双语:国家中长期经济社会发展战略若干重大问题

    摘要

    Full Text: Major Issues Concerning China’s Strategies for Mid-to-Long-Term Economic and Social Development

    国家中长期经济社会发展战略若干重大问题

    Major Issues Concerning China’s Strategies for Mid-to-Long-Term Economic and Social Development

     

    习近平

    Xi Jinping

    《国家中长期经济社会发展战略若干重大问题》全文翻译

    新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,我多次主持召开会议、作出大量指示批示,推动做好疫情防控和经济社会发展工作。同时,我也结合疫情防控对涉及国家中长期经济社会发展的重大问题进行了思考。

     

    Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19), I have chaired many meetings and issued many instructions on containing the virus and advancing economic and social development. I have also given a lot of thought to the major issues affecting China’s mid-to-long-term economic and social development in light of Covid-19.

     

    当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局,这次疫情也是百年不遇,既是一次危机,也是一次大考。当前,我国疫情防控形势已经越过拐点,但疫情全球大流行仍处在上升期,外部形势非常严峻,我们要切实做好外防输入、内防反弹工作,决不能让疫情卷土重来。同时,我们要举一反三,进行更有长远性的思考,完善战略布局,做到化危为机,实现高质量发展。下面,我着重从发展战略角度讲几个问题。

     

    The world is undergoing momentous changes not seen in a century. The Covid-19 epidemic, the worst of its kind for a century, is both a crisis and a test. China has now passed the turning point in containing the virus, but globally the virus continues to spread. Given this severe external situation, we must work hard to guard against inbound cases and a domestic resurgence. We must not allow Covid-19 to resurge again. Meanwhile, we should draw inferences, think hard of our current situation in view of China’s long-term development and improve our strategy in order to turn crises into opportunities and achieve high-quality development. Here, I want to talk about several issues, with the focus on development strategies.

     

    第一,坚定实施扩大内需战略。构建完整的内需体系,关系我国长远发展和长治久安。改革开放特别是加入世贸组织后,我国加入国际大循环,形成了市场和资源(如矿产资源)“两头在外”、形成“世界工厂”的发展模式,对我国抓住经济全球化机遇、快速提升经济实力、改善人民生活发挥了重要作用。近几年,经济全球化遭遇逆风,这次疫情可能加剧逆全球化趋势,各国内顾倾向明显上升,我国发展面临的外部环境可能出现重大变化。实施扩大内需战略,是当前应对疫情冲击的需要,是保持我国经济长期持续健康发展的需要,也是满足人民日益增长的美好生活的需要。

     

    First, we must steadfastly pursue the strategy of expanding domestic demand.

     

    Building a complete domestic demand system has a direct bearing on China’s long-term development and stability. Since the adoption of the reform and opening up policy and especially after our entry into the WTO, China has integrated itself into the international economic flow and developed a growth model whereby China serves as the “world’s factory,” while the two ends of the economic process – markets and resources (such as mineral resources) – continue to be located abroad. This has enabled China to seize opportunities in economic globalization to rapidly increase its economic strength and improve its people’s standards of living. In recent years, however, economic globalization has encountered headwinds, and the global spread of Covid-19 may exacerbate the anti-globalization trend as countries become more insular. As such, the external environment for China’s development may change profoundly. Expanding domestic demand is thus necessary to cushion the impact of Covid-19, to sustain our country’s sound economic development, and to meet our people’s growing desire for a better life.

     

    大国经济的优势就是内部可循环。我国有14亿人口,人均国内生产总值已经突破1万美元,是全球最大最有潜力的消费市场。居民消费优化升级,同现代科技和生产方式相结合,蕴含着巨大增长空间。我们要牢牢把握扩大内需这一战略基点,使生产、分配、流通、消费各环节更多依托国内市场实现良性循环,明确供给侧结构性改革的战略方向,促进总供给和总需求在更高水平上实现动态平衡。扩大内需和扩大开放并不矛盾。国内循环越顺畅,越能形成对全球资源要素的引力场,越有利于构建以国内大循环为主体、国内国际双循环相互促进的新发展格局,越有利于形成参与国际竞争和合作新优势。

     

    One of the advantages of being a major economy is that we can achieve complete domestic circulation. China has 1.4 billion people and per capita GDP in excess of US$ 10,000, which makes it the world’s biggest consumer market with the greatest potential. Upgrading consumer spending by aligning it with modern technologies and production models can produce great potential for growth. We must regard expanding domestic consumption as the basis of our national development strategy to ensure sound dynamics among production, distribution, exchange, and consumption that are more focused on the domestic market. We must set a strategic course for supply-side structural reform and work toward a dynamic balance between aggregate supply and demand at a higher level. Growing domestic demand and opening up further are not contradictory. The fewer impediments to domestic economic flow, the more global resources will gravitate toward China, the easier it will be for us to develop a new pattern of development that focuses on domestic circulation and features positive interplay between domestic and international economy, and the greater China’s ability to compete and cooperate internationally will be enhanced.

