双语:罗照辉在“合作视角下的南海”国际研讨会上的主旨演讲

摘要

Keynote Speech by Luo Zhaohui at the International Symposium on the South China Sea: from the Perspective of Cooperation

罗照辉在“合作视角下的南海”视频国际研讨会上发表主旨演讲

对话合作应对南海争议,同声共气反对外部搅局

Jointly Safeguarding Peace, Stability and Development in the South China Sea with Dialogue, Consultation and Win-Win Cooperation

 

——外交部副部长罗照辉在“合作视角下的南海”国际研讨会上的主旨演讲

– Keynote Speech by Vice Foreign Minister Luo Zhaohui at the International Symposium on the South China Sea: from the Perspective of Cooperation

 

各位来宾,

 

Dear Guests,

 

很高兴参加本次研讨会。今天我们将讨论一个非常重要的议题:南海的和平与合作。

 

We are here today to discuss a very important issue: promoting peace and cooperation in the South China Sea. I am delighted to join you.

 

我们刚刚聆听了王毅国务委员兼外长鼓舞人心的致辞。他阐述了中国在南海问题上的立场,并引导我们从积极和建设性视角看待这一问题。

 

We just heard the encouraging message from State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi. It is a brief summary of Chinese positions on the South China Sea. It also led us to look at the issue through a positive and constructive view.

 

新冠肺炎疫情仍在全球肆虐,单边主义和贸易霸凌主义盛行,美国搅局南海,遏阻中国,世界面临的不确定、不稳定因素增多。东亚合作系列外长会将于下周举行。本地区国家就南海问题发出的信号无疑将引起关注。

 

The COVID-19 is still spreading globally. Unilateralism and trade-bullying are making the world more uncertain and unstable. The US has openly interfered in the South China Sea, with an attempt to contain China. Foreign Ministers’ meetings on East Asia cooperation will be held next week. The signals from countries in the region sent on this issue will definitely draw attention.

 

在此背景下,中国愿重申在南海问题上的立场和承诺没有变化。正如王毅国务委员在致辞中所言,我们将继续同东盟国家一道努力,共同把南海建成和平、友好、合作之海。

 

At this background, I’d like to reiterate that China’s position and commitments on South China Sea remain unchanged. Just like State Councilor Wang Yi said at his message, we will continue to work with ASEAN countries to make the South China Sea a Sea of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation.

 

中国和东盟国家是搬不走的邻居。今年是中国加入《东南亚友好合作条约》第17年,是我们签署《南海各方行为宣言》第18年。明年将迎来中国—东盟建立对话关系30周年。当前,东盟已成为中国最大贸易伙伴。尽管疫情蔓延和全球经济下行效应叠加,今年上半年,中国和东盟贸易总额达2990亿美元,逆势增长5.6%。去年,双方人员往来超过6000万。

 

China and ASEAN are close neighbors that could not move. This year marks 17 years since China joined the TAC (Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia), and 18 years after the DOC (Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea) was signed by us. Next year will be the 30th anniversary of the establishment of dialogue partnership between the two sides. Now ASEAN is the largest trade partner of China. In the first half of the year, the trade volume between China and ASEAN reached 299 billion USD, a remarkable increase of 5.6% amid the pandemic and the global economic downturn. Last year the exchange of visits between the two sides was over 60 million.

 

上述事实表明,双方接触的历史就是不断加深互动的过程,也是管控南海争议的过程。中国和东盟的关系是全方位的。南海问题只是一小部分。当然,如果我们能妥善处理这一问题,双边关系会更上层楼。反之,双方关系将会蒙尘。迄今为止,我们做得很好,我们要保持这个势头。

 

The above-mentioned facts show that the history of bilateral engagement is a process of deepening interaction and a process of managing the disputes in the South China Sea.

 

The relationship between China and ASEAN is a comprehensive one. The issue of South China Sea is only a small part of that. Of course, if we could manage the issue well, it will make the bilateral picture shine. If we could not manage it well, the picture will dim. Till now we have managed it well. We would like to keep the momentum well.

 

第一,中方坚持通过谈判协商解决争议,通过对话合作管控分歧。

 

First, China believes in settling the disputes of the South China Sea through negotiation and consultation. We believe in managing differences through dialogue and cooperation.

