双语:习近平主席在解决“两不愁三保障”突出问题座谈会上的讲话

摘要

Full Text: Speech by President Xi at a Symposium on Resolving Prominent Problems in Poverty Alleviation

习近平在解决“两不愁三保障”突出问题座谈会上讲话

在解决“两不愁三保障”突出问题座谈会上的讲话

Speech at a Symposium on Resolving Prominent Problems in Poverty Alleviation

 

习近平

Xi Jinping

 

2019年4月16日

16 April 2019

 

今天,我们召开一个脱贫攻坚跨省区座谈会。这是党的十八大以来我第六次主持召开这样的会议。之前,我先后在延安、贵阳、银川、太原、成都主持召开过这样的座谈会,收到了明显成效。召开这次座谈会,主要是考虑距离完成脱贫攻坚目标任务只剩下不到两年时间,2019年尤为关键。今年工作做到位了,明年脱贫攻坚全面收官就能有一个更为坚实的基础。

 

Today, we are holding an interprovincial symposium on the fight against poverty. This is the sixth such meeting that I have presided over since the 18th National Congress of the CPC in 2012. Before this, I presided over symposiums on the same subject in Yan’an, Guiyang, Yinchuan, Taiyuan, and Chengdu, and our fight against poverty has obtained remarkable results. This symposium is being held in consideration of the fact that we have less than two years left to reach our poverty alleviation objectives, with the year 2019 being particularly crucial. If we perform our tasks effectively this year, we will be able to lay solid foundations for bringing our poverty alleviation initiatives to a satisfactory conclusion next year.

 

昨天中午一下飞机,我先前往石柱土家族自治县,考察了中益乡小学,看望了华溪村的贫困户和老党员,与村民代表、基层干部、扶贫干部、乡村医生进行了座谈,实地了解了重庆脱贫攻坚进展和解决“两不愁三保障”突出问题情况,对重庆的脱贫攻坚工作有了些直观的感受。对重庆的脱贫工作,我心里是托底的。这次会议的任务是,分析当前脱贫攻坚形势,研究解决“两不愁三保障”存在的突出问题。参加座谈会的有广西、重庆、四川、贵州、云南、陕西、甘肃、新疆8个省区市党委书记,重庆市的县乡村基层代表,以及中央有关部门主要负责同志。

 

After getting off the plane at noon yesterday, I first went to Shizhu Tujia Autonomous County where I visited Zhongyi Township Primary School as well as poor households and veteran CPC members in Huaxi Village. In the process, I had discussions with village representatives, local officials, poverty alleviation officials, and rural doctors. Through these discussions, I gained an up-close and personal understanding of the progress of poverty alleviation work in Chongqing and efforts that have been made to resolve the prominent problems in assuring the rural poor population that their food and clothing needs will be met and guaranteeing that they have access to compulsory education, basic medical services, and safe housing (referred to below as the “two assurances and three guarantees”), and I now feel at ease about the state of poverty alleviation in Chongqing. The tasks of this meeting are to analyze the current state of poverty alleviation efforts and to study and resolve outstanding problems relating to the “two assurances and three guarantees.” Attending the symposium are provincial-level Party committee secretaries from Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, and Xinjiang, local representatives of counties, townships, and villages within Chongqing, and officials of relevant central government departments.

 

刚才,大家介绍了情况,分析了问题,提出了意见和建议,讲得都很好。下面,我讲几点意见。

 

Those of you who have spoken just now have presented situations in your respective places, analyzed problems, and put forward ideas and proposals. This is very good. I would now like to add a few suggestions of my own.

 

一、准确把握脱贫攻坚形势

I. We must have an accurate grasp of the state of poverty alleviation efforts.

 

党的十八大以来,党中央把脱贫攻坚作为全面建成小康社会的底线任务和标志性指标,作出一系列重大部署。党的十九大后,党中央把打好精准脱贫攻坚战作为全面建成小康社会的三大攻坚战之一。这些年,脱贫攻坚力度之大、规模之广、影响之深前所未有,进展符合预期。

 

Since the 18th National Congress, the CPC Central Committee has made eradicating poverty the basic mission and symbolic benchmark of our efforts to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and put forward a series of major plans in this regard. After the 19th National Congress in 2017, the Central Committee designated eliminating poverty in a targeted manner as one of the three critical battles for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. In recent years, our poverty eradication efforts have reached unprecedented levels in terms of their intensity, scale, and impact, and we have made progress in line with anticipated targets.

