美国在内的各国,通过艰难谈判,最终于2015年12月在法国巴黎达成了全面、均衡、有力度、有约束力的《巴黎协定》,成为全球气候治理新的里程碑。《巴黎协定》凝聚了国际社会合作加强应对气候变化挑战的最大共识,丰富和发展了以《联合国气候变化框架公约》为基础的国际气候治理体系,为2020年后全球合作应对气候变化指明了方向,是近年来多边主义重大成果中的“一颗璀璨明珠”。2016年11月,协定通过不到一年、开放签署刚满半年即满足生效条款要求,《巴黎协定》正式生效。

 

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has been in effect for more than 20 years. Thanks to the joint efforts of all parties, the global response to climate change has made good progress.

 

In order to strengthen the implementation of the Convention, from the end of 2011 to 2015, countries including the US, through difficult negotiations, finally reached a comprehensive, balanced, strong and binding Paris Agreement in Paris, France in December 2015. This marked a new milestone of global climate governance. The Agreement embodies the greatest international consensus on strengthening the efforts to jointly address climate challenges, enriches and develops the international climate governance system based on the UNFCCC, and points out the direction for post-2020 global cooperation. It is a shining pearl among the major multilateral achievements in recent years. In November 2016, less than one year after the Agreement was adopted, and just half a year after it was opened for signature, the requirements of the clause of entry into force were met, and the Agreement came into effect.

 

美国是公约缔约方,也是推动《巴黎协定》达成和生效的重要一方。2014年至2016年,中美三次发表气候变化联合声明,声明的政治共识为《巴黎协定》的达成和生效奠定了重要基础。《巴黎协定》达成后,时任总统奥巴马批准美国加入《巴黎协定》。2016年二十国集团杭州峰会前夕,中美元首于9月3日共同向联合国秘书长交存《巴黎协定》批准文书,为《巴黎协定》的快速生效注入了动力。

 

The US is a party to the Convention and played an important part in the conclusion of the Paris Agreement and its entry into force. From 2014 to 2016, China and the US issued three joint statements on climate change. The political consensus embodied in the above statements laid an important foundation for the adoption of the Agreement and its entry into force. The Agreement was approved by President Obama shortly after its adoption. On 3 September, the eve of the 2016 G20 Hangzhou Summit, the presidents of China and the US jointly deposited instruments of ratification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, which injected impetus into the rapid entry into force of the Agreement.

 

特朗普政府上台以来,颠覆逆转了奥巴马政府时期气候与环境友好型政策,开环境“倒车”,美应对气候变化立场出现重大倒退。上台前,特朗普就多次发表质疑气候科学言论,称全球变暖是骗局,频频营造气候变化怀疑论的政治氛围,公然挑战国际社会应对气候变化的共识。特朗普政府持续放松化石能源行业发展相关环境约束,这些约束涉及空气污染、油气勘探与开采、动植物及生态环境保护、水污染防治等诸多领域。2017年3月28日,特朗普政府签署“促进能源独立和经济增长”行政命令,提出为促进美能源自主独立、推动经济和就业增长,应全面评估、调整和废止美行政部门气候变化政策举措。根据《纽约时报》2020年7月的一项统计,特朗普政府执政以来,直接或以其他方式撤销了近70项重大环境政策,另外还有30多项处于撤销进行中。特朗普政府视《巴黎协定》为“眼中钉、肉中刺”,屡次指责《巴黎协定》使美商界处于不利地位,扬言退约,坚决拔刺。

 

Since taking office, Trump administration has reversed the climate- and environment-friendly policies of the Obama administration. It has run in reverse gear on environmental issues, resulting in a serious regression in the US position on climate change.

 

Before his inauguration, Trump made repeated skeptical comments on climate science, calling global warming a hoax, frequently creating a political atmosphere of climate change skepticism, and openly challenging the international consensus on climate change.

 

Trump administration has constantly loosened the environmental constraints related to the development of fossil fuel industries, involving areas such as air pollution, oil and gas exploration and exploitation, protection of animals, plants and the environment, and prevention and control of water pollution.

 

On 28 March 2017, Trump administration signed the executive order on “Promoting Energy Independence and Economic Growth”, proposing that in order to promote US energy independence and facilitate economic and employment growth, it should comprehensively evaluate, revise and rescind climate change-related measures in place.

 

According to the statistics released by the New York Times in July 2020, since Trump administration took office, around 70 major environmental policies have been rescinded directly or indirectly, with 30 more reversals in process.

 

Trump administration regarded the Paris Agreement as a thorn in his flesh, repeatedly blaming it for placing the US businesses at a disadvantage, and clamoring for withdrawal from the Agreement to clear the thorn.

