双语:《中国交通运输发展》白皮书

摘要

Full Text: Development of China’s Transport

四、对外开放与国际合作

IV. Opening up and International Cooperation

 

中国政府大力推进与国际间的互联互通,在扩大开放的同时,不断深化与世界合作,构建了全方位、多层次、多渠道的交通运输对外开放和国际合作新格局。

 

The Chinese government proactively enhances its connectivity with the world community, continuing to open up to and deepening its cooperation with the rest of the world. An all-dimensional, multi-layer and multi-channel framework has been formed in transport as regards opening up to the outside world and international cooperation.

 

(一)国际客货运输

 

  1. International Passenger and Freight Transport

 

加强国际互联互通。截至2015年年底,中国与周边14个国家中的5个国家有铁路联通,有11个铁路口岸,开行多条通往欧洲和亚洲国家的中欧、中亚铁路集装箱班列,常年开通的边境公路口岸基本通二级及以上公路,一批具有国际物流功能的物流园区和货运场站建成运营。积极推动航运国际和区域合作,中老缅泰共同推进澜沧江—湄公河国际航运开发。民航利用代码共享、航空联盟、航线联营、股权合作等方式,优化国际航线网络,不断提升航班频次和通达性。2015年国际及港澳台快递业务量达4.3亿件,快递企业服务网络拓展至海外市场。加强与“一带一路”沿线国家合作,积极推动交通基础设施互联互通和运输便利化。2015年,通过各种交通运输方式出境旅游的人次达1.2亿。

 

Strengthening international connectivity. By the end of 2015, China had established railway connections with five of its 14 neighboring countries, with 11 railway crossing points. Multiple container trains operate on railways to Central Europe and Central Asia; highway crossing points in border areas, open around the year, are connected to roads at Grade II or above; and a group of logistics parks and cargo operation centers capable of handling international logistics have been put into use. China actively promotes international and regional cooperation in shipping, and is jointly pushing forward the navigation development of the Lancang-Mekong River with Laos, Myanmar and Thailand. Through code-sharing, airline alliance, joint operation of air routes and equity cooperation, China’s civil aviation is striving to improve its international flight network, increase the number of flights and expand its operational scope. In 2015, Chinese express delivery services extended their networks overseas, with 430 million items of mail delivered to international destinations as well as to Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. At the same time, China is strengthening cooperation with countries involved in the Belt and Road Initiative, actively pushing forward the interconnectivity of transport infrastructure and enhancing transport convenience. In 2015, Chinese citizens made some 120 million trips overseas via various means of transport.

 

支撑对外贸易。中国是世界贸易大国,交通运输加快发展为中国加快构建全方位开放新格局、提升国家竞争力提供了重要保障。海上运输承担了90%以上的外贸货物运输量以及98%的进口铁矿石、91%的进口原油、92%的进口煤炭和99%的进口粮食运输量,成为加快发展外向型经济的重要支撑。中欧班列快速发展,已成为国际货物联运的重要组成部分。

 

Supporting foreign trade. China is a major trading nation, and the quickened development of its transport provides a strong basis for building a new multi-dimensional structure of opening up and for enhancing China’s competitiveness internationally. An important pillar for developing an export-oriented economy, China’s maritime transport carries 90 percent of the country’s foreign trade cargo, 98 percent of imported iron ore, 91 percent of imported crude oil, 92 percent of imported coal and 99 percent of imported grain. Trains between China and Europe have become an important component of international through freight traffic.