     

    消费是我国经济增长的重要引擎,中等收入群体是消费的重要基础。目前,我国约有4亿中等收入人口,绝对规模世界最大。要把扩大中等收入群体规模作为重要政策目标,优化收入分配结构,健全知识、技术、管理、数据等生产要素由市场评价贡献、按贡献决定报酬的机制。要扩大人力资本投入,使更多普通劳动者通过自身努力进入中等收入群体。

     

    Consumption is a key driver of China’s growth, and the middle-income group is the cornerstone of consumption. At present, our country has around 400 million middle-income earners, the largest in the world in absolute terms. To further expand our middle-income group, we need to introduce policies to optimize the income distribution structure by allowing the market to evaluate and award the contributions of knowledge, technology, management, data, and other factors of production. We should increase investment in human resources to enable more working people to become middle-income earners through their own efforts.

     

    第二,优化和稳定产业链、供应链。产业链、供应链在关键时刻不能掉链子,这是大国经济必须具备的重要特征。这次疫情是一次实战状态下的压力测试。我国完备的产业体系、强大的动员组织和产业转换能力,为疫情防控提供了重要物质保障。我国口罩日产能从1月底1000万只提高到目前的5亿只。同时,疫情冲击也暴露出我国产业链、供应链存在的风险隐患。为保障我国产业安全和国家安全,要着力打造自主可控、安全可靠的产业链、供应链,力争重要产品和供应渠道都至少有一个替代来源,形成必要的产业备份系统。

     

    Second, we must improve and stabilize our industrial and supply chains.

     

    Industrial and supply chains must hold at critical moments – this is an essential feature of a major economy. The Covid-19 epidemic is a pressure test under real-life conditions. China’s sound industrial system, strong mobilization and organization capabilities, and exceptional ability to shift the focus of its industrial operations as needed have been important material guarantees in our effective response to the epidemic. Our mask production capacity has increased from 10 million pieces per day at the end of January to 500 million at present. At the same time, the impact of the virus also revealed latent risks in our industrial and supply chains. To safeguard our country’s industrial and national security, we must strive to develop our own industrial and supply chains that are controllable, secure, and reliable and ensure we have an industrial backup system with at least one substitute for each major product and supply channel.

     

    现在,全国都在复工复产,我们不应该也不可能再简单重复过去的模式,而应该努力重塑新的产业链,全面加大科技创新和进口替代力度,这是深化供给侧结构性改革的重点,也是实现高质量发展的关键。一是要拉长长板,巩固提升优势产业的国际领先地位,锻造一些“杀手锏”技术,持续增强高铁、电力装备、新能源、通信设备等领域的全产业链优势,提升产业质量,拉紧国际产业链对我国的依存关系,形成对外方人为断供的强有力反制和威慑能力。二是要补齐短板,就是要在关系国家安全的领域和节点构建自主可控、安全可靠的国内生产供应体系,在关键时刻可以做到自我循环,确保在极端情况下经济正常运转。

     

    Now, as work and production resume across the country, we should not and cannot simply repeat our past model; rather, we need to reshape our industrial chains by stepping up technological innovation and import substitution across the board. This is crucial to achieving high-quality development and should be a focus in furthering supply-side structural reform. First, we must play to our strengths. We need to consolidate and enhance our international edge in competitive industries; develop technologies that will give us a decisive advantage; continue to strengthen the complete-industrial-chain edge we have in areas such as high-speed rail, electric power equipment, new energy, and communications equipment; improve industrial quality; and deepen China’s involvement in global industrial chains. By doing so, we will develop effective deterrent against attempts by other countries to sever our supply chains. Second, we must shore up our weaknesses. We must build homegrown, controllable, secure, and reliable domestic production and supply chains in areas and links vital to our national security, so that they are self-sufficient at critical moments. This will ensure the economy functions normally in extreme circumstances.