 

2017年6月1日,特朗普政府宣布美退出《巴黎协定》,停止实施其“国家自主贡献”,停止对绿色气候基金捐资等出资义务。2017年8月4日,美国国务院声明称,美国已于当日向联合国提交退出《巴黎协定》的意向性通知,表示美将在符合条件的第一时间向联合国秘书长发出书面退约通知,除非出现有利于美重新参加协定的适合情形。声明还试图重开《巴黎协定》谈判,称如若特朗普总统能够看到对美国及美国企业、工人、民众、纳税人更加有利的条款,美对重新参加《巴黎协定》仍持开放态度。

 

On 1 June 2017, Trump administration announced that the US would withdraw from the Paris Agreement, cease implementing its Nationally Determined Contributions, and cease its funding to the Green Climate Fund (GCF).

 

On 4 August 2017, the US State Department stated that it had submitted a notice of intention to withdraw from the Paris Agreement to the United Nations, and would submit a written notice of withdrawal to the UN Secretary-General as soon as it is eligible to do so, unless appropriate circumstances have emerged that are favorable for the US to re-engage the Agreement. The statement also tried to re-open negotiations on the Agreement, stating that if President Trump can see more favorable terms for the US and American companies, workers, people, and taxpayers, the US is open to re-engage the Agreement.

 

2019年11月4日,美国国务卿蓬佩奥声明称,美已通知联合国,宣布正式启动退出《巴黎协定》。蓬还在声明中强调,美退约系因《巴黎协定》对美造成不公平的经济负担。按照《巴黎协定》退约条款规定,美将于2020年11月4日正式退出《巴黎协定》,成为迄今为止唯一退出《巴黎协定》的缔约方。

 

On 4 November 2019, the US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said that the US had notified the United Nations and announced that it would officially withdraw from the Paris Agreement. Pompeo also emphasized that the US withdrawal is due to the unfair economic burden imposed on it. Pursuant to the withdrawal clause, the US will formally withdraw from the Agreement on 4 November 2020, and it will become the only party to withdraw thus far.

 

特朗普政府悍然退出《巴黎协定》,是其奉行的“美国优先”、单边主义在气候变化领域的集中表现,充分显示出其对国际法和国际规则“合则用、不合则弃”的轻蔑态度,严重破坏全球气候治理与国际气候合作。

 

Trump administration’s reckless withdrawal from the Paris Agreement is a telling manifestation of its pursuit of “America First” policy and unilateralism. It embodies its contemptuous attitude toward international laws and rules, that is, “apply or abandon them in a selective way”. Such withdrawal severely undermines global climate governance and international climate collaboration.

 

一是削弱了国际合作应对气候变化的雄心和努力。美国是全球历史第一排放大国,当前第二排放大国,目前全球排放占比约为15%。联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)报告指出,美是全球累积排放温室气体最多的国家,其1751年至2010年间能源和工业部门排放占全球27.9%。美人均碳排放也居高不下,2017年人均化石燃料排放二氧化碳14.6吨,是全球平均水平的3.3倍。美国的减排表现是影响全球气候治理成效的重要因素。美既不批准《京都议定书》,又退出《巴黎协定》,否认自身约束性量化减排义务,彻底游离于全球减排体系和安排之外,严重阻碍了全球减排、促进绿色低碳发展相关进程。

 

First, it has weakened the ambition and joint efforts of the international community to tackle climate change. The US is the world’s largest emitter in history, and the second largest emitter at present, accounting for about 15% of global carbon emissions. An United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report identified the US as the largest emitter in terms of accumulative carbon emissions. From 1751 to 2010, its emissions from the energy and industrial sectors accounted for up to 27.9% of the global total. In terms of carbon emissions per capita, the US has been among the highest. In 2017, its fossil fuel emissions per capita were 14.6 tons, 3.3 times of the global average.

 

The US emission reduction performance is an important factor affecting the effectiveness of global climate governance. The US has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol and has now withdrawn from the Paris Agreement, denying its own binding quantified emission reduction obligations. It has completely digressed from the global system and arrangements, and seriously impeded global emission reduction and green and low-carbon development.

 

二是加大全球气候治理领导力赤字。作为发达国家和全球排放大国,美国一直是全球气候治理的重要参与方,曾为《巴黎协定》达成发挥重要推动作用,其履约态度对发达国家具有重要导向和示范意义。美退出《巴黎协定》,将自身的减排责任推卸给其他国家,在《巴黎协定》履约问题上带了坏头,重创《巴黎协定》进程,为其后续实施及全球温控目标的实现产生不可预估的负面影响。

 

Second, it has enlarged the deficit in global climate governance leadership. As a developed country and a major global emitter, the US has always been an important player in global climate governance. It played an important role in promoting the adoption of the Paris Agreement. Its attitude toward enforcement leads the way for many developed countries. The US withdrawal from the Paris Agreement and shifting of its responsibilities to other countries set a bad example and severely damaged the multilateral process, exerting unpredictable negative effects on the follow-up implementation of the Agreement and the realization of global temperature targets.

