双语:傅聪在第十六届亚洲防扩散高级别对话会上的主旨发言

    摘要

    Speech by Fu Cong at the 16th Asia Senior-Level Talks on Non-Proliferation

    外交部军控司司长傅聪在第十六届亚洲防扩散高级别对话会上的主旨发言

    Remarks by H.E. Ambassador FU Cong, Director-General of the Arms Control Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PRC, at the 16th Asia Senior-Level Talks on Non-Proliferation

     

    2020年12月10日

    December 10th, 2020

     

    尊敬的本清耕造大使,

    各位同事,

     

    Your Excellency Ambassador HONSEI Kozo,

    Dear colleagues,

     

    很高兴出席本届亚洲防扩散高级别对话会。我愿借此机会,同大家分享中国防扩散出口管制领域最新进展,以及中方对当前防扩散形势和有关问题的看法。

     

    Good afternoon!

     

    It is a pleasure for me to attend the 16th Asia Senior-level Talks on Non-proliferation (ASTOP). I wish to take this opportunity to share with you China’s latest efforts on non-proliferation-related export control and China’s views on non-proliferation issues.

     

    各位同事,

     

    Dear colleagues,

     

    12月1日,《中华人民共和国出口管制法》正式施行。这是中国贯彻全面依法治国理念的重要举措,从三个方面巩固了中国的防扩散与出口管制机制:

     

    On December 1st, the Export Control Law (ECL) of the People’s Republic of China entered into force. This legislation represents an important step that China has taken in promoting the rule of law. It strengthens China’s non-proliferation and export control system in 3 areas:

     

    一是提升立法层级。上世纪90年代以来,中国先后制定了6部行政法规,形成了覆盖核、生物、化学、导弹以及军品等物项的防扩散和军品出口管制法律制度体系。《出口管制法》是中国在总结上述行政法规实施经验,借鉴国际通行做法的基础上,制定的第一部统领出口管制工作的专门法律。相比行政法规,《出口管制法》法律位阶更高,将为防扩散出口管制工作提供更有力的法治保障,也有助于提升企业和社会公众防扩散意识。

     

    Firstly, the ECL has elevated China’s export control legislation to a higher level in China’s legal hierarchy. Since the 1990s, China has formulated 6 administrative regulations on non-proliferation-related export control, covering nuclear, biological, chemical, missile, arms trade and other related items. Drawing on experience in implementing these administrative regulations and taking into account international best practices, the ECL is China’s first special law governing export control. Compared with administrative regulations, the ECL is on a higher level in China’s legal system, thus providing a stronger legal basis for non-proliferation-related export control. It also helps raise industry and public awareness on non-proliferation.

     

    二是统一管制制度。《出口管制法》统一确立了中国在出口管制政策、管制清单、管制措施及监督管理等方面的基本制度框架和规则。对管制范围、制定和调整管制清单的程序、许可审批及全面控制原则的执行等做了明确规定,并建立了国家出口管制工作协调机制和专家咨询机制。这些都有助于强化部门间协调配合和信息共享,确保各项管制措施得到更有效遵守和执行。

     

    Secondly, the ECL further harmonizes China’s export control regulatory regime. This law sets out the basic legal framework for China’s export control policies, control lists, regulatory measures, supervision mechanism and other relevant aspects. It has clear provisions on the scope of control, procedures for formulating control lists, licensing and catch-all implementation. It establishes a national export control coordination mechanism and expert consultation mechanism. All these will be conducive to enhancing coordination and information sharing across government agencies and will help ensure that regulatory measures are more effectively implemented.

