双语:尊重历史 面向未来 坚定不移维护和稳定中美关系

摘要

Full Text of Yang Jiechi’s Signed Article on China-U.S. Relations

A signed article by Yang Jiechi entitled Respect History, Look to the Future and Firmly Safeguard and Stabilize China-U.S. Relations

尊重历史 面向未来 坚定不移维护和稳定中美关系

Respect History, Look to the Future and Firmly Safeguard and Stabilize China-US Relations

 

中共中央政治局委员、中央外事工作委员会办公室主任 杨洁篪

Yang Jiechi, Member of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and Director of the Office of the Foreign Affairs Commission of the CPC Central Committee

 

中美关系是世界上最重要的双边关系之一。维护和稳定中美关系事关两国人民和世界各国人民福祉,也关乎世界和平、稳定、发展。习近平主席2014年即指出,历史和现实都表明,中美两国合则两利、斗则俱伤。中美合作可以办成有利于两国和世界的大事,中美对抗对两国和世界肯定是灾难。双方应该登高望远,加强合作,坚持合作,避免对抗,既造福两国,又兼济天下。在两国元首庆祝建交40周年互致贺信时,习近平主席指出,中美建交40年来,两国关系历经风雨,取得了历史性发展,为两国人民带来了巨大利益,也为世界和平、稳定、繁荣作出了重要贡献。历史充分证明,合作是双方最好的选择。美方也表示,多年来,中美关系取得了巨大发展。

 

The relations between China and the United States are among the most important bilateral relationships in the world. To safeguard and stabilize China-US relations concerns the welfare of the Chinese and American people and people in the world. It also bears on peace, stability and development in the world. President Xi Jinping pointed out, back in 2014, that past and current experiences show that China and the US stand to gain from cooperation and lose from confrontation. China and the US working together can make great things happen for the two countries and the world at large, while China and the US stuck in confrontation spells disaster for the two countries and beyond. It is important for both China and the US to stand high and look far, and work together to increase cooperation. Commitment to cooperation and non-confrontation between China and the US brings benefit to both countries and to all in the global community. In the exchange of congratulatory messages between the two Presidents on the 40th anniversary of China-US diplomatic ties, President Xi Jinping pointed out that over the past four decades, the bilateral relations have made historic progress despite twists and turns, delivering tremendous benefits to their peoples and contributing significantly to world peace, stability, and prosperity. History has made it abundantly clear that there is no better option than cooperation for both countries. The US side also recognized the enormous progress in US-China relations achieved over the decades.

 

世界正经历百年未有之大变局,和平与发展仍然是时代主题。维护世界和平、促进共同发展是中美两国的共同责任和使命,需要双方正确看待和妥善处理彼此关系,形成和而不同的相处之道。正是基于这一点,中美双方同意共同构建不冲突不对抗、相互尊重、合作共赢的新型大国关系,本届美国政府执政后中美双方同意共同推动以协调、合作、稳定为基调的中美关系。

 

The world is now going through major changes unseen in a century, and peace and development remain the overriding theme of the times. To uphold world peace and promote development for all is the shared mission and responsibility for China and the US. What it requires is for the two countries to view and handle their relationship in a proper manner and seek a way of peaceful co-existence despite differences. It was based on such a recognition that China and the US agreed to work together toward a new model of major-country relations featuring non-conflict, non-confrontation, mutual respect and win-win cooperation. It was also based on this recognition that the two sides, after the current US Administration took office, agreed to jointly promote a China-US relationship based on coordination, cooperation and stability.

 

但是,近一个时期以来,美国一些政客接连抛出种种谬论,恶毒攻击中国共产党和中国政治制度,蓄意歪曲并全盘否定近50年来中美关系的历史。他们试图用谎言蒙蔽美国人民,欺骗国际舆论。国际社会有目共睹,是美执政当局单方面挑起事端,采取一系列干涉中国内政、损害中方利益、严重破坏中美关系的错误言行,导致两国关系出现建交以来异常复杂严峻的局面。对此,中国政府已经全面阐明了中方立场,予以坚决回应,坚定不移维护国家主权安全发展利益,坚定不移维护和稳定中美关系。

 

Nonetheless, for some time, some politicians in the US have kept making false statements and groundless remarks against China. They have viciously attacked the Communist Party of China (CPC) and China’s political system. They have deliberately distorted and even attempted to write off the history of China-US relations for the past nearly 50 years. What they are up to is to stitch up lies to blind the American people and fool international public opinion. For the international community, it is clear that the US Administration has chosen unilaterally to be provocative. The erroneous words and moves by the US Administration constituted interference in China’s internal affairs. They undermined China’s interests and seriously disrupted China-US relations, putting the relationship in a most complex and grave situation since the establishment of diplomatic ties. In response to the US move, the Chinese Government has expounded its position in a comprehensive manner and reacted resolutely to firmly defend China’s sovereignty, security and development interests and firmly safeguard and stabilize China-US relations.