 

三是为应对气候变化多边进程带来复杂因素。美虽反复声言退约并启动退约手续,但“将退未退”“形退实不退”的状态持续了相当长时间。这期间,持续搅局《巴黎协定》后续问题谈判,继续对《巴黎协定》下规则体系的建构施加负面影响。2018年联合国气候变化卡托维兹会议(COP24)期间,美无视全球绿色低碳发展趋势,举办化石能源技术推介边会,引发各方反感和非政府组织激烈抵制。在2017年以来的三届联合国气候变化大会上,美因谈判立场消极,多次被非政府组织投票授予带有批评性质的“化石奖”,且是“获奖”最多的国家,上榜次数占比1/5。

 

Third, it has brought complexity to the multilateral process of climate response. Although the US repeatedly claimed to withdraw from the deal and initiated the withdrawal procedures, the status of “will withdraw but not yet” and “withdraw in word but not in reality” has lasted for quite a long time. During the above period, the US has been constantly disrupting the negotiations on the follow-up negotiations of the Paris Agreement and exerting negative influence on the consolidation of the rule system.

 

During the 2018 United Nations Conference on Climate Change in Katowice (COP24), the US ignored the green and low-carbon development trend and held a side event on the promotion of fossil fuel technology, which triggered resentment from all parties and fierce resistance from non-governmental organizations. At the three United Nations Climate Change Conferences since 2017, the US held a negative negotiating stance. It has been the winner of the ironic “Fossil of the Day” award based on NGO votes for one-fifth of the times, more than any other country in the world.

 

美退出《巴黎协定》遭到国际社会的一致反对。各国领导人和国际组织纷纷表态,对特朗普政府退约决定表示遗憾和失望。 联合国秘书长、《联合国气候变化框架公约》秘书处执行秘书、欧盟以及德国、法国、意大利、英国、墨西哥、加拿大、日本等均在特朗普政府宣布退约后第一时间通过发言人表态、发表声明、领导人致电等不同形式对美此举表示遗憾。

 

The US withdrawal from the Paris Agreement has been opposed unanimously by the international community. Leaders of various countries and international organizations have expressed their regrets and disappointments to Trump administration’s decision. The Secretary-General of the United Nations, the Executive Secretary of the Secretariat of the UNFCCC, the European Union and Germany, France, Italy, the UK, Mexico, Canada, and Japan, among others, have all expressed their regrets through spokespersons, statements or in other forms.

 

针对美方宣称愿重新谈判美加入协定条件等说法,各方均强调,《巴黎协定》已获得广泛支持,不可重开谈判。与美悍然退约行径截然相反,国际社会皆重申切实履行《巴黎协定》、加强全球气候治理的坚定意愿。欧盟表示将加强与其他盟友合作,应对气候变化挑战。德国、法国和意大利发表联合声明,表示将尽快落实《巴黎协定》以及气候融资目标,努力帮助发展中国家,尤其是最不发达国家和受气候变化威胁最严重的国家,以实现减缓和适应相关目标。英国、墨西哥、澳大利亚、韩国等亦重申对《巴黎协定》的支持和承诺。联合国秘书长古特雷斯通过发言人表示,相信世界各国及商界将继续展示卓越的远见和领导力,致力于低碳和韧性经济增长。同时,美国内也发起了“我们坚持《巴黎协定》”运动,反对美退约呼声持续高涨。

 

In response to the US claim that it is willing to re-engage the Agreement under the condition of re-negotiation, all parties emphasized that the Paris Agreement has been widely accepted and negotiations cannot be reopened.

 

Contrary to the flagrant withdrawal of the US, the international community has reaffirmed its firm will to implement the Agreement and strengthen global climate governance.

 

The EU said it will strengthen cooperation with other allies to address climate change. Germany, France and Italy issued a joint statement underscoring their readiness to implement the Paris Agreement and climate financing goals as early as possible, and to assist developing countries at full stretch, especially the least developed countries and countries that are most affected by climate change, in realizing mitigation and adaptation related goals. The UK, Mexico, Australia, the Republic of Korea and others have also reiterated their support and commitment to the Agreement. UN Secretary-General António Guterres expressed through his spokesperson his belief that countries and businesses around the world will continue to demonstrate outstanding vision and leadership, and are committed to low-carbon and resilient economic growth. At the same time, people in the US have also launched the “We are still in” campaign, and the voices against the US withdrawal continue to rise.