     

    我国线上经济全球领先,在这次疫情防控中发挥了积极作用,线上办公、线上购物、线上教育、线上医疗蓬勃发展并同线下经济深度交融。我们要乘势而上,加快数字经济、数字社会、数字政府建设,推动各领域数字化优化升级,积极参与数字货币、数字税等国际规则制定,塑造新的竞争优势。同时,必须看到,实体经济是基础,各种制造业不能丢,作为14亿人口的大国,粮食和实体产业要以自己为主,这一条绝对不能丢。

     

    China has the world’s largest internet economy, which played a positive role in our response to Covid-19. Our online work, online shopping, online education, and online medical services are flourishing and have become deeply integrated with the offline economy. We should ride this momentum to accelerate the development of the digital economy, digital society, and digital government, move ahead with digital upgrading across sectors, and actively participate in the formulation of international rules for digital currencies and digital taxation so as to develop new competitive strengths. We must also be clear, however, that the real economy is the foundation of our economy and manufacturing industries must not be neglected. As a large country with a population of 1.4 billion, China must be basically self-sufficient in food production and industrial development. We must never forget this.

     

    国民经济要正常运转,必须增强防灾备灾意识。天有不测风云,人有旦夕祸福。要大力加强防灾备灾体系和能力建设,舍得花钱,舍得下功夫,宁肯十防九空,有些领域要做好应对百年一遇灾害的准备。要坚持两条腿走路,实行中央储备和地方储备相结合,实物储备和产能储备相结合,国家储备和企业商业储备相结合,搞好军民融合储备。要优化应急物资品种和储备布局,要合理确定储备规模,全面加大投资建设力度。

     

    To ensure the economy operates as normal, we must enhance our awareness of disaster prevention and preparedness. As the saying goes, “Weather changes wildly, and fortunes change in a day.” We must greatly improve our systems and capacity for disaster prevention and preparedness, sparing no expense or effort to ensure readiness for all possible disasters, even if most of them never happen. In some sectors, we must be prepared for once-in-a-century disasters. We must follow the principle of “walking on two legs,” having both central and local, both state and commercial, and both military and civilian stockpiles, and both stockpiles of goods and production capacity. We must optimize the types and locations of stockpiled emergency supplies, rationally determine the size of stockpiles needed, and comprehensively increase investment and construction in this area.

     

    在这次抗击疫情过程中,国有企业冲在前面,发挥了重要作用,在促进产业循环中也起到了关键作用。国有企业是中国特色社会主义的重要物质基础和政治基础,是党执政兴国的重要支柱和依靠力量,必须做强做优做大。当然,国有企业也要改革优化,但绝对不能否定、绝对不能削弱。要坚持和完善新型举国体制,不断增强领导力、组织力、执行力。

     

    State-owned enterprises (SOEs) have led the charge and played a vital role in containing Covid-19, and have been instrumental in stimulating industrial circulation. They are an important material and political foundation of socialism with Chinese characteristics and a pillar supporting our Party’s efforts to govern and rejuvenate the country; we must help them grow stronger and bigger and do better. SOEs should be reformed, but must never be rejected or weakened. We must adhere to and improve the new nationwide mobilization system and constantly improve leadership, organization, and implementation.

     

    这次疫情防控使我们认识到,必须维护产业链、供应链的全球公共产品属性,坚决反对把产业链、供应链政治化、武器化。在国际经贸谈判中,要推动形成维护全球产业链供应链安全、消除非经济因素干扰的国际共识和准则,力争通过国际合作阻止打击全球产业链、供应链的恶劣行为。

     

    This battle against Covid-19 has made us realize that we must safeguard industrial and supply chains as global public goods and resolutely oppose their politicization and weaponization. We need to formulate in the course of international trade and economic negotiations an international consensus and norms on protecting global industrial and supply chains and eliminating the influence of non-economic factors, and we must strive through international cooperation to foil attempts to undermine global industrial and supply chains.

     

    第三,完善城市化战略。我国城市化道路怎么走?这是个重大问题,关键是要把人民生命安全和身体健康作为城市发展的基础目标。目前,我国常住人口城镇化率已经达到60.6%,今后一个时期还会上升。要更好推进以人为核心的城镇化,使城市更健康、更安全、更宜居,成为人民群众高品质生活的空间。

     

    Third, we must improve our country’s urbanization strategy.

     

    What urbanization approach should China adopt? This is a major issue, and the key to getting it right is to make protecting the health and safety of our people the basic goal of urban development. At present, 60.6% of China’s population is permanent urban residents, and the figure is likely to rise in the coming years. We should promote people-centered urbanization and make our cities healthier, safer, and more livable, so that our people can enjoy a high quality of life.