 

中美关系的健康稳定发展事关中美两国和世界的当下与未来,符合中美两国人民和世界各国人民的共同愿望。绝不能任由美国一小撮政客出于一己私利,把中美关系推到十分危险的境地。

 

A sound and stable China-US relationship affects the well-being of China, the US and the world at large, both now and in the future. It is what the people of both countries and the wider world expect to see. We must never allow a handful of self-serving US politicians to push the relationship into serious jeopardy.

 

I

 

中美两国人民有着友好交往的历史,曾经在世界反法西斯战争中并肩战斗。1949年,在中国共产党领导下,中国人民获得了解放,建立了中华人民共和国。毛泽东主席庄严宣告,中国人民从此站起来了。

 

The Chinese and American people have a long history of friendly exchanges. They fought shoulder to shoulder during the World Anti-Fascist War. In 1949, under the leadership of the CPC, the Chinese people gained liberation and founded the People’s Republic of China. Chairman Mao Zedong solemnly declared that the Chinese people had since stood up.

 

新中国成立后,中国在平等互利、相互尊重主权和领土完整的基础上同一批又一批国家建立了外交关系。然而,由于美方对中华人民共和国采取拒绝承认的错误政策,致使中美陷入长期相互隔绝、彼此敌对状态。历史总是要前进,时代总是要进步,这是不可阻挡的历史潮流。中美两国人民对彼此始终怀有友好的感情,双方寻求友好交往和互利合作的努力从未停息。1970年,毛泽东主席在会见美国记者斯诺时表示:“中美两国总要建交的。中国和美国难道就一百年不建交啊?”尼克松总统在1970年也指出:“我们改善同北京的实际上的关系,这肯定是对我们有益的,同时也有利于亚洲和世界的和平与稳定”。毛泽东主席、周恩来总理高瞻远瞩,亲自决策并推动实施了中美“乒乓外交”,基辛格博士1971年7月秘密访华,中美实现关系正常化渐成大势所趋。

 

After the founding of New China, diplomatic relations were established between China and countries after countries on the basis of equality and mutual benefit, and mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity. However, the wrong US policy not to recognize the People’s Republic of China kept the two countries long in mutual estrangement and hostility. Yet, the trend of progress of history and the advancement of the times could not be stopped. The Chinese and American people had always cherished friendly sentiments toward each other, and had never stopped making efforts to seek friendly exchanges and cooperation for mutual benefit. In 1970, in his meeting with the US journalist Edgar Snow, Chairman Mao Zedong said, “China and the US will establish diplomatic relations anyway. How can the two countries stay out of diplomatic ties for 100 years?” President Nixon observed in the same year that “it is certainly in our interest, and in the interest of peace and stability in Asia and the world, that we take what steps we can toward improved practical relations with Peking”. Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai demonstrated strategic insight with their decision and personal commitment to launch the “ping-pong diplomacy”, and Dr. Henry Kissinger made a secret visit to China in July 1971. The momentum was built toward normalization of China-US relations.

 

1972年2月,应周恩来总理邀请,尼克松总统对中国进行了“破冰之旅”,实现了“跨越太平洋的握手”。尼克松总统在人民大会堂欢迎宴会致词时表示,我是为了美国人民的利益而来。你们深信你们的制度,我们同样深信我们的制度。我们在这里见面,并不是由于我们有共同的信仰,而是由于我们有共同的利益和共同的希望。我们没有理由要成为敌人。现在是我们两国人民攀登伟大境界的高峰,缔造新的、更美好世界的时候了。中国领导人强调,中美双方要弄清楚彼此之间的分歧,努力寻找共同点,使我们两国的关系有一个新的开始。

 

In February 1972, President Nixon paid an ice-breaking visit to China at the invitation of Premier Zhou Enlai, when they had a “handshake that crossed the vast Pacific Ocean”. Addressing the welcoming banquet at the Great Hall of the People, President Nixon said that he had come for US interests. “You believe deeply in your system, and we believe just as deeply in our system. It is not our common beliefs that have brought us together here, but our common interests and our common hopes.” He added, “There is no reason for us to be enemies.” “This is the day for our two peoples to rise to the heights of greatness which can build a new and a better world.” Chinese leaders emphasized that China and the US needed to be clear-minded about their differences and work hard to find common ground in order for the relationship to make a new start.

