双语:《中国交通运输发展》白皮书

摘要

Full Text: Development of China’s Transport

二、综合交通运输体系建设

II. Comprehensive Transport System

 

经过多年改革发展,多节点、全覆盖的综合交通运输网络初步形成,“五纵五横”综合运输大通道基本贯通,一大批综合客运、货运枢纽站场(物流园区)投入运营,运输装备发展不断升级,运输服务水平显著提升,科技创新和应用实现重大突破,交通运输市场体系、管理体制和法规体系不断完善。

 

Through years of reform and development, China has formed a multi-nodal and full-coverage transport network; opened up five vertical and five horizontal transport trunk railway lines; put into operation a large number of passenger and freight transport stations (logistics parks); upgraded transport equipment and improved transport service capacity; achieved major breakthroughs in technology innovation and application; and improved the transport market system, management mechanisms and related laws and regulations.

 

(一)基础设施网络

 

  1. Infrastructure Network

 

多层次的铁路网基本形成。截至2015年年底,全国铁路营业总里程达12.1万公里,规模居世界第二;其中高速铁路1.9万公里,位居世界第一。以高速铁路为骨架、以城际铁路为补充的快速客运网络初步建成。全国铁路复线率和电气化率分别达到53.5%和61.8%。横跨东西、纵贯南北的大能力通道逐步形成,物流设施同步完善,逐步实现了货物运输直达化、快捷化、重载化。

 

A multi-level railway network has been formed. By the end of 2015, China’s total railway operation length reached 121,000 km, ranking the world’s second, including 19,000-km high-speed railway, ranking the world’s first. An express passenger transport network with high-speed railway as framework and supplemented by intercity railway has been built. The proportion of double-line railway in China was 53.5 percent, and the proportion of electric railway 61.8 percent. China has formed east-west and north-south railway passageways with great transport capacity, improved logistics infrastructure, and realized nonstop, speedy, and heavy-haul freight transport.

 

广覆盖的公路网建立起来。截至2015年年底,全国公路通车总里程达457.73万公里。高速公路通车里程达12.35万公里,位居世界第一。国省干线公路网络不断完善,连接了全国县级及以上行政区。农村公路里程达到398.06万公里,通达99.9%的乡镇和99.8%的建制村。路网技术结构不断优化,等级公路里程占公路总里程的88.4%。

 

A full-coverage highway network has been set up. By the end of 2015, China’s total highway traffic length was 4.58 million km. Expressway length was 123,500 km, ranking first in the world. The national and provincial trunk highway network has been improved, connecting administrative regions at and above the county level nationwide. Rural highway length was 3.98 million km, connecting 99.9 percent of towns and townships and 99.8 percent of administrative villages. The technology structure of the highway network has been improved, with graded highway length accounting for 88.4 percent of total highway length.

 

初步形成干支衔接的水运网。截至2015年年底,全国港口拥有生产性码头泊位3.13万个,其中万吨级及以上泊位2221个,煤炭、原油、金属矿石、集装箱等专业化泊位达1173个,港口大型化、深水化、专业化、自动化水平进一步提升。内河航道通航里程达12.7万公里,等级航道占52.2%,高等级航道达标里程1.36万公里,长江、西江、京杭运河等航道通航条件不断改善,初步建成了以“两横一纵两网十八线”为主体的内河航道体系。

 

A water transport network connecting trunk and branch lines has been established. By the end of 2015, China had 31,300 quay berths for production use, including 2,221 berths of 10,000-ton-class or above and 1,173 specialized berths for coal, crude oil, metal ores and containers, and improved large-scale, professional and automated deep-water ports. Inland waterway navigable length was 127,000 km, with graded waterways accounting for 52.2 percent, and the length of high-grade waterways reaching 13,600 km. China has improved the navigation conditions of the Yangtze and Xijiang rivers and the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, and formed an inland waterway system composed of two horizontal trunk waterways, one vertical trunk waterway, two high-grade waterway networks and 18 high-grade mainstream and tributary waterways.