     

    增强中心城市和城市群等经济发展优势区域的经济和人口承载能力,这是符合客观规律的。同时,城市发展不能只考虑规模经济效益,必须把生态和安全放在更加突出的位置,统筹城市布局的经济需要、生活需要、生态需要、安全需要。要坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,坚持从社会全面进步和人的全面发展出发,在生态文明思想和总体国家安全观指导下制定城市发展规划,打造宜居城市、韧性城市、智能城市,建立高质量的城市生态系统和安全系统。

     

    It accords with objective principles to enhance the economic and population carrying capacities of areas with economic development advantages, such as major cities and urban agglomerations. Yet, economic scale should not be the only factor in urban development. Ecology and security should be given greater priority in urban planning, and economic, living, ecological, and safety requirements should all be considered. We should apply our people-centered development philosophy, make all-around social progress and well-rounded development of people our starting point, and formulate urban development plans guided by the vision of eco-civilization and an integrative approach to national security, so as to make our cities more livable, resilient, and intelligent and establish high-quality urban ecosystems and security systems.

     

    产业和人口向优势区域集中是客观经济规律,但城市单体规模不能无限扩张。目前,我国超大城市(城区常住人口1000万人以上)和特大城市(城区常住人口500万人以上)人口密度总体偏高,北京、上海主城区密度都在每平方公里2万人以上,东京和纽约只有1.3万人左右。长期来看,全国城市都要根据实际合理控制人口密度,大城市人口平均密度要有控制标准。要建设一批产城融合、职住平衡、生态宜居、交通便利的郊区新城,推动多中心、郊区化发展,有序推动数字城市建设,提高智能管理能力,逐步解决中心城区人口和功能过密问题。

     

    The concentration of industries and people in advantageous regions is an objective economic law, but no city should grow indefinitely. The current population density of China’s megacities (each with over 10 million permanent residents in urban areas) and large cities (each with 5-10 million permanent residents in urban areas) is very high. For example, the main urban districts of Beijing and Shanghai have population densities of over 20,000 per square kilometer, compared to about 13,000 in Tokyo and New York. In the long run, cities across China need to bring their population density under control, and there needs to be standards for controlling the average population density of major cities. We need to build new suburban cities with integrated industries, balanced job and housing provisions, livable environments, and convenient transportation; encourage polycentric development and suburbanization; promote the orderly construction of digital cities; improve intelligent management capabilities; and gradually solve the problems of excessive population density and overloaded functions in central urban areas.

     

    我国各地情况千差万别,要因地制宜推进城市空间布局形态多元化。东部等人口密集地区,要优化城市群内部空间结构,合理控制大城市规模,不能盲目“摊大饼”。要推动城市组团式发展,形成多中心、多层级、多节点的网络型城市群结构。城市之间既要加强互联互通,也要有必要的生态和安全屏障。中西部有条件的省区,要有意识地培育多个中心城市,避免“一市独大”的弊端。我国现有1881个县市,农民到县城买房子、向县城集聚的现象很普遍,要选择一批条件好的县城重点发展,加强政策引导,使之成为扩大内需的重要支撑点。在城市旧城和老旧小区改造,地下管网、停车场建设,托幼、养老、家政、教育、医疗服务等方面都有巨大需求和发展空间。

     

    Circumstances vary significantly in different parts of our country, so we should promote diverse urban layouts based on local conditions. In densely populated areas, such as in eastern China, it is important to optimize the internal spatial structure of urban agglomerations, reasonably control the size of major cities, and prevent unbridled urban sprawl. We should develop city clusters and form polycentric, multi-level, and multi-node urban agglomeration networks. There must not only be strong interconnections between cities, but also necessary ecological and security barriers. Provinces and autonomous regions in central and western China with the right conditions should nurture multiple major cities to avoid being disadvantaged by having only one major city. There are 1,881 counties and county-level cities in China, and it is common for rural residents to buy houses and gravitate toward county towns. We should select a group of county towns for prioritized development and enhanced policy guidance, to make them important points of support for expanding domestic demand. When it comes to upgrading old urban areas and residential communities, there is huge demand and room for development in areas such as underground plumbing and wiring, construction of parking lots, child and elderly care, housekeeping, education, and medical services.