 

二、怠于履行国际义务

II. Failure to Fulfill International Obligations

 

善意履行条约义务是国际法的一项重要基本原则,国家对条约义务的切实履行是遵守和执行国际法规则的核心。在国际环境领域,美多维度、非善意履行其条约义务和国际承诺,践踏国际法和国际规则。

 

Fulfilling treaty obligations in good faith is an important basic principle of international law, and a country’s earnest fulfillment of treaty obligations is essential for observing and implementing the rules of international law. In the international environmental field, the US has fulfilled its treaty obligations and international commitments in a non-good faith manner, trampling on international laws and rules.

 

(一)气候行动承诺落实不彰

 

i. Insufficient implementation of climate action commitments

 

1、减排承诺履行缓慢。根据《联合国气候变化框架公约》规定,美国作为公约附件一国家,应当采取措施限制温室气体排放,率先履行减排义务。然而,自1992年10月批约以来,美排放量仍持续快速增长,且增长趋势保持了15年之久,直至2007年左右才达到排放峰值。2010年,美向公约秘书处通报,承诺到2020年将在2005年温室气体排放基础上全经济范围减排17%。但根据美最新温室气体清单报告,截至2018年底,美温室气体排放量比2005年仅下降10.2%,勉强完成其减排目标的60%。2015年,奥巴马政府提出新的气候行动目标,承诺到2025年要在2005年温室气体排放基础上排放下降26%-28%。特朗普政府已于2017年6月宣布拒不履行以上目标,擅自撕毁承诺。

 

1. The US has moved slowly in fulfilling its emission reduction commitments. Under the UNFCCC, the US, as an Annex I country of the Convention, should take measures to limit greenhouse gas emissions and take the lead in fulfilling its emission reduction obligations. However, after the ratification of the Convention in October 1992, the US witnessed a rapid increase in its carbon emissions, and the growth trend had lasted for 15 years. It did not reach its peak emissions until around 2007.

 

In 2010, the US notified the Secretariat that it pledged to reduce its economy-wide carbon emissions by 17% compared to the 2005 level by 2020. However, according to the latest US greenhouse gas inventory report, as of the end of 2018, the US greenhouse gas emissions were only 10.2% lower than in 2005, barely fulfilling its 60% emission reduction target. In 2015, the Obama administration proposed a new climate action target, promising to reduce emissions by 26%-28% compared to the 2005 level by 2025. Trump administration reneged on the promise by announcing in June 2017 that it would refuse to fulfill the above goals.

 

2、无视公约报告义务。根据《联合国气候变化框架公约》第十二条及缔约方大会决定的规定,作为发达国家缔约方,美应每两年提交一次应对气候变化的“双年报告”,每四年提交一次“国家信息通报”。美连续三年拒绝提交相关履约进展报告,使国际社会无法全面了解美国内应对气候变化行动和进展。自2018年起,美未能提交第三轮和第四轮“双年报告”以及第七轮“国家信息通报”,成为极少数未能履行信息报告义务的发达国家之一。美的上述举动再次为发达国家严格履行公约下义务树立了“坏榜样”,持续向全球气候治理注入“负能量”。

 

2. The US has ignored the reporting obligations of the Convention. According to Article 12 of the Convention and relevant COP decisions, as a developed country, the US should submit Biennial Report every two years and National Communication every four years. The US has refused to submit relevant progress reports for three consecutive years, making it impossible for the international community to have a full picture of the US actions and progress. Since 2018, the US has not submitted its 3rd and 4th Biennial Reports and its 7th National Communication, becoming one of the very few developed countries that failed to fulfill this obligation. The above-mentioned actions of the US once again set a bad example for developed countries who are expected to stringently implement the Convention, thus injecting negative energy into global climate governance.

 

(二)拒不兑现资金承诺

 

ii. Failure to fulfill funding commitments

 

资金支持是多边环境条约履约关键,也是广大发展中国家开展有效应对气候行动的重要条件。根据有关条约规定、“共同但有区别的责任”原则和历史责任,作为发达国家,美国有义务向发展中国家提供充足、持续的资金支持。然而,特朗普政府坚持压缩环境领域财政预算,严重削减环境研发与国际合作投入,2021财年的拟议预算中,涉及气候变化和生物多样性等环境多边合作的内容几乎为零。国际上,美不认真践行相关义务,欠款不缴、力度倒退问题屡屡发生,强硬打压发展中国家获取资金诉求,极力弱化公约和《巴黎协定》下资金支持机制。

 

Funding support is key to the implementation of multilateral environmental treaties and to the effective climate actions by developing countries. According to relevant treaty provisions, the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities” and historical responsibilities, the US, as a developed country, has the obligation to provide sufficient and sustained financial support to developing countries. But instead of doing so, Trump administration has kept cutting down environment-related budget and substantially reduced investment in environment-related research and development and international cooperation. Its proposed budget for fiscal year 2021 allocates almost nothing for multilateral environmental cooperation, including on climate change and biodiversity. Internationally, the US has not earnestly fulfilled its obligations, with frequent contributions arrears and slackening of environment-related efforts. It has also arbitrarily rejected developing countries’ appeals for funding, and gone out of its way to weaken funding mechanisms under the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement.