 

民用机场体系基本成型。截至2015年年底,全国民航运输机场达210个,初步形成了以北京、上海、广州等国际枢纽机场为中心,省会城市和重点城市区域枢纽机场为骨干,以及其他干、支线机场相互配合的格局。空管设施建设不断加强,2015年保障飞机起降达到856.6万架次。通用机场加快发展。机场轨道交通和机场快速通道加快建设,机场与其他交通运输方式的衔接更加紧密。

 

A civil airport system has taken shape. By the end of 2015, China had 210 civil transport airports, forming a pattern with international hub airports in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou as centers, with regional hub airports in provincial capitals and major cities as junctures, and some other support trunk and branch airports. Air traffic control facilities have been improved, which secured 8.57 million takeoffs and landings in 2015. General aviation airports have been developing quickly. Airport rail and fast-track transit have been rapidly improved, and the connectivity between airports and other modes of transport has been enhanced.

 

乡乡设所、村村通邮总体实现。截至2015年年底,全国邮路总条数达2.5万条,邮路总长度(单程)达637.6万公里,邮政普遍服务营业场所总数达5.4万处,村邮站总数达21万个。快递服务营业网点达18.3万处,网路总长度(单程)达2370.5万公里。

 

Post offices for each township and postal services for each village have been realized. By the end of 2015, China’s postal routes totaled 25,000, with a total length of 6.38 million km; postal outlets totaled 54,000, and village mail stations totaled 210,000. Express delivery outlets numbered 183,000, with a total network length of 23.71 million km.

 

油气管道骨干网络初步形成。截至2015年年底,全国陆上油气管道总里程达11.2万公里,初步形成了覆盖全国31个省(区、市)的原油、成品油和天然气三大主干网络和“西油东送、北油南运、西气东输、北气南下、海气登陆”的油气输送网络。

 

Oil and gas pipelines have formed a trunk network. By the end of 2015, China’s onshore oil and gas pipelines had a total length of 112,000 km, covering 31 provinces, municipalities directly under the central government and autonomous regions, forming a trunk-pipeline network for crude oil, refined oil and natural gas as well as an oil and gas transmission network which transports oil from the west to the east and from the north to the south, transmits gas from the west to the east and from the north to the south, and brings gas from offshore.

 

(二)运输服务能力

 

  1. Transport Service Capacity

 

运输量位居世界前位。2015年,全社会完成客运量194.3亿人、旅客周转量30047亿人公里;完成货运量410亿吨、货物周转量173690.6亿吨公里。铁路旅客周转量、货运量居世界第一,货运周转量居世界第二,公路客货运输量及周转量、水路货运量及周转量均居世界第一,民航运输总周转量、旅客周转量、货邮周转量均居世界第二。全国港口完成货物吞吐量和集装箱吞吐量均居世界第一。邮政业年服务用户超过700亿人次,快递年业务量居世界第一,大型网络购物促销“双11”活动单日处理峰值超过1.6亿件。管道货运量达7.1亿吨,周转量达4138.8亿吨公里。

 

China’s transport volume leads the world. In 2015, China’s passenger transport volume was 19.43 billion persons, and passenger turnover was 3.0 trillion passenger-km (pkm); freight transport volume was 41 billion tons, and freight turnover was 17.37 trillion ton-km (tkm). In terms of railway transport, passenger turnover and freight transport volume ranked first in the world, and freight turnover ranked second. In terms of highway transport, passenger and freight transport volume and passenger and freight turnover ranked first in the world. In terms of waterway transport, freight transport volume and freight turnover also ranked first in the world. In terms of civil aviation transport, total turnover, passenger turnover, and cargo and mail turnover all ranked second in the world. In terms of port transport, cargo throughput and container throughput ranked first in the world. In terms of postal services, the number of customers exceeded 70 billion. In terms of express delivery, business volume ranked first in the world; on November 11, Online Shopping Day, the number of parcels delivered in one day reached the year’s peak of 160 million pieces. In terms of pipeline transportation, freight transport volume was 710 million tons and freight turnover was 413.88 billion tkm.