     

    三是强化监督管理。经过长期实践,中国的防扩散出口管制模式实现了从行政管理向法制化管理的转变。为确保各项制度得到严格遵守,《出口管制法》专设“监督管理”及“法律责任”章节,对相关政府部门的监督管理职权、企业和个人的义务、违法行为的处置等作了明确规定,包括加强最终用户和最终用途风险管理、加强企业内部合规制度建设等。这充分体现了中国加强防扩散出口管制的意志和决心。

     

    Thirdly, the ECL reinforces export control supervision and management. Through years of practice, China’s non-proliferation-related export control practice has transformed from administrative management to law-based governance. To make sure that all the provisions are strictly complied with, the ECL has specific articles on supervision and legal responsibilities, clearly defining the regulatory functions of government agencies, the obligations of individuals and enterprises as well as legal liabilities. Specific rules are stipulated, including those on risk management of end-use and end-users, and implementation of internal compliance program (ICP). These measures demonstrate China’s determination and commitment to enhancing non-proliferation-related export control.

     

    中方有关部门正在积极推进《出口管制法》相关配套法规的立法工作,进一步完善管制清单并将适时发布。出口管制涉及诸多技术性问题,我们愿同各方就相关问题加强沟通,交流经验,开展合作。

     

    These are three major features of the ECL that are relevant to non-proliferation. China’s competent government agencies are working vigorously to put in place matching rules and regulations for the implementation of this legislation, including the revising of relevant control lists. They will be published in due course. As export control involves many technical issues, we are ready to step up communication and consultation with interested parties to share experience and enhance cooperation in this field.

     

    各位同事,

     

    Dear colleagues,

     

    大规模杀伤性武器及其运载工具的扩散对国际和平与安全构成现实威胁。当前,国际安全形势面临严峻挑战,国际防扩散机制受到单边主义和霸凌行径的严重冲击。为扭转这一局面,有效实现防扩散目标,维护国际和地区的和平与稳定,国际社会应在以下方面共同努力:

     

    Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery constitutes a threat to international peace and security. The global security situation is facing grave challenges. In recent years, the international non-proliferation regime has been severely eroded by policies and actions that can only be described as unilateralism and bullying. To rectify this situation and effectively prevent WMD proliferation in the interest of regional and international peace and stability, countries should make concerted efforts in the following aspects:

     

    首先,坚决维护多边主义。防扩散是全球性问题,必须寻求多边解决方案。随着全球化快速发展,人员流动、国际贸易不断增加,任何国家都难以独自应对扩散挑战,加强协调合作是最佳的途径。在此背景下,我们要维护联合国宪章的宗旨和原则,尊重各国主权、安全和发展利益,坚持不干涉内政等重要原则。要强化以联合国为核心的集体安全体系,维护联合国安理会权威。要坚持政治外交手段,通过对话协商解决防扩散问题。炮制所谓的大规模杀伤性武器计划,并在未经联合国安理会授权的情况下对别国进行军事干预,这样的悲剧不应再重演。任何多边协议一旦达成,都必须严格履行。以退群毁约、损人利己的手段谋求绝对安全,只会走入死胡同,国际社会应坚决予以抵制。

     

    Firstly, to uphold multilateralism. The risk of WMD proliferation presents a common security challenge for the entire international community. With rapid development of globalization and increasing volume of international travel and trade, no country is able to meet proliferation related challenges on its own. Global challenges need multilateral solutions. Cooperation and coordination among all countries is the best approach to address proliferation risks.

     

    In this context, it is important to uphold the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, including respect for national sovereignty, rights to security and development, and non-interference of internal affairs.

     

    It is important to strengthen collective security system with the UN at its core, and safeguard the authority of the Security Council. The tragedy of military intervention under the pretext of fabricated WMD programmes and without proper authorization of the UN Security Council should not be allowed to happen again.

     

    It is important to resolve proliferation issues through dialogue and negotiations. Agreements reached need to be honored. Unilateralism or trying to seek absolute security at the expense of others leads to nowhere and should be rejected.