 

中美双方在尼克松总统访华期间发表“上海公报”,在肯定两国共同点的同时,如实列出双方存在的分歧,明确指出中美两国的社会制度和外交政策有着本质的区别,同意各国不论社会制度如何,都应根据尊重各国主权和领土完整、不侵犯别国、不干涉别国内政、平等互利、和平共处的原则来处理国与国之间的关系。双方还声明,中美关系走向正常化是符合所有国家利益的。这一历史性文件载明了中美双方愿意秉持相互尊重、平等相待、求同存异原则处理两国关系的重要共识。“上海公报”充分体现了联合国宪章宗旨和原则的精神,符合国际关系基本准则。

 

The Shanghai Communiqué, issued during President Nixon’s visit, acknowledged the common ground between the two sides while spelling out the differences as they stood. It pointed out clearly that “there are essential differences between China and the United States in their social systems and foreign policies. Yet, the two sides agreed that countries, regardless of their social systems, should conduct their relations on the principles of respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all states, non-aggression against other states, non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence”. The two sides stated that progress toward normalizing China-US relations served the interest of all countries. This historic document kept explicit account of the important common understanding that the two sides were ready to approach their relations on the principles of mutual respect, equality and seeking common ground while shelving differences. The Shanghai Communiqué fully reflected the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and conformed to the basic norms of international relations.

 

从基辛格秘密访华到尼克松总统正式访华,中美关系迈出了走向正常化的重要一步。卡特政府接受中方提出的“断交、撤军、废约”三原则,并在此基础上与中方就妥善处理台湾问题达成一致。中美双方1978年12月16日发表的“建交公报”申明,美方承认中华人民共和国政府是中国唯一合法政府,在此范围内美国人民同台湾人民保持文化、商务和其他非官方关系。1979年1月1日,中美两国建交。

 

From Dr. Kissinger’s secret trip to President Nixon’s official visit, an important step was taken toward normalization of China-US relations. That was followed by the Carter Administration’s acceptance of the three principles proposed by China, namely the US must sever “diplomatic relations” and abrogate its “mutual defense treaty” with Taiwan and US forces must withdraw from Taiwan. On such basis, the US reached agreement with China on the proper handling of the Taiwan question. In the Joint Communiqué issued on 16 December 1978 on the establishment of diplomatic ties, the US recognized the Government of the People’s Republic of China as the sole legal government of China. The US side went on to state that within that context, the people of the US would maintain cultural, commercial and other unofficial relations with the people of Taiwan. On 1 January 1979, China and the US entered into diplomatic relations.

 

在中美关系“破冰”、正常化直至建交的过程中,毛泽东、周恩来、邓小平和尼克松、卡特、基辛格等中美老一辈领导人和政治家从两国人民根本利益出发,以非凡的战略眼光和卓越的政治勇气,超越意识形态和社会制度的差异,作出了历史性的政治决断。“上海公报”、“建交公报”以及1982年着重解决美国售台武器这一历史遗留问题的“八·一七”公报,确立了一个中国原则,确认了相互尊重、平等相待、求同存异等处理两国关系的准则,构成了中美关系的政治基础。

 

From the ice-breaking visit to the normalization of relations and to the establishment of diplomatic ties, leaders and statesmen of the elder generation in China and the US, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping on the Chinese side, and Richard Nixon, Jimmy Carter and Henry Kissinger on the American side, acted in the fundamental interests of the two peoples and made the political decision of historic significance with their exceptional strategic vision and political courage to rise above the differences in ideology and social systems. The Shanghai Communiqué, the Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, and the 1982 Joint Communiqué that focused on addressing the question of US arms sales to Taiwan, something left over from history, identified the One China principle and established the principles of mutual respect, equality and seeking common ground while putting aside differences as the guiding principles in conducting China-US relations. They form the political foundation of China-US relations.