     

    第四,调整优化科技投入和产出结构。这次疫情防控对我国科技界是一次真刀真枪的检验。科技战线既显了身手,也露了短板。要优化科技资源布局,提升科技创新能力,走出一条符合我国国情的科技研发道路。

     

    Fourth, we must improve the mix of scientific and technological inputs and outputs.

     

    Containing Covid-19 has posed a stern test for our science and technology community; its important role was made very apparent, but its weaknesses were also exposed. We need to improve the distribution of scientific and technological resources, strengthen our ability to make scientific and technological innovations, and pursue a path of scientific and technological R&D suited to China’s conditions.

     

    科技发展要坚持问题导向、目标导向。保障人民生命安全和身体健康是党和国家的重要任务,科学研究要从中凝练重大科学前沿和重大攻关课题。要更加重视遗传学、基因学、病毒学、流行病学、免疫学等生命科学的基础研究,加快相关药物疫苗的研发和技术创新,高度重视信息和大数据技术在这些领域的应用。要重视顶层设计,优化基础研究布局,做强优势领域,完善高校专业设置,加强基础学科教育和人才培养,补上冷门短板,把我国基础研究体系逐步壮大起来,努力多出“从0到1”的原创性成果。

     

    We need to adopt a goal- and problem-oriented approach to scientific and technological development. Protecting the health and safety of the people is an important task for our Party and government, from which scientific and technological research should draw inspiration to address profound questions in cutting-edge technologies and breakthroughs. We need to attach greater importance to basic research in life sciences, including genetics, genomics, virology, epidemiology, and immunology; accelerate R&D and innovations in relevant medicines and vaccines; and put more emphasis on the use of IT and big data in these fields. We should value top-level design, optimize the layout of basic research, and grow our areas of strength. We need to improve the setup of disciplines in universities, strengthen education of basic disciplines and cultivation of capable personnel, and shore up weaknesses in less popular disciplines. With these efforts, we will gradually strengthen our system of basic research and produce more original innovations.

     

    在这次疫情防控中,形成了不少产学研相结合的典范,值得认真总结。要创新科技成果转化机制,发挥企业主体作用和政府统筹作用,促进资金、技术、应用、市场等要素对接,努力解决基础研究“最先一公里”和成果转化、市场应用“最后一公里”有机衔接问题,打通产学研创新链、价值链。

     

    During our Covid-19 response, collaborations between businesses, universities, and research institutes have produced positive results, setting good examples for us to study and follow. We should create a new mechanism for applying scientific and technological advances, with enterprises being the main actors and the government coordinating the efforts of all sides. We should link up funding, technology, applications, markets, and other factors and work hard to solve both the “first mile” problem of conducting basic research and the “last mile” problem of commercializing and applying advances, so as to ensure innovation and value chains are effectively connected among businesses, universities, and research institutes.

     

    第五,实现人与自然和谐共生。我多次强调,人与自然是生命共同体,人类必须尊重自然、顺应自然、保护自然。这次疫情防控使我们更加深切地认识到,生态文明建设是关系中华民族永续发展的千年大计,必须站在人与自然和谐共生的高度来谋划经济社会发展。

     

    Fifth, we must ensure harmony between humans and nature.

     

    I have repeatedly emphasized that humans and nature form a community of life. As human beings, we must respect nature, follow its ways, and protect it. Our Covid-19 response has made us more keenly aware that building an eco-civilization is vital to our nation’s sustainable development, and our pursuit of economic and social progress must be based on harmony between humans and nature.

     

    恩格斯早就指出:“我们不要过分陶醉于我们人类对自然界的胜利。对于每一次这样的胜利,自然界都对我们进行报复。”第一次工业革命以来,人类利用自然的能力不断提高,但过度开发也导致生物多样性减少,迫使野生动物迁徙,增加野生动物体内病原的扩散传播。新世纪以来,从非典到禽流感、中东呼吸综合征、埃博拉病毒,再到这次新冠肺炎疫情,全球新发传染病频率明显升高。只有更好平衡人与自然的关系,维护生态系统平衡,才能守护人类健康。要深化对人与自然生命共同体的规律性认识,全面加快生态文明建设。生态文明这个旗帜必须高扬。

     

    Friedrich Engels made it clear long ago: “Let us not, however, flatter ourselves overmuch on account of our human victories over nature. For each such victory nature takes its revenge on us.” Since the first industrial revolution, humankind has constantly become better able to exploit nature, but overdevelopment has led to a reduction in biodiversity, forced wildlife migrations, and increased transmission of wildlife pathogens. Since the beginning of this century, humankind has suffered from SARS, avian influenza, MERS, Ebola, and Covid-19, as the emergence of new infectious diseases has become more frequent worldwide. Only by maintaining a balance between humans and nature and preserving ecosystems can we protect human health. We must understand deeply that humans and nature form a community of life and step up efforts on all fronts to build an eco-civilization. We must always uphold ecological progress.