     

    第二,巩固和强化现有防扩散机制。二战后建立的以国际条约、安理会决议及相关国际组织为基础的国际防扩散架构虽不完美,但在防止大规模杀伤性武器扩散、维护国际和平与安全方面发挥了不可或缺的重要作用。在当前地缘政治形势下,维护现有防扩散机制的权威性和有效性显得愈发紧迫。

     

    Secondly, to strengthen existing non-proliferation regime. The international non-proliferation architecture established after World War II, based on the NPT, BWC, CWC, relevant UNSC resolutions, together with relevant international organizations, despite its imperfections, has played an indispensable role in preventing proliferation of WMD and maintaining international peace and security. This regime is under a lot of stress against the current geopolitical landscape. It becomes ever more urgent to safeguard the authority and effectiveness of the existing non-proliferation regime.

     

    应进一步增强《不扩散核武器条约》《禁止生物武器公约》《禁止化学武器公约》等主要国际法律文书的普遍性,并确保其得到全面、平衡、有效执行。明年将举行《不扩散核武器条约》、《禁止生物武器公约》审议大会,安理会将全面审议第1540号(防扩散)决议执行情况,各方应以此为契机,采取实质性措施加强相关条约和机制。中方愿与各方一道,推动上述审议取得实质性成果。

     

    We need to further increase the universality of major non-proliferation related international legal instruments, including the NPT, BWC and CWC, so as to ensure universal compliance with all relevant international norms.

     

    We need to ensure comprehensive and balanced fulfillment of all member states’ legal obligations in relation to arms control and non-proliferation. The review conferences of the NPT and BWC and the comprehensive review of the UNSCR 1540 to be held next year provide good opportunities for member states to formulate concrete measures to strengthen relevant treaty mechanisms. We look forward to substantive outcomes from these meetings.

     

    同时,应确保相关国际组织严格依照授权开展工作,在涉及条约履约等核心问题上努力寻求协商一致。利用相关问题进行政治操弄,未经充分协商强行推动表决,只会加剧缔约国分裂,损害相关国际组织权威和有效性。

     

    We need to ensure the proper functioning of major international bodies of arms control and non-proliferation in strict accordance with provisions set forth by the relevant treaties and conventions, while refraining from geopolitical manipulations. No efforts should be spared to achieve consensus among states parties on core issues related to implementation of treaty obligations. Frequently resorting to vote on key issues without full consultation can only further polarize states parties and paralyze the functioning of the organizations.

     

    第三,营造防扩散合作文化。近年来,个别国家打着防扩散的幌子,未经联合国安理会授权、甚至公然违反联合国安理会决议,频频使用单边制裁和长臂管辖。对此,国际社会必须坚决抵制。需要强调的是,即便有联合国安理会授权,制裁也只是手段而非目的。要充分考虑相关国家的合理安全关切,提供必要激励,确保相关进程沿着正确轨道发展。

     

    Thirdly, to foster a cooperative culture in non-proliferation. In recent years, maximum pressure and sanctions have become a tool frequently used or abused by a certain country, some times in the name or under the disguise of non-proliferation, without authorization or even in flagrant violation of the UN Security Council resolutions. These behaviors must be firmly opposed by the international community.

     

    Even with the endorsement of Security Council resolutions, we should remember that sanctions are means, rather than ends in themselves. Incentives are needed, and the legitimate security concerns need to be considered, in order to move things in the right direction.

     

    第四,平衡处理安全与发展的关系。科学技术的快速发展为人类带来福祉,也增加了相关技术被转用于大规模杀伤性武器及其运载工具的风险。保持防扩散与和平利用之间的平衡至关重要。享受科技发展红利是各国的合法权利,在努力实现防扩散目标的同时,不应阻碍就相关材料、技术及设备开展和平性质的国际交流与合作。《不扩散核武器条约》《禁止生物武器公约》《禁止化学武器公约》以及一系列联大、安理会决议均明确确认这一原则,这也是广大发展中国家长期以来的呼声。

     

    Fourthly, to properly handle the balance between security and development. The rapid development of science and technology brings well-being to the mankind, and also presents increasing risks of their diversion into WMD programmes. The dual-use nature of relevant items and technologies requires balanced treatment of non-proliferation and peaceful uses.