 

历史事实是,中国始终坚持中国共产党领导,一直坚定不移走社会主义道路,从中美关系正常化进程开始,两国关系就是建立在双方承认并尊重彼此社会制度不同这一共识基础之上。当前,美方一些政客声称美国当初与中国接触和建交是为了改变中国,美国对华接触政策已全面失败,污蔑中国多年来欺骗美国,渲染意识形态对立,竭力鼓吹冷战思维。这是对几十年来中美两国各界人士为推动中美关系发展所作巨大努力和贡献的莫大亵渎。然而,事实就是事实,历史岂容篡改。我们要以对历史和人民负责的态度,激浊扬清,还历史以本来面目,共同维护好中美关系的基础,维护好中美两国人民的友好感情,否则历史和人民决不会答应。

 

The fact of history is, China has always upheld the leadership of the CPC and steadfastly followed the path of socialism. From the outset of the normalization process, China-US relations have always been based on the common understanding that both sides recognize and respect each other’s different social system. Some US politicians claim that in engaging and entering into diplomatic relations with China, the original US purpose was to change China, and that US policy of engagement with China has become a total failure. They portray China as having tried over all these years to fool and deceive the US. Their allegations are fanfare for ideological confrontation and the Cold War mentality. They are nothing short of discredit to the enormous efforts and contributions made throughout past decades by people across the two societies to promote the development of China-US relations. Yet, fact is fact, and history cannot be tampered with. We need to take an attitude that is responsible to history and to the people. We need to stand up for what is right and set the record straight. We need to jointly safeguard the foundation of China-US relations and protect the friendship between the Chinese and American people. Any attempt otherwise will fail the test of history and people’s expectation.

 

II

 

中美建交后,在双方共同努力下,两国关系历经风雨和坎坷,取得了历史性发展,不仅给两国人民带来了巨大利益,也有力促进了世界的和平、稳定、发展。中美合作从来都是互利共赢的,41年来两国和世界各国都是中美关系发展的受益者。

 

After establishment of diplomatic ties, and thanks to concerted efforts on both sides, China-US relations have made historic progress despite ups and downs along the way. It has brought enormous benefits to the two peoples and contributed significantly to world peace, stability and prosperity. Cooperation between China and the US has always been conducted for mutual benefit. For the past 41 years, China and the US, and for that matter all countries in the world, have benefited from the development of China-US relations.

 

改革开放以来,在中国共产党的领导下,中国人民凭着自己的勤劳和智慧,取得了巨大发展成就。在此过程中,中国的快速发展得益于同世界各国的交流合作,也为包括美国在内世界各国提供了持续的增长动力和重要机遇。中美贸易额较建交之初增长了200多倍,双向投资从几乎为零到近2400亿美元。中国物美价廉的商品给美国消费者带来了实惠,中国广阔的市场和良好的营商环境为美国企业提供了丰厚利润。

 

Since reform and opening-up started, the hardworking and talented Chinese people have, under the leadership of the CPC, achieved phenomenal progress. China’s rapid development over the decades, which benefited from interactions and cooperation with countries around the world, has in turn provided the US and other countries with sustained growth impetus and important opportunities. The volume of trade between China and the US has increased more than 200 times over the early days of diplomatic ties, and two-way investment has taken off from scratch to reach nearly US$240 billion. Made-in-China goods, nice and inexpensive, are best buys for American consumers. China’s vast market and sound business environment offer a source of tremendous profits for US firms.

 

中美人员往来从每年几千人次增长到超过500万人次,中国在美留学生总数超过40万人。两国建立了50对友好省州关系和227对姐妹城市。从2005年卡特里娜飓风灾害到2008年汶川重大地震灾害,中美两国人民感同身受,纷纷向对方施以援手。新冠肺炎疫情发生后,中美两国各界相互驰援。中国有关省市、企业和机构向美方受疫情影响的州市、社区和民众捐赠口罩、防护服等医用设备,并向美方供应了大批抗疫物资。

 

The exchange of visits between the Chinese and American people jumped from several thousand to over five million per year. More than 400,000 Chinese students are studying in the US. Fifty pairs of sister provinces/states and 227 pairs of sister cities have been forged between the two sides. In the face of natural disasters from Hurricane Katrina in 2005 to the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, our two peoples felt for each other and lent each other a helping hand. When COVID-19 struck, Chinese and Americans from all walks of life rushed to each other’s assistance. Chinese provinces, cities, enterprises and institutions have donated masks, protective gowns and other medical supplies to affected populations, communities, cities and states in the US. They have also provided the US with large quantities of virus containment materials.