     

    越来越多的人类活动不断触及自然生态的边界和底线。要为自然守住安全边界和底线,形成人与自然和谐共生的格局。这里既包括有形的边界,也包括无形的边界。要完善国土空间规划,落实好主体功能区战略,明确生态红线,加快形成自然保护地体系,完善生物多样性保护网络,在空间上对经济社会活动进行合理限定。

     

    Increasing human activities continue to touch the boundaries and baselines of ecosystems. We must protect boundaries and baselines, both tangible and intangible, to ensure harmony between humans and nature. We need to improve planning regarding our territorial space, ensure implementation of the functional zoning strategy, and draw up redlines for protecting ecosystems. We should accelerate efforts to establish a system of nature reserves, develop biodiversity protection networks, and define reasonable spatial limits for economic and social activities.

     

    要增强全民族生态环保意识,鼓励绿色生产和消费,推动形成健康文明生产生活方式。要深入开展爱国卫生运动,倡导健康饮食文化和良好生活习惯,严厉打击非法捕杀和交易野生动物的行为。

     

    We should enhance our whole nation’s awareness of the need to protect the environment and ecosystems, encourage green production and consumption, and promote healthy and positive ways of working and living. We should carry out patriotic health campaigns extensively, advocate healthy diets and lifestyles, and crack down hard on illegal wildlife hunting and trade.

     

    第六,加强公共卫生体系建设。我国公共卫生事业取得了举世公认的成就,但这次疫情防控也反映出我国公共卫生领域还存在明显短板,需要加快补上。

     

    Sixth, we must strengthen our public health system.

     

    Though we can boast our remarkable achievements in public health, we must move quickly to strengthen areas of weakness exposed in our response to Covid-19.

     

    要从顶层设计上提高公共卫生体系在国家治理体系中的地位,充实中央、省、市、县四级公共卫生机构,加强专业人才培养和队伍建设,提高履职尽责能力。要改善城乡公共卫生环境,加强农村、社区等基层防控和公共卫生服务。要加强公共卫生机构、医院感染病科、生物实验室等的规划建设,做好敏感医疗和实验数据管理。要加强卫生健康教育和科学知识普及,提高群众公共卫生素养。在这次疫情防控中,中医发挥了重要作用,要及时总结经验,加强科学论证,大力发展中医药事业,加强中西医结合,不断提高能力和水平。

     

    We need to improve top-level design to elevate the role of the public health system in our country’s governance structure, develop public health institutions at the central, provincial, city, and county levels, strengthen cultivation of health specialists and training of health workers, and enhance their ability to perform their duties. We need to improve the public health environment in rural and urban areas and develop strong prevention and control capabilities and public health services in villages and communities. We need to step up planning and construction of public health institutions, departments of infectious diseases in hospitals, and biological laboratories, and ensure sound management of sensitive medical and experimental data. We need to boost education of health care and scientific knowledge and increase people’s awareness of public health. Traditional Chinese medicine has played an important role in our Covid-19 response. We should draw on our experience, carry out scientific research, work hard to develop traditional Chinese medicine, and integrate it with Western medicine, so as to constantly improve our capabilities in this regard.

     

    历次抗击重大传染病疫情的实践表明,必须加快形成从下到上早发现、早预警、早应对的体系,努力把疫情控制在萌芽状态。要把增强早期监测预警能力作为健全公共卫生体系的重中之重,完善公共卫生应急管理体系。要加强疾控、医院、科研单位间的信息共享,增强各类已知和新发传染病预警能力。

     

    Our fights against major infectious diseases have revealed that we must move more quickly to develop a bottom-up system that ensures early detection, warning, and response so as to control diseases as they arise. We need to make enhancing initial monitoring and early warning capabilities the most urgent priority as we improve our public health system and develop our public health emergency management system. We need to strengthen information sharing between disease control and prevention centers, hospitals, and research institutes to enhance their abilities to provide early warnings of infectious diseases, known or unknown.

     

    (这是习近平总书记2020年4月10日在中央财经委员会第七次会议上的讲话。)

     

    (This was a speech made by General Secretary Xi Jinping at the seventh meeting of the Central Financial and Economic Commission on April 10, 2020.)

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