 

运输服务质量全面提升。多式联运、甩挂运输等先进运输组织模式及冷链等专业物流快速发展,集装箱、厢式货车等标准化运载单元加快推广,城乡物流配送信息化、集约化程度明显提升,提高了社会物流运行效率。交通运输安全水平大幅改善,铁路旅客运输总体安全水平居世界前列,2015年道路交通万车事故死亡人数较2005年下降了72.4%,全国运输船舶百万吨港口吞吐量等级以上事故件数平均每年下降5%,民航运输航空百万小时重大事故率10年滚动值为0.018(世界平均水平为0.24)。大力提升客运基本公共服务均等化水平,“公交优先”战略扎实推进,全国公交专用车道达8569公里,快速公交系统(BRT)线路长度达3081公里,定制公交、夜间公交等特色公共交通服务产品的新模式不断丰富,网约出租汽车等新业态快速发展。

 

Transport service quality has been improved. Multimodal transport, drop and pull transport and cold chain logistics have developed quickly; the use of standardized transport units such as containers and vans has been promoted; and urban and rural logistics have enhanced IT application and intensified services, thus increasing logistics efficiency. Transport safety has been greatly improved, and China’s railway passenger transport safety leads the world. In 2015, the number of death toll per 10,000 vehicle road accidents dropped by 72.4 percent over 2005; the number of accidents of cargo vessels of a million-ton-class throughput and above has decreased by five percent on average annually since 2005; the rolling ten-year accident rate per one million flight hours in civil aviation transport was 0.018 in 2015 (the world’s average is 0.24). Equitable basic public services in passenger transport and the strategy of “public transit priority” have been promoted. The length of exclusive bus lanes has reached 8,569 km, and the length of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) lines 3,081 km. In addition, new and specialized public transport services, such as customized shuttle and night buses, have increased, and new models of transport service including online taxi booking have been developing rapidly.

 

运输服务通达性显著增强。高速铁路覆盖百万人口以上城市比例达65%。道路客运线路达18.1万条。全国城市公共汽(电)车运营线路突破4.5万条,城市轨道交通运营线路达105条,运营线路总长度达3195公里。水路国际运输航线和集装箱班轮航线往来100多个国家和地区的1000多个港口。民航定期航班航线达3326条,航线里程超过786.6万公里(按重复距离计算),通达境内204个城市,香港、澳门、台湾地区以及55个国家(地区)的137个城市。全国乡镇快递服务营业网点覆盖率达70%。

 

Transport service accessibility has been expanded. High-speed railway coverage of cities with a population of over one million each has reached 65 percent, and the number of passenger transport routes has reached 181,000. The number of urban bus and trolley bus routes in operation has exceeded 45,000, and the number of urban rail transit routes in operation has reached 105, with a total length of 3,195 km. International waterway transport routes and container shipment routes now connect over 1,000 ports in more than 100 countries and regions. Scheduled civil aviation flights operate on 3,326 routes, with a total length of 7.87 million km, reaching 204 cities in China’s mainland, the Hong Kong SAR, Macao SAR and Taiwan, as well as 137 cities in 55 foreign countries and regions. Express delivery outlets now serve 70 percent of towns and townships nationwide.

 

运输工具技术水平不断提高。截至2015年年底,铁路主要干线全部实现内燃、电力机车牵引,客货运输车辆品种和结构均实现升级换代。民用汽车数量达到17228万辆,公路客货营运车辆总数达1473万辆,货运车辆平均吨位数由6.3吨增加至7.5吨,专用货车(含甩挂运输车辆)占比由5.1%提高至27.2%,营运客车高档化、舒适化和货运车辆大型化、专业化程度不断提高。水上运输船舶达16.6万艘,海运船队运力总规模达1.6亿吨,内河货运船舶平均吨位超过800吨,高等级航道通航水域船型标准化率达到50%,船舶大型化、专业化和标准化发展趋势明显。民航拥有运输飞机在册架数2650架,通用航空企业拥有在册航空器1904架。邮政业拥有各类汽车24.4万辆、国内快递专用货机71架。

 

Means of transport and technology have been improved. By the end of 2015, all railway trunk lines had realized diesel and electric locomotive traction; types and structures of passenger and freight transport vehicles had been upgraded and updated. Civil automobiles numbered 172.28 million; highway passenger and freight transport vehicles in operation totaled 14.73 million; the average tonnage of freight transport vehicles increased from 6.3 to 7.5 tons; the proportion of special-use freight vehicles (including trailers) rose from 5.1 percent to 27.2 percent; passenger transport vehicles in operation have become advanced and comfortable, while freight transport vehicles have become larger and have been specified for various uses. Water transport vessels numbered 166,000; ocean cargo fleet had a total capacity of 160 million tons; inland waterway freight transport vessels had an average tonnage of more than 800 tons; the rate of standard ship types operating in navigable waters of high-grade waterways reached 50 percent; transport vessels have been developed towards large-size, specialized-use and standard types. Civil aviation had 2,650 registered planes, while general aviation had 1,904. Postal services had 244,000 transport vehicles and 71 cargo planes for domestic express delivery.