 

中国最早发现、命名、开发利用和有效管辖南海诸岛及相关海域。1933年,法国侵入南沙群岛部分岛礁,中国政府提出严正交涉。二战期间,日本非法侵占中国南海诸岛。二战结束后,中国收回南海诸岛,并于1948年公布了南海断续线,此后很长时间没有国家提出异议。上世纪70年代在南海发现油气资源,有关国家才开始提出领土主张。80年代《联合国海洋法公约》出台后,南海有关沿岸国产生海域主张重叠,使争议进一步复杂化。

 

China was the first to discover and name the islands and related waters. China is also the first to develop and exercise effective jurisdiction over them.

 

When France intruded into some islands and reefs of Nansha in 1933, the Chinese government made solemn representations with the French. The islands were illegally occupied by Japan during the Second World War. They were returned to China after the war. China released the dotted line in 1948. For a long time, there was no dispute from any other country.

 

In the 1970s, oil and gas were discovered in the South China Sea. Then some countries began to make territorial claims. When UNCLOS was adopted in the 1980s, countries in this region found their maritime claims overlapping with each other. That further complicated the disputes.

 

回顾历史不难发现,中国在南海的主张具有充分的历史和法理依据。中国对南海诸岛及其附近海域拥有无可争辩的主权。从上世纪80年代起,中国一直倡导“搁置争议、共同开发”,从未强迫哪一国接受。有关这一倡议的讨论还在进行。南海争议区有近千口油井,但没有一口属于中国。虽然我们也需要油气,但我们主张共同开发,不想通过单边开发使问题复杂化。

 

If you review the history, you would find that China’s claims are based on solid historical and legal foundation. China has indisputable sovereignty over these islands and their adjacent waters.

 

Since 1980s, China has been promoting the idea of joint development while shelving the disputes. But we have never forced it on any country. The discussions on this idea are still going on. There are thousands of oil and gas wells in the disputed areas of the South China Sea. None of them belongs to China. We are firmly opposed to the illegal development. We also need oil and gas, but we do not want to complicate the matter by unilateral development.

 

中国与东盟国家一道致力于遵守《东南亚友好合作条约》的义务,全面落实《南海各方行为宣言》。中方提议在三年内完成“南海行为准则”磋商。新冠肺炎疫情延缓了“准则”磋商进程。但我们有信心以更高效的方式、更高的质量加快磋商进程。好消息是,明天将举行“准则”磋商相关工作层线上会议。

 

Together, we are committed to the obligations of the TAC, and the full implementation of the DOC. We propose to conclude the COC consultations within three years. COVID-19 slows down the process of COC consultations. But we are confident to make up for the time lost. We will work more efficiently and effectively to speed up the consultations. The good news is that tomorrow, the working group meeting on COC will resume.

 

中方倡导建立“南海沿岸国合作机制”,积极推进泛南海经济合作;中国已准备好与东盟国家打造蓝色经济伙伴关系;我们已就建设海上丝绸之路达成共识;我们正在推进“陆海新通道”建设;我们可以利用中国—东盟海上合作基金更多造福地区人民。

 

China has proposed a cooperation mechanism of the littoral states of the South China Sea. We are actively promoting Pan-South China Sea economic cooperation.

 

China is ready to work with ASEAN countries to build a Partnership on Blue Economy. We have reached consensus on Maritime Silk Road. We are pushing forward the New Land-and-Maritime Corridor. We could use the China-ASEAN Maritime Cooperation Fund for greater benefits for our people.

 

第二,中国是国际法治的坚定维护者和建设者,支持依据包括《联合国海洋法公约》在内的国际法处理南海问题。

 

Second, China is firm in upholding and developing international rule of law. We support handling the South China Sea issue in accordance with international law including UNCLOS.

 

《公约》是各方海洋法立场的微妙平衡。它对各海域法律地位、各国权利与义务以及主要海洋活动等做出了规范,是关于现代国际海洋秩序的重要法律文件。中国作为《公约》缔约国,一贯恪守《公约》,严格遵守《公约》义务。

 

UNCLOS is a delicate balance of the positions of various parties. The Convention regulates the legal status of marine areas, rights and duties of the States and major maritime activities. It is an important legal instrument on contemporary international maritime order.