 

中美两国同世界各国一道,致力于维护世界和平、安全与发展。双方在朝鲜半岛、阿富汗、中东等地区热点问题上保持了密切沟通协调,与相关国家一道推动有关问题的政治解决进程。中美在反恐、防扩散、禁毒、疾病防控、减贫、维和、打击芬太尼滥用走私活动等领域开展了富有成效的合作。2001年,美国遭受“9·11”恐怖袭击后,中国政府和人民即向美国政府和人民表示慰问,中美在反恐和防扩散领域加强协调与合作。同时,中方一直强调在反恐问题上不能采取双重或多重标准。面对1997年亚洲金融危机和2008年国际金融危机,中美和各国合力应对,为维护国际金融稳定、促进世界经济复苏作出了重要贡献。在中美等国携手推动下,气候变化《巴黎协定》得以签署,为促进全球气候变化合作提供重要动力。中美双方还在东帝汶开展粮食安全三方合作,联合培训阿富汗外交官,在非洲联手抗击埃博拉疫情,成为两国协助第三国加强能力建设的范例。

 

China and the US, together with the rest of the world, have been committed to upholding world peace, security and development. The two countries have had close communication and coordination on regional hot-spots such as the Korean Peninsula, Afghanistan and the Middle East, and have worked with relevant countries to advance the political settlement of these issues. China and the US have had productive cooperation in counter-terrorism, non-proliferation, narcotics control, disease prevention and containment, poverty alleviation, peacekeeping, and the fight against the abuse and trafficking of fentanyl, among others. In 2001, when the US was hit by the September 11 terrorist attack, the Chinese Government and people immediately expressed their sympathies to the American Government and people, and the two countries strengthened coordination and cooperation on counter-terrorism and non-proliferation. In the meantime, China has called for rejecting double standards or even multiple standards in countering terrorism. During the 1997 Asian financial crisis and the 2008 global financial crisis, China and the US worked with the rest of the world and made significant contributions to safeguarding international financial stability and kick-starting global recovery. The joint efforts of China, the US and other countries have led to the signing of the Paris Agreement, providing a strong impetus for global cooperation on climate change. The two countries have also carried out trilateral cooperation on food security in Timor-Leste, conducted joint training for Afghan diplomats and helped Africa to fight Ebola, setting a prime example of them working together to facilitate capacity-building in a third country.

 

当然,41年来,中美关系发展并非一帆风顺,中美之间也曾经历过风风雨雨和重大波折,但两国都能够从历史和大局出发,管控矛盾和分歧,妥善处理敏感问题,维护了中美关系总体稳定发展的势头。事实证明,中美之间没有过不去的坎,关键在于要有相互尊重、平等相待、求同存异的诚意,在于要有对历史和人民负责的担当。

 

That said, the past 41 years has not all been smooth sailing for China-US relations. There have been ups and downs and even major setbacks on the way. However, the two countries have always approached their relationship from a historical perspective and with the bigger picture in mind. They have managed differences and disagreements, properly handled sensitive issues, and safeguarded the momentum of steady growth in China-US relations. What has happened shows that no obstacle is insurmountable for China and the US. The key lies in a true commitment to mutual respect, equality and seeking common ground while shelving differences. It lies in the courage to take up the responsibility for history and the people.

 

回顾41年的中美关系,我们可以从中得到许多宝贵的历史启迪:一是要始终从中美两国人民和世界各国人民共同利益、全人类前途命运出发考虑和处理两国关系,为中美两国好,也为世界各国好。二是要始终坚持中美关系的正确方向,牢牢把握两国共同利益远大于分歧。三是要始终建设性管控分歧,恪守中美三个联合公报原则和精神,尊重彼此核心利益和重大关切。四是要始终致力于扩大中美合作,遵循合作共赢原则,为两国和世界带来更多福祉。这些有益经验过去管用,现在管用,今后也管用。

 

The history of China-US relations over the past 41 years teaches a lot. First, China and the US must always approach and handle their relations by keeping in mind the common interests of the two countries and all countries in the world, as well as the future of all humanity. Such an approach will benefit not only the two countries but countries around the world. Second, China and the US must always keep to the right direction in the relationship, and bear firmly in mind that their common interests far outweigh their differences. Third, China and the US must always manage their differences in a constructive manner, abide by the principles and spirit of the three Joint Communiqués, and respect each other’s core interests and major concerns. Fourth, China and the US must always work to expand cooperation in a win-win spirit, and bring greater benefits to the two countries and the world at large. These valuable experiences have proved effective in the past. They remain effective now and will continue to be effective in the future.

资源下载抱歉,此资源仅限VIP下载,请先
虚拟货币,支付后概不退回。
weinxin
英文巴士公众号
扫一扫,资讯早。
  • 版权声明 本文源自 新华网 整理 发表于 2020年8月7日00:04:58