 

初步建立高效的安全监管和海上应急救助体系。建立和完善国家海上搜救和重大海上溢油应急处置部际联席会议制度,海上搜救打捞力量持续增强,搜救志愿者队伍不断扩大。初步构建了广泛覆盖、反应迅速、立体高效的水上交通安全监管和海上应急保障体系。

 

An efficient safety regulation and maritime emergency aid system has been established. China has established and improved the inter-ministerial joint conference system for maritime search and rescue, and major marine oil spill emergency disposal. It has also improved its maritime search and rescue efforts and increased the number of volunteers. Overall, China has preliminarily built an extensive, prompt and efficient system of waterway transport safety regulation and maritime emergency support.

 

(三)科技创新和应用

 

  1. Technology Innovation and Application

 

基础设施建设技术世界领先。高速铁路、高寒铁路、高原铁路、重载铁路技术迈入世界先进行列,高速铁路成为“中国制造”和“走出去”的新名片。高原冻土、膨胀土、沙漠等特殊地质的铁路、公路建设技术克服世界级难题,青藏公路、青藏铁路先后建成通车运营。陆续建成一批世界级特大桥隧,特大桥隧建造技术达到世界先进水平。离岸深水港建设关键技术、巨型河口航道整治技术、长河段航道系统治理技术以及大型机场工程建设技术世界领先,实施港珠澳大桥、洋山港集装箱码头、长江口深水航道治理等系列重大工程。

 

China leads the world in infrastructure construction. China’s technologies for high-speed, alpine, plateau and heavy-haul railways have reached the world’s advanced level, while high-speed railways have become a symbol of made-in-China and going-global products. Railway and highway construction technologies have overcome world-level geological challenges such as plateau permafrost, and expansive soil and desert. The construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Highway and Qinghai-Tibet Railway has been completed and they have been opened to traffic. A number of world-class large bridges and tunnels have been built with globally advanced construction technologies. China’s key construction technologies for offshore deep-water ports, improved technologies for large estuary waterways and long waterways, and construction technologies for large-scale airports are leading the world. The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, Yangshan Port Container Terminal, Yangtze Estuary Deepwater Channel Improvement Project, and other major construction projects have been carried out.

 

装备制造技术快速进步。以高速列车、大功率机车为代表的一批具有自主知识产权的高性能铁路装备技术达到世界先进水平,部分达到世界领先水平。新能源道路运输装备初步实现产业化。自主研制的支线客机、通用飞机、直升机已交付使用,C919大型客机总装下线,中国成为世界上为数不多的能够自主研制大飞机的国家。大型专业化码头装卸设备制造、海工机械特种船舶、集装箱成套设备制造技术领先世界,300米饱和潜水取得创新性突破。邮政光学字符识别(OCR)、视频补码、码址校验等分拣技术处于世界领先水平。

 

Equipment manufacturing has made rapid progress. High-performance railway equipment technologies with proprietary intellectual property rights, represented by high-speed railways and high-power locomotives, have reached the advanced world level, with some of them leading the world. New-energy road transport equipment has realized preliminary industrialization. Feeder liners, general aviation aircraft and helicopters independently developed by China have been put into use, and the C919 airliner has rolled off the assembly line, making China one of the few countries capable of developing large airliners independently. China’s manufacturing technologies for large, specialized equipment for terminal loading and unloading, special marine engineering machinery vessels and complete sets of container transport equipment are world-leaders, while its 300-m saturation diving technology has achieved a breakthrough. Sorting technologies in postal services, including optical character recognition (OCR), video complement and address check via bar code have reached the world’s top level.