 

As a State Party, China abides by UNCLOS and complies with its duties.

 

另一方面,尽管《公约》极其重要,但它并非海洋法的全部,在其之外还有一般国际法。《公约》前言第8段明确表示,“确认本公约未予规定的事项,应继续以一般国际法的规则和原则为准据”。《公约》生效后仍有运用其他国际法处理海洋争议的国际案例。此外,有关国家和地区通过区域性规则或安排处理海洋主张重叠问题,如地中海相关沿岸国、里海沿岸国等。

 

Despite its crucial role, UNCLOS is not what it is all about. Beyond UNCLOS, there is also general international law.

 

Paragraph 8 of the Preamble makes it clear that “matters not regulated by this Convention continue to be governed by the rules and principles of general international law”.

 

Since UNCLOS took effect, there have been cases in which countries use other rules of international law to handle maritime disputes.

 

Furthermore, some countries and regions have handled their overlapping maritime claims with regional rules or arrangements. For example, the Mediterranean states and the littoral states of the Caspian Sea.

 

客观认识《公约》的权威性和局限性,是对其进行正确解释和适用的前提。南海问题不仅涉及《公约》,还涉及领土主权,只有全面准确适用包括《公约》在内的国际法,才能求得妥善解决。

 

We need to view objectively the authority and limitations of UNCLOS. Then we can make correct interpretation and application. The South China Sea issue concerns not just UNCLOS, but also territorial sovereignty. Its proper solution is only possible when the international law, including UNCLOS, is applied comprehensively and accurately.

 

《宣言》和“准则”也应成为中国和东盟各国遵守的规则。一些国家正在谈及“准则”的法律拘束力。这都表明《公约》不是海洋法的唯一法律文书。

 

DOC and COC should also be the rules and regulations abide by China and ASEAN countries. Some country is also talking about a legally binding COC. This also shows that UNCLOS is not the only legal institution governing the law of sea.

 

第三,南海仲裁案解决不了南海问题,中国对仲裁案的立场是明确的、坚定的,具有充分的国际法依据。

 

Third, the South China Sea arbitration case cannot solve the issue. China’s position on the case is clear and firm. It has solid ground in international law.

 

在领土主权等重大争议问题上,中国一贯主张通过谈判磋商解决,反对任何强加方案。南海问题涉及复杂的历史、民族情感和国家尊严,任何强迫方式都只会适得其反。

 

China seeks settlement of disputes concerning territorial sovereignty through negotiation and consultation. We oppose any forceful solutions. The South China Sea issue has a complex history. It involves national sentiments and a country’s dignity.

 

国际司法或仲裁机构行使管辖权,须以当事国同意为基础。这是国家主权原则的应有之义。“南海仲裁案”仲裁事项的实质,是领土主权和海洋划界问题。《联合国海洋法公约》并未规范领土主权问题。关于海洋划界,中方已作出声明,排除仲裁管辖。中菲之间也已通过一系列双边文件,以及《南海各方行为宣言》等,达成通过双边谈判解决争议的共识。仲裁庭无视中菲争议的实质,无视中国根据《公约》作出的声明,无视双方谈判磋商的共识,越权管辖、枉法裁断,在事实认定和法律适用上存在明显错误。中方不接受、不参与仲裁,不接受、不承认所谓裁决。

 

In exercising their jurisdiction, the international judicial or arbitrary bodies must seek the consent of the countries concerned. This is rightly implied in the State sovereignty principle.

 

The arbitration case are about territorial sovereignty and maritime delimitation. UNCLOS does not regulate issues of territorial sovereignty. As for maritime delimitation, China has made a declaration, which has excluded the application of arbitration.

 

Moreover, with a series of bilateral documents and the DOC, China and the Philippines agreed to settle the disputes through negotiation.

 

However, the Tribunal did not take into consideration of the nature of the disputes. It dismissed China’s declaration under UNCLOS. It disregarded the agreement between China and the Philippines for negotiation and consultation.

 

It has clear flaws in fact finding and law application. China did not accept or participate in the arbitration. We do not accept or recognize the so-called award.