 

1、大幅削减全球环境基金捐资。全球环境基金(GEF)成立于1991年,是《联合国气候变化框架公约》《生物多样性公约》《联合国防治荒漠化公约》《关于持久性有机污染物的斯德哥尔摩公约》《关于汞的水俣公约》等重要国际环境条约的主要资金机制。美国在全球环境基金历史欠款额度最大,占各国欠款总额1.16亿美元的1.11亿美元(第2增资期GEF-2约1.11亿美元),占比95.7%。同时,美国捐资力度骤然锐减。2018年第7轮增资谈判期间,在大多数发达国家均提高认捐额度背景下,特朗普政府却大幅削减其认捐额度至2.7亿美元,比上一增资期减少50%,直接造成全球环境基金历史上首次出现总捐资大幅减少局面。

 

1. The US has drastically reduced its pledges to Global Environment Facility (GEF). Established in 1991, GEF serves as the main financial mechanism for important international environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, and the Minamata Convention on Mercury. In the history of GEF, the largest contributions arrears come from the US, which stand at US$111 million (approximately US$111 million in GEF-2 replenishment), accounting for 95.7% of the total arrears of US$116 million. At the same time, the US has substantially lowered its pledges of contributions. While most developed countries raised their pledges during the GEF-7 replenishment in 2018, Trump administration drastically reduced its pledges to US$270 million, a 50% reduction from the previous round, marking the first major decrease in GEF’s history.

 

2、拒绝兑现绿色气候基金捐资承诺。绿色气候基金(GCF)成立于2010年,是《联合国气候变化框架公约》和《巴黎协定》下重要资金机制。发展中国家普遍期待绿色气候基金为其应对气候变化行动提供资金支持。2014年11月绿色气候基金初始筹资阶段,奥巴马政府曾承诺向其捐资30亿美元,并在任期结束前兑现了10亿美元。特朗普政府上台后,宣布停止捐资,且拒绝兑现奥巴马政府时期的剩余20亿美元捐资承诺。2019年,绿色气候基金开启第一轮增资谈判,在大多数发达国家捐资方均提高认捐额度情况下,特朗普政府仍拒绝向绿色气候基金捐款,为基金增资目标达成制造麻烦。

 

2. The US has failed to fulfill its funding pledge for GCF. Established in 2010, GCF is an important financial mechanism under the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement. Its funding support is needed for developing countries to deal with climate change. At GCF’s initial fund-raising stage in November 2014, the Obama administration promised to contribute US$3 billion and in effect provided US$1 billion before the end of its term. But after Trump administration took office, he announced the cessation of funding and refused to provide the outstanding US$2 billion. At the first round of GCF replenishment negotiations in 2019, while most developed countries agreed to increase their contributions, Trump administration contributed nothing, creating troubles for meeting the GCF replenishment target.

 

3、欠缴多边环境条约会费。美国在缴纳多边环境条约会费方面同样态度消极。据《联合国防治荒漠化公约》秘书处2019年报告显示,美国仍欠缴1999年至2019年会费共计305.8万余欧元。自2018年起,美拖欠《联合国气候变化框架公约》会费高达1354.7万余欧元。

 

3. The US has contributions arrears for multilateral environmental treaties. The US has taken a negative attitude toward paying membership contributions to multilateral environmental treaties. According to the 2019 report of the UNCCD secretariat, the US had contributions arrears of more than 3.058 million euros from 1999 to 2019. Since 2018, the US has yet to pay over 13.547 million euros of UNFCCC contributions.

 

4、阻碍全球环境科学研究认知进展。根据美国会众议院气候危机特设委员会发布的“解决气候危机:迈向清洁能源经济和健康、韧性、公正美国的国会行动计划”报告,特朗普政府一改美往届政府每年投入1000万美元支持IPCC和《联合国气候变化框架公约》的做法,于2017年未在上述领域做任何资金投入。美此举不仅限制了美国内开展气候变化的科学研究,还严重阻碍了全球气候变化科学认知的进展。

 

4. The US has hindered the progress of global environmental research. According to a report of the US House Select Committee on the Climate Crisis, “Solving the Climate Crisis: The Congressional Action Plan for a Clean Energy Economy and a Healthy, Resilient, and Just America”, Trump administration provided no funding to the IPCC and the UNFCCC in 2017, despite the fact that previous administrations contributed US$10 million each year. In doing so, the US has impeded scientific research on climate change both at home and across the world.