 

(二)国际交流合作与对外开放

 

  1. International Exchanges and Cooperation and Opening up

 

积极参与国际事务。中国政府历来重视并积极参与交通运输国际组织事务,认真履行各项国际义务,在铁路合作组织、国际海事组织、国际民用航空组织和万国邮政联盟等重要交通运输国际组织中发挥着建设性作用。作为铁路合作组织创始国之一,中国在各项标准和规范制订中具有重要影响力;自1972年恢复在万国邮政联盟合法席位以来,一直连任邮政经营理事会理事国,并一直当选行政理事会理事国;自1989年起,已连续14次当选国际海事组织A类理事国;自2004年起,已连续5次担任国际民航组织一类理事国;推进多双边合作和区域合作,与100多个国家签订了铁路、公路、海运、民用航空和邮政政府间协定及双边、区域合作文件;建立了中国—东盟交通部长会议、上海合作组织交通部长会议等多个交通运输合作机制,倡议成立亚太经济合作组织港口服务组织。积极履行国际义务,支持其他发展中国家交通发展,为亚洲、非洲多个国家援建了一批交通工程。

 

Actively participating in international affairs. The Chinese government has always valued the role of and actively participated in the activities of international transport organizations. It takes measures to fulfill its obligations, and plays a constructive role in the Organization for Railway Cooperation (OSJD), International Maritime Organization (IMO), International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Universal Postal Union (UPU) and other important international transport organizations. As a founder of the OSJD, China has made great contribution in formulating the organization’s various standards and regulations. China has served as member of both the UPU’s Postal Operations Council and Council of Administration since it resumed its legitimate seat at the organization in 1972. It has been elected 14 times as a category-A member of the IMO Council since 1989, and five times as a category-A member of the ICAO Council since 2004. China actively promotes bilateral and regional cooperation. It has signed intergovernmental agreements and bilateral and regional documents on railway, highway, maritime transport, civil aviation and postal service cooperation with more than 100 countries. Several transport cooperation mechanisms have been set up, such as the China-ASEAN and Shanghai Cooperation Organization transport ministers’ meetings, and a proposal has been made by China to establish a seaport service organization for APEC. China actively fulfills its international obligations, supports the transport development of other developing countries, and has aided the construction of a series of transport projects in Asia and Africa.

 

不断扩大对外开放。交通运输业是中国最早对外开放的行业之一。1979年,原交通部驻港企业招商局在深圳创办蛇口工业区,在全国改革开放的棋盘上先行一步。1984年国家设立14个沿海开放城市,沿海港口成为对外开放的“窗口”。目前在交通运输基础设施领域,除了铁路干线和民用机场的建设经营要求中方控股外,所有公路桥梁、港口码头、其他铁路和城市轨道对外资不设限。在运输服务领域,公路货运、国际集装箱多式联运、国际海运辅助服务完全放开。

 

Continuing to expand the scope of opening up. The transport industry was one of China’s first industries to open to the outside world. In 1979, the China Merchants Group, then under the administration of China’s former Ministry of Transport, founded the Shekou Industrial Zone in Shenzhen, taking the first step in the country’s opening-up initiative. In 1984, the Chinese government opened 14 coastal cities, and coastal ports became windows opened to the rest of the world. Today, in the area of transport infrastructure, except railway arteries and civil airports, all highways, bridges, ports, other types of railways and urban rail tracks are open to foreign capital as far as construction and operation is concerned. There is no limit on foreign capital for transport services such as highway freight, international container multimodal transport, and supporting services for international maritime transport.

 

加快“走出去”步伐。中国铁路、交通工程建设和港口运营领域等向全世界展示了雄厚的产业竞争实力。中国的国际海运量占全世界海运量的三分之一。中国交通运输企业不断加快“走出去”步伐,正在从传统劳务输出和工程承包向资本输出、技术输出、管理输出、标准输出转变,业务涉及交通运输基础设施建设、港口经营、远洋运输、交通运输装备、船舶检验、航海教育等众多领域。

 

Quickening the pace of Chinese enterprises’ “going global.” China has exhibited a strong competitive edge in the areas of railway building, transport projects and port operation. China transports one third of the total global maritime cargo. China’s transport businesses are quickening their steps of “going global,” and are transforming themselves from traditional labor export and project contracting entities to exporters of capital, technology, management and standards in the areas of transport infrastructure, port operation, ocean transport, transport equipment, ship inspection and maritime training.

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  • 版权声明 本文源自 国新办 整理 发表于 2016年12月30日03:05:00