 

信息化智能化技术广泛应用。大数据、云计算、物联网、移动互联网等信息通信技术在交通运输领域广泛应用,线上线下结合的商业模式蓬勃发展。铁路建成了客运联网售票系统,实现了运输生产调度指挥信息化。高速公路电子不停车收费系统(ETC)基本实现了全国联网。港口电子数据交换系统(EDI)、船舶交通管理系统(VTS)、船舶自动识别系统(AIS)在水运管理中广泛应用,开发了长江干线电子航道图技术。民航商务信息系统处于世界先进水平。邮政建立国家、省、市三级联动视频监控体系。无线射频识别技术(RFID)、全球卫星导航系统(GNSS)等现代导航信息技术在民航运输、物流配送中广泛应用。北斗导航系统成为第三个面向国际航海应用的全球卫星导航系统。

 

Information and intelligent technologies have been extensively applied. Information and communications technologies, such as big data, cloud computing, Internet of Things and mobile Internet, have been widely applied in transport, and combined online and traditional business models are thriving. Railway passenger transport has developed an online booking system, and realized IT application in transport management. Expressway transport has formed a nationwide Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) network. Port Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) and Vessel Automatic Identification System (AIS) have been widely applied in water transport management, and an electronic nautical chart of the trunk waterways of the Yangtze River has been developed. China’s civil aviation business information system is globally advanced. Postal services have established a video joint monitoring system at national, provincial and municipal levels. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and other modern navigation technologies have been applied to civil aviation and logistics. The Beidou Navigation Satellite System has become the third GNSS applied in international navigation.

 

(四)改革与法治建设

 

  1. Reform and Rule of Law

 

市场体系不断完善。经过30多年的市场化进程,交通建设、养护、运输不断推向市场。积极推行市场准入负面清单制度,鼓励和引导社会资本参与交通运输投资运营,大力推广社会资本与政府合作模式(PPP)。交通运输全面实现政企分开。不断推进简政放权,创新优化行政审批服务方式。加快市场信用体系建设,市场监管体系逐步完善,统一开放、竞争有序的交通运输市场基本形成。

 

Market system has been improved. Through over 30 years of marketization, transport construction, maintenance and traffic have become market-oriented. China has issued its Negative List for Market Access, encouraging non-government capital to invest in transport operation, and vigorously promoting Public-Private Partnership (PPP). Transport has separated government functions from enterprise operation completely. The government has also streamlined its administration and delegated authority, and innovated and improved government approval services. Transport has been boosting the market credit system and improving market regulation. As a result, a unified, open transport market of orderly competition has been formed.

 

法律法规体系基本形成。适应改革发展需要,对交通运输法律法规进行了大量的立、改、废工作。目前,共有《铁路法》《公路法》《港口法》《航道法》《海商法》《海上交通安全法》《民用航空法》《邮政法》等8部法律、《铁路安全管理条例》《公路安全保护条例》《道路运输条例》《国际海运条例》《内河交通安全管理条例》《船员条例》《民用机场管理条例》《民用航空安全保卫条例》《邮政法实施细则》等65部行政法规,以及300余件部门规章。

 

Legal framework has taken shape. To meet the demands of reform and development, China has promulgated, revised and annulled transport laws and regulations. Currently, China has eight relevant laws, namely, the Railway Law, Highway Law, Law on Ports, Waterway Law, Maritime Law, Maritime Traffic Safety Law, Civil Aviation Law and Postal Law. In addition, there are 65 relevant administrative regulations, including the Regulations on the Administration of Railway Safety, Regulations on the Administration of Highway Safety, Regulations on Road Transport, Regulations on International Maritime Transport, Regulations on the Administration of Traffic Safety in Inland Waters, Regulations on Seamen, Regulations on the Administration of Civil Airports, Regulations on Civil Aviation Safety, and Rules for the Implementation of the Postal Law. There are also more than 300 relevant departmental rules.

 

综合交通运输管理体制初步建立。2008年、2013年实施两轮交通运输大部门制改革,形成了由交通运输部管理国家铁路局、中国民用航空局、国家邮政局的大部门管理体制架构。各地积极推进综合交通运输管理体制改革,加快综合交通运输体系建设。

 

Comprehensive transport management system has been preliminarily established. In 2008 and 2013 respectively, China launched two rounds of institutional reform to establish a large transport department, namely, the Ministry of Transport, which put the National Railways Administration, Civil Aviation Administration of China and State Postal Bureau under its management. All localities are promoting structural reform for comprehensive transport management, and quickening their pace in building a comprehensive transport system.

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  • 版权声明 本文源自 国新办 整理 发表于 2016年12月30日03:05:00