 

美上述行为大大削弱了相关机制向发展中国家供资能力,掣肘全球气候环境合作。美欠缴会费、缩减环境科研支持经费也减少了多边环境条约履约所必需的经费资源,妨碍了各公约下环境治理多边进程的发展,迟滞了全球环境科学的认知进程。

 

In general, the US has greatly weakened the ability of relevant mechanisms to provide funding to developing countries and hindered global climate and environmental cooperation. Its membership contributions arrears and funding cuts for environment-related R&D have also reduced financial resources for implementing multilateral environmental treaties, obstructed the multilateral process of environmental governance under various conventions, and slowed down the progress of global environmental research.

 

三、缺席多领域多边环境条约

III. Absence from Multilateral Environmental Treaties in Multiple Fields

 

(一)签署但不批约,拒绝条约约束

 

i. The US has refused to be bound by treaties by signing but not ratifying them.

 

环境问题是人类面临的共同挑战,是“全球公域”问题,“外溢性”最为明显,世界各国是一个休戚与共的命运共同体,相关挑战亟需国际社会在多边主义框架下,通过强化规则建构、履约实施合力应对。美出于一己私利,在多边环境领域选择性“缺席”。美虽签署了《京都议定书》《生物多样性公约》《控制危险废物越境转移及其处置巴塞尔公约》《关于在国际贸易中对某些危险化学品和农药采用事先知情同意程序的鹿特丹公约》《关于持久性有机污染物的斯德哥尔摩公约》等多边环境条约,但迄今均不予批准,长期游离于多边框架之外。上述多边环境条约具有全球性特征,缔约方均超过160个,《生物多样性公约》《京都议定书》的缔约方数量更超过190个。美目前尚未批准《生物多样性公约》,且未加入生物多样性领域三个重要议定书,包括《关于获取遗传资源和公正和公平分享其利用所产生惠益的名古屋议定书》《卡塔赫纳生物安全议定书》及《关于赔偿责任和补救的名古屋-吉隆坡补充议定书》。

 

Environmental issues are common challenges for humanity. They concern the global commons and carry strong spill-over effects. As countries across the world form a community with a shared future, relevant challenges urgently need to be addressed by the international community under the multilateral framework through strengthened rules and implementation of treaties.

 

However, out of its selfish interests, the US has been selectively absent from the multilateral environmental field. It has signed treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol, the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade, and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, but it has ratified none of them and has long been an outsider of the multilateral framework. The above-mentioned treaties have global implications, with each having more than 160 parties, and the CBD and the Kyoto Protocol even having more than 190 parties. But the US has neither ratified the CBD nor acceded to the three important protocols on biodiversity, i.e. the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from Their Utilization, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the Nagoya-Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress.

 

美既是全球气候环境治理的重要一方,也是温室气体排放大国、生物技术大国、化学品生产和废物出口大国,本可以也应该为相关领域多边治理作出大的贡献。但美对多个环境条约“签署但不批约”的行为,凸显了其不愿受国际环境条约约束、逃避自身国际责任的单边主义心态,充分暴露了美对国际环保努力的漠视和对多边环境领域的不合作态度。美方的不参与,致使相关条约下的多边治理覆盖面产生了难以忽视的巨大“空洞”,如《京都议定书》管控的温室气体排放因此减少了三分之一,对全球环境完整性、环境多边条约的实施效果带来严峻挑战。

 

The US is not only an important party to global climate and environmental governance, but also a major country of greenhouse gas emissions, bio-technology, chemical production and waste export. It can and should make great contributions to multilateral governance in relevant fields. However, it has not ratified multiple environmental treaties after signing them. This shows that the US has taken a unilateralist approach of evading restrictions from international environmental treaties and its own international responsibilities, and that it has been ignorant of international environmental protection efforts and non-cooperative toward the multilateral environmental field. Its inaction has created major loopholes in multilateral governance under relevant treaties, including reducing by one third the greenhouse gas emissions covered by the Kyoto Protocol, and posed severe challenges to global environmental integrity and effectiveness of multilateral environmental treaties.

 

(二)违背条约宗旨,扰乱履约实施

 

ii. The US has violated purposes of treaties and disrupted their implementation.

 

根据《维也纳条约法公约》相关规定,如一国已签署条约,即便条约并未对其生效,其亦负有义务不得采取任何足以妨碍条约目的及宗旨的行动。然而,美在签署《京都议定书》后仍放任自身碳排放快速增长,与《京都议定书》推动的减排宗旨背道而驰,与议定书要求其减排7%的规定更是南辕北辙。与此同时,美国还频频要求发展中国家加大减排力度,甚至将发展中国家减排义务作为其加入《京都议定书》的先决条件,充分暴露了美在多边领域惯于“宽于待己、严以律人”的双重标准。

 

According to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a country is obliged to refrain from acts which would defeat the object and purpose of a treaty after signing it, even though it has not entered into force for this country. However, after signing the Kyoto Protocol, the US has seen a rapid rise of carbon emissions, which is inconsistent with the purpose of the Protocol and its emission limitation or reduction commitment of 7% cuts. But at the same time, the US has been pushing developing countries to lower their emissions, and even claimed that the precondition for its ratification of the Kyoto Protocol is the undertaking of emission reduction obligations by developing countries. This fully reveals the double standards applied by the US, i.e. treating others strictly while being lenient to itself.