 

第四,美国的介入是南海风险之源,地区国家同声共气,坚决维护南海和平稳定。

 

Fourth, the US interference has been the source of risks in the South China Sea. We need to jointly reject these risks and safeguard peace and stability.

 

南海是开放和包容的。中国和东盟各国从来无意将南海打造成自身的势力范围,也从未把南海作为地缘博弈的筹码。南海的航行自由也根本不存在任何问题,这只是想要介入南海问题的麻烦制造者炮制的借口。

 

The South China Sea is open and inclusive. Neither China nor ASEAN wants to turn the sea into an arena for power. We don’t want it to become a tool for geopolitical competition. The freedom of navigation has never been an issue in these waters. It is only an excuse created by those who wanted to interfere and make trouble.

 

近期美国在南海频频挑事。它不仅违背不选边站队的承诺,否定中国的合法利益,支持仲裁案,而且还耀武扬威,大秀肌肉,持续加大南海军事活动的频率和烈度。尽管美国不是《联合国海洋法公约》成员,却粗暴干涉国际海洋法法庭选举,以南海问题为由,鼓动《公约》缔约国不支持中方候选人。中方候选人的高票当选是对美无理举动的响亮回击。

 

Recently, the US has made repeated provocations in the South China Sea. It broke the promise of not taking sides, denied the legitimate interests of China and supported the arbitration. Moreover, it keeps flexing its muscles, and increased military activities in the South China Sea.

 

Though it is not a member of UNCLOS, the US openly interfered in the election of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. It tried to stop countries from supporting the Chinese candidate, citing the South China Sea issue. In the end the Chinese candidate was elected by a vote of overwhelming majority. A big slam on the face!

 

美国介入南海事务,目的是绑架地区国家,在中国和东盟国家之间打楔子、搞分裂,逼迫东盟国家选边站队。一个动荡不安的南海只会服务美国的利益和全球野心,而地区国家却不得不为此付出代价。事实证明,美国已成为南海和平的最大威胁者,已成为南海合作发展繁荣的搅局者和绊脚石。

 

By interfering in issue, the US is trying to hijack regional countries. It tries to undermine and divided China and ASEAN countries, forcing them to take sides. A troubled South China Sea only serves the interests of the US and its global agenda, while countries in the region have to bear the costs. It clearly shows that the US has become the biggest threat to peace in the South China Sea the entire region. It is a trouble-maker for cooperation, development and prosperity in the region.

 

美国不仅是针对南海,还拉拢日本、印度、澳大利亚组建“四国机制”(亦被称为“亚洲小北约”)搞反华小圈子。这显示美国仍在奉行“冷战”思维。我们不惹事,也决不怕事。我们不会随美起舞,而要用冷静和理智,战胜其冲动和焦躁,在坚定捍卫自身主权、安全和发展利益的同时,愿与美方共同推动以协调、合作、稳定为基调的中美关系。

 

Apart from its interference in the South China Sea, the US established the QUAD, an anti-China front line, also known as the mini NATO. This reflects the cold war mentality of the US. China does not make trouble, but we are not afraid of trouble.

 

China will not be distracted by these provocations. We will stay calm and tackle the impulsive moves. We will firmly defend our sovereignty, security and right to development. At the same time, we are ready to work with the US to jointly promote a China-US relationship based on coordination, cooperation and stability.

 

如地区局势持续恶化,本地区国家不可能独善其身。地区国家也应保持高度警觉,牢牢把握南海事务主导权,继续秉持“双轨思路”处理南海问题,绝不能让南海变成国际政治的角斗场。

 

If the situation further worsens, no country in the region could be spared from its negative impact. It is important that all countries in the region stay on high alert, hold the issue of South China Sea firmly in our own hands, and continue the “dual track approach” to handle the issue of South China Sea. We should never allow it to become a wrestling ground for international politics.

 

各位同事,

 

Colleagues,

 

一个更加和平、友好和合作的南海,符合地区国家和世界各国人民的共同利益。让我们聚焦合作而非对抗,建设一个更加紧密的中国—东盟命运共同体。

 

A Sea of peace, friendship and cooperation serve the common interests of the countries and peoples in the region. Let us focus on cooperation, instead of conflicts, to build a closer China-ASEAN community of shared future.

 

谢谢大家!

 

Thank you.

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