     

    It is the legitimate right of all countries to benefit from advancement of science and technology. Non-proliferation should not hamper international cooperation in materials, equipment and technology for peaceful purposes. This is a principle that has been affirmed time and again by NPT, the BWC, the CWC and relevant UNGA and Security Council resolutions. This is also a call that has been consistently made by the developing countries over the past decades.

     

    同时,实现防扩散目标不应以损害科技进步为代价。面对人工智能、3D打印、基因编辑、生物合成学等新兴技术快速发展及无形转让所带来的扩散风险,既要加强政府监管,也要为相关技术健康发展创造良好环境。

     

    Emerging technologies, such as AI, 3D printing, gene editing, synthetic biology, and their fast spread through intangible transfers are creating new proliferation risks. In dealing with these new risks, a proper balance must be struck between government supervision and control, vis-a-vis the need to create a favorable environment for the sound development of the emerging technologies, in order to make sure that non-proliferation goals are not achieved at the expense of technological progress.

     

    现有多边防扩散出口管制机制应当朝着更加公正、包容、非歧视性的方向发展。某些国家以意识形态划线,极力推动科技脱钩,企图将现有防扩散出口管制机制改造成新“巴统”,这只会损害加强防扩散体系的国际努力。

     

    We also need to make multilateral export control arrangements more inclusive and less discriminatory. Trying to divide the world along the lines of ideology and promoting technology decoupling by transforming these export control arrangements into a new COCOM can only harm the international efforts on non-proliferation.

     

    第五,加强国家执行与国际合作。只有得到各国切实执行,相关防扩散原则、政策及共识才有意义。要充分考虑各国特别是发展中国家的特殊国情和现实需求,开展更加有针对性的国际合作与援助,支持发展中国家加强能力建设,补齐防扩散机制、立法、专业等领域短板。联合国安理会1540委员会及其他相关国际组织可发挥更大作用,为各国提供援助供需匹配等多样化服务。中国愿积极参与防扩散立法、执法、外联等领域的国际交流与合作。

     

    The final point is to enhance national implementation and international cooperation. Principles, policies and consensus on non-proliferation matter only when translated into concrete actions through effective national implementation. In this regard, due consideration should be given to the specific conditions and realities of each individual country, especially developing countries, most of which suffer from weak non-proliferation institutions, legislations and technical expertise. Closer and more tailored international cooperation is needed for capacity building assistance to developing countries. The UNSC 1540 Committee and other relevant organizations can play a bigger role in providing match-making services between countries. We are ready to actively promote and participate in such cooperation in areas like legislation, law enforcement, customs training, intelligence sharing, public awareness raising and etc.

     

    各位同事,

     

    Dear Colleagues,

     

    不久前,中国共产党第十九届五中全会和中央全面依法治国工作会议先后召开,通过了一系列重要文件,擘画了未来发展蓝图,提出了提升国家治理效能、加强国家安全体系和能力建设、加强法制建设等重要目标。中国将继续以此为指引,秉持人类命运共同体理念,深入参与国际防扩散进程。中方愿本着相互尊重、平等互利的原则,与包括美国新政府在内的各国开展防扩散交流与合作。我们也愿本着权利和义务相平衡的原则,与现有防扩散出口管制多边机制开展对话、发展关系。

     

    Not long ago, the 5th Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Central Conference on Work Related to Overall Law-based Governance were held. A series of important documents were adopted, drawing a blueprint for China’s future development. Important goals were set for improving national governance efficiency, strengthening national security system and capacity building, and enhancing the rule of law. Guided by these goals, China will continue to actively participate in international non-proliferation efforts.

     

    We are ready to enhance non-proliferation policy exchanges and cooperation with all countries, including the incoming US administration, in a spirit of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit.

     

    We are also ready to engage in dialogues and develop ties with the multilateral export control regimes on the basis of balanced rights and obligations.

     

    谢谢大家!

     

    Thank you all.

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