 

受美国消极放任态度影响,多个发达国家拒绝在《京都议定书》2013年至2020年的第二承诺期下作出新的减排目标承诺,个别发达国家甚至在未完成第一承诺期减排义务的情况下,直接退出议定书。《京都议定书》管制的全球排放覆盖面被迫再次缩小,相关谈判和履约举步维艰。《京都议定书》第二承诺期多哈修正案迟迟未能生效,议定书在美带领的“集体大逃亡”下名存实亡。

 

Affected by the passive attitude of the US, many developed countries have refused to make new emission reduction commitments under the second commitment period (2013-2020) of the Kyoto Protocol. Some developed countries have even withdrawn from the Protocol without fulfilling their emission reduction obligations under the first commitment period. This has further reduced the global emission coverage of the Protocol and created major difficulties for relevant negotiations and implementation work. As a result, the Doha Amendment which concerns the second commitment period of the Protocol has been long put on hold, and the Protocol now only exists in name due to the US-led withdrawal.

 

四、妨碍多边环境进程

IV. Disruption of the Multilateral Environmental Process

 

美一方面躲避多边环境治理下的国际责任,一方面屡屡阻挠国际环境合作,扮演全球环境治理的“麻烦制造者”角色。

 

While dodging international responsibilities under multilateral environmental governance, the US has also disrupted international environmental cooperation and acted as a trouble-maker in global environmental governance.

 

(一)破坏二十国集团关于气候议题达成共识。气候议题自2009年起被纳入二十国集团领导人峰会宣言。2017年,由于美刻意阻挠,二十国集团汉堡峰会宣言首次未能就气候变化问题相关内容达成一致。最终,宣言被迫在气候相关段落采取“19+1”妥协方式,即除美国以外的其余19个成员国宣布继续承诺履行《巴黎协定》,承诺推进全球气候治理;美国单独宣示其退出《巴黎协定》的单边立场。受美消极立场的持续影响,2018年、2019年二十国集团峰会的领导人宣言继续以“19+1”方式重申美以外各方落实《巴黎协定》、应对气候变化的承诺,严重削弱了二十国集团在气候问题上本应发挥的积极引领作用。

 

i. The US has broken G20 consensus on climate change. Climate change had been a subject of G20 leaders’ declarations since 2009. Yet due to the deliberate obstruction of the US, no consensus was reached on this topic for the first time in the G20 Hamburg Declaration in 2017. In the end, the Declaration adopted a “19+1” compromise in the climate-related paragraphs, i.e. 19 members reiterating their commitment to the Paris Agreement and global climate governance, while the US announcing its withdrawal from the Paris Agreement. Because of the continued negative stance of the US, the 2018 and 2019 G20 leaders’ declarations followed the same “19+1” approach, which seriously weakened the G20’s leading role on climate change.

 

(二)蓄意打压发展中国家环境项目。在环境资金和项目审批领域,美近年来不仅捐资力度锐减,还不断对发展中国家用资权指手画脚,频频在国际合作中制造矛盾。美方屡屡挑战发展中国家正当合理的用资权利,时常独家阻挠发展中国家用资项目通过。自2013年11月起,美多次以所谓人口贩运、侵犯人权等无端理由,打压发展中国家项目,涉及气候变化、生物多样性等多个领域。近五年来,对涉及中国的多个项目无理表示异议。2018年12月后,美方根据特朗普政府于2018年11月签发的关于相关国家未遵守《人口贩运受害者保护法》的备忘录,对中国所有项目表示反对。同时以相似理由独家反对古巴、布隆迪、苏丹、南苏丹、赤道几内亚、毛里塔尼亚、冈比亚、科摩罗、刚果(布)、刚果(金)、老挝、厄立特里亚、委内瑞拉等多个发展中国家项目。

 

ii. The US has deliberately impeded environmental projects in developing countries. When it comes to environmental funds and project approval, the US has not only sharply reduced contributions in recent years, but also pointed fingers at developing countries’ right to use funds and frequently created troubles for international cooperation. The US has repeatedly challenged the legitimate and reasonable rights of developing countries to use funds, and has also been single-handedly blocking the adoption of projects in developing countries:

 

Since November 2013, it has blocked climate change, biodiversity and other projects in developing countries with such excuses as human trafficking and human rights violations.

