China’s Policy Paper on Latin America and the Caribbean
The world today is undergoing unprecedented historical changes, with multi-polarization and globalization gaining momentum. The rise of emerging markets and developing countries has become an irresistible historical trend. At the same time, the world economy is recovering amidst twists and turns. Global and regional hot-spot issues take place frequently. Traditional and non-traditional security threats are intertwined. Safeguarding world peace and promoting common development remains a daunting task.
China has entered a crucial stage in achieving the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. In order to fulfill the “Two Centenary Goals” of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020 and turning the nation into a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious by the mid-21st century, China has been actively promoting the construction of a socialist market economy, socialist democracy, advanced culture, a harmonious society, as well as ecological civilization. China adheres to the independent foreign policy of peace and is unswerving in its implementation of the opening-up policy. China stands ready to expand common interests with other countries, promote the construction of a new type of international relations with win-win cooperation at the core, and forge a community of shared future.
The development of China cannot be possible without the development of other developing countries, including countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Since 2013, the Chinese leadership has set forth a series of major initiatives and measures on strengthening China’s relations and cooperation with Latin America and the Caribbean in a wide range of areas, which has provided new development goals and new driving forces for the relations. Building on the previous achievements, the Chinese government hereby releases its second policy paper on Latin America and the Caribbean, to summarize experience, draw a blueprint for the future, provide a comprehensive explanation of the new ideas, proposals and initiatives in China’s Latin America and Caribbean policy for the new era, and promote China’s cooperation with Latin America and the Caribbean in various areas.
Part I Latin America and the Caribbean: A Land Full of Vitality and Hope
As important members of emerging economies and the developing world, Latin American and Caribbean countries play a major role in safeguarding world peace and development. Since the dawn of the new century, Latin American and Caribbean countries have actively explored development paths suited to their own conditions and attained achievements that have attracted the world’s attention.
Faced with changes in the external environment triggered by the global financial crisis, all countries are taking active steps to cope with the challenges and maintain and promote inclusive and sustainable economic and social development. Latin America and the Caribbean as a whole boasts huge development potentials and bright prospects, making it a rising force in the global landscape.
Part II China’s Relations with Latin America and the Caribbean in the New Stage of Comprehensive Cooperation
Though far apart, China and Latin America and the Caribbean have a long history of people’s friendship. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, with the concerted efforts of several generations, the relations between China and Latin America and the Caribbean have gone through a remarkable journey.
In 2008, the Chinese government issued its first policy paper on Latin America and the Caribbean, putting forward the goal of establishing a comprehensive and cooperative partnership featuring equality, mutual benefit and common development with Latin American and Caribbean countries. In 2014, leaders of the two sides held a meeting in Brasilia and jointly announced the establishment of the comprehensive and cooperative partnership of equality, mutual benefit and common development. Since then, the relations have entered a new stage of comprehensive cooperation. The two sides have witnessed frequent high-level exchanges and political dialogues, all-round and rapid development in trade, investment, finance and other areas, and increasingly close cultural and people-to-people exchanges. The two sides have also supported and closely coordinated with each other in international affairs. The establishment of the Forum of China and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (China-CELAC Forum) has provided a new platform for cooperation between the two sides, setting the course for simultaneous and complementary development of bilateral and collective cooperation between China and Latin America and the Caribbean.
Based on equality and mutual benefit, the comprehensive and cooperative partnership between China and Latin America and the Caribbean is oriented towards common development. It does not target or exclude any third party. It conforms to the fundamental interests of the two sides and the trends of our times featuring world peace, development and cooperation, and serves as a shining example of developing countries working together to seek common development, shoulder common responsibilities and cope with common challenges in the new era.
Part III Bringing the Comprehensive and Cooperative Partnership to New Heights
China is committed to building a new relationship with Latin America and the Caribbean with five salient features, namely, sincerity and mutual trust in the political field, win-win cooperation on the economic front, mutual learning in culture, close coordination in international affairs, as well as mutual reinforcement between China’s cooperation with the region as a whole and its bilateral relations with individual countries in the region. We aim to bring the comprehensive and cooperative partnership to a new height by bringing the two sides into a community of shared future in which all countries join hands in development.
– Sticking to the principle of equality and sincere mutual support is the fundamental premise of the development of relations between China and Latin America and the Caribbean. China adheres to the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and maintains that all countries, big or small, strong or weak, rich or poor, are equal members of the international community. China respects the right of Latin American and Caribbean countries to choose their own paths of development and is ready to work with Latin American and Caribbean countries to strengthen exchanges in governance experience, deepen strategic mutual trust and continue to understand and support each other on issues of core interests and major concerns, such as state sovereignty, territorial integrity, stability and development.
The one-China principle is an important political foundation for China to develop its relations with other countries in the world. The Chinese government appreciates that the vast majority of Latin American and Caribbean countries abide by the one-China principle and support China’s great cause of reunification. China is ready to establish and develop state-to-state relations with Latin American and Caribbean countries on the basis of the one-China principle.
– Seeking mutually beneficial cooperation and common development is the endogenous driving force for the development of the relations. China is ready to work with Latin American and Caribbean countries to build the new “1+3+6” framework for pragmatic cooperation (i.e. guided by the China-Latin American and Caribbean Countries Cooperation Plan (2015–2019), utilizing trade, investment and financial cooperation as driving forces, and identifying energy and resources, infrastructure construction, agriculture, manufacturing, scientific and technological innovation and information technology as cooperation priorities), actively explore the new “3x3” model for capacity cooperation (which refers to jointly building the three major passages of logistics, electricity and information in Latin America, enabling healthy interactions among the enterprise, society and government, and expanding the three financing channels of funds, credit loans and insurance), and speed up quality improvement and upgrading of the cooperation between China and Latin America and the Caribbean.
– Exchanges and mutual learning, as well as carrying forward the friendship from generation to generation, is the solid foundation of the relations. China stands ready to strengthen exchanges with Latin American and Caribbean governments, legislative bodies, political parties, and entities at the local level and cooperation in the fields of education, science and technology, culture, sports, health, journalism and tourism. China will actively hold dialogues between civilizations to bring the hearts of our peoples closer, and make contributions to promoting the harmonious coexistence of different civilizations in the world.
– China and Latin American and Caribbean countries share a global responsibility in promoting international cooperation, equity and justice. China is ready to strengthen communication and cooperation with Latin American and Caribbean countries within the international multilateral mechanisms, and jointly safeguard the international order and system with the purposes and principles of the UN Charter as its core. China will advance multi-polarization, promote democracy and the rule of law in international relations and enhance the representation and voice of developing countries. China is ready to deepen South-South cooperation with Latin American and Caribbean countries, consolidate multilateral trading systems, promote global governance reform and build an open world economic system.
– To promote complementary development of collective and bilateral cooperation is the strategic path for developing China-Latin America and the Caribbean relations. China appreciates and supports the important role played by regional and sub-regional organizations of Latin America and the Caribbean in regional and international affairs. Upholding the principle of equality, seeking mutual benefit and “win-win” results with flexible and pragmatic ways of collaboration and in a spirit of openness and inclusiveness, China will promote collective cooperation with Latin America and the Caribbean mainly through the platform of China-CELAC Forum, and strengthen dialogue and cooperation with relevant sub-regional organizations and multilateral financial institutions, so as to create a balanced, all-round network of collective cooperation between China and Latin America and the Caribbean.