 

In the past five years, it has expressed unreasonable objections to several China-related projects. Since December 2018, it has rejected all Chinese projects according to a memorandum signed by Trump administration concerning countries that have not complied with the Trafficking Victims Protection Act.

 

On similar grounds, it has single-handedly expressed opposition regarding projects in many developing countries, including Cuba, Burundi, Sudan, South Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Mauritania, The Gambia, Comoros, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Laos, Eritrea, and Venezuela.

 

(三)阻挡全球塑料垃圾管控进程。随着各国对塑料垃圾污染危害认识的不断深入,加强塑料垃圾进出口管控已逐步成为国际社会共识。然而,自2017年7月中国将废塑料等“洋垃圾”纳入《禁止进口固体废物目录》以来,美作为《巴塞尔公约》签署国,出于解决自身垃圾出口需求,执意逆国际潮流而动、无视中方作为公约缔约方权利,多次攻击、指责中方禁止“洋垃圾”来华扰乱了全球废物回收产业,要求中方撤销禁令。2019年5月,《巴塞尔公约》缔约方会议通过加强管控塑料废物的修正案,确立了全球塑料垃圾污染防治框架。据媒体报道,在会议期间,美作为非缔约方,还不断施加影响,企图阻挠关于加强管控塑料废物修正案的通过,其所作所为再次显示了美方的霸蛮行径。

 

iii. The US has blocked the global plastic waste management process. As countries have deepened their awareness of the hazardous effects of plastic waste pollution, strengthening control over plastic waste import and export has gradually become an international consensus. China decided to include plastic waste and other wastes from overseas into its Catalog of Prohibited Imports of Solid Waste in July 2017. But the US, as a signatory to the Basel Convention, has made groundless accusations against China for disrupting the global waste recycle business, and asked China to cancel its decision, with the purpose of meeting its own need for waste export. In doing so, the US has gone against the international trend and ignored China’s rights as a party to the Convention.

 

In May 2019, the Conference of the Parties of the Basel Convention adopted an amendment to strengthen plastic waste management, establishing a global framework for the prevention and control of plastic waste pollution. It was reported that during the meeting, the US, as a non-party to the Convention, kept playing tricks behind the scenes in an attempt to block the adoption of the amendment. Such acts once again revealed the arrogance of the US.

 

生态文明建设关乎人类未来,建设绿色家园是人类共同梦想。保护生态环境、应对气候变化需要世界各国同舟共济、共同努力,任何一国都无法置身事外、独善其身。中国以习近平生态文明思想为指导,主张加快构筑尊崇自然、绿色发展的生态体系,共建清洁美丽的世界和地球生命共同体。作为发展中国家,中国一直尽己所能采取气候行动,已提前和超额完成2020年气候行动目标,为全球应对气候变化环境治理作出重要贡献。2020年9月22日,中国国家主席习近平在第七十五届联合国大会一般性辩论讲话中宣布,中国将提高国家自主贡献力度,采取更加有力的政策和措施,二氧化碳排放力争于2030年前达到峰值,努力争取2060年前实现碳中和。美国在全球环境治理问题上开历史的“倒车”,不仅不符合美国人民意愿,也损害了世界人民和子孙后代的共同利益。希望美国能尽快回归遵守国际法、遵循多边主义、凝聚全球力量、鼓励广泛参与、合作应对全球环境危机的正确道路,与世界各国共同创造各尽所能、合作共赢、奉行法治、公平正义、包容互鉴、共同发展的未来。

 

Ecological conservation is vital to the future of humanity, and making the earth our green home is our shared dream. Protecting the ecological environment and addressing climate change require the concerted efforts of all countries. No country can stay out of it and no country can do it alone.

 

Guided by Xi Jinping thought on ecological conservation, China has treated nature with awe and stepped up efforts to foster an ecological system conducive to green development. China calls for jointly building a clean and beautiful world and a shared future for all life on earth.

 

As a developing country, China has been taking climate actions to the best of its ability. We have over-delivered on our 2020 climate action target ahead of schedule and made important contributions to global response to climate change. On 22 September 2020, President Xi Jinping announced in his statement at the General Debate of the 75th session of the UN General Assembly that China will scale up its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions by adopting more vigorous policies and measures, and aims to have CO2 emissions peak before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060.

 

The US backpedaling on global environmental governance issues goes against the aspirations of the American people and harms the common interests of people around world and future generations. It is hoped that the US will return as soon as possible to the right track of responding to global environmental crises by upholding international law and multilateralism and promoting global synergy and extensive participation. The US is expected to work with other countries to create a future of win-win cooperation, the rule of law, fairness and justice, inclusiveness, mutual learning, and common development, with each country making contribution to the best of its ability.

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