 

2015年11月,在中央召开的扶贫开发工作会议上,我们明确,到2020年,要“确保我国现行标准下农村贫困人口实现脱贫,贫困县全部摘帽,解决区域性整体贫困”。我在会上提出脱贫攻坚要重点解决“扶持谁”、“谁来扶”、“怎么扶”、“如何退”4个问题。目前看,这些问题得到比较好的解决。

 

In November 2015, at the Central Conference on Poverty Alleviation and Development, we made it clear that by 2020, we must “ensure that all rural residents falling below China’s current poverty line are lifted out of poverty, that all poor counties leave poverty behind, and that regional poverty is eliminated on the whole.” At that meeting, I said that poverty alleviation should focus on four issues – who exactly needs help, who should implement poverty alleviation initiatives, how poverty alleviation should be carried out, and what standards and procedures should be adopted for exiting poverty. As it stands, it seems that these issues have been resolved quite effectively.

 

为解决好“扶持谁”问题,我们坚持精准扶贫、精准脱贫,逐村逐户开展贫困识别,对识别出的贫困村、贫困户建档立卡,通过“回头看”和甄别调整,不断提高识别准确率。

 

To identify who exactly needs help, we have remained committed to alleviating and eradicating poverty in a targeted manner. We have carried out poverty screening at the level of individual villages and individual households, and registered cases of poverty identified through this process. We have also consistently made screening more accurate by adjusting our methods and criteria and by conducting follow-up examinations.

 

为解决好“谁来扶”问题,全国累计选派300多万县级以上机关、国有企事业单位干部参加驻村帮扶,目前在岗的第一书记20.6万人、驻村干部70万人,加上197.4万乡镇扶贫干部和数百万村干部,一线扶贫力量明显加强,打通了精准扶贫“最后一公里”。

 

To identify who should implement poverty alleviation initiatives, we have selected more than three million officials from government departments at or above the county level and from state-owned enterprises and government-affiliated institutions to serve as village-stationed providers of support. Currently, there are 206,000 first secretaries of CPC village committees and 700,000 village-stationed officials, in addition to 1,974,000 town-level poverty alleviation officials and millions of village officials. We have thus significantly bolstered our forces on the front lines of poverty alleviation, and ensured that our efforts in this regard overcome final key hurdles.

 

为解决好“怎么扶”问题,我们提出要实施“五个一批”工程,即发展生产脱贫一批、易地搬迁脱贫一批、生态补偿脱贫一批、发展教育脱贫一批、社会保障兜底一批,还有就业扶贫、健康扶贫、资产收益扶贫等,总的就是因地因人制宜,缺什么就补什么,能干什么就干什么,扶到点上扶到根上。

 

To identify how poverty alleviation should be carried out, we have put forward five key measures to lift people out of poverty: some by increasing production; some through relocation; some through ecological compensation; some through education; and some by providing allowances to assist them in meeting their basic needs. We have also alleviated poverty by boosting employment, improving medical services, and helping people earn returns on assets, etc. Overall, we have tailored initiatives to the needs of different localities and individuals, providing people with what they are missing and allowing them to do what they are capable of doing, thus alleviating poverty by getting to the root of the problem.

 

为解决好“如何退”问题,我当时提出4句话,即:设定时间表、留出缓冲期、实行严格评估、实行逐户销号。我们明确贫困县、贫困村、贫困人口退出标准和程序,指导各地科学合理制定脱贫滚动规划和年度计划,对拟退出的贫困县组织第三方进行严格评估,有关政策保持稳定。从各方面反映的情况看,已经宣布摘帽的县成效是实打实的。总的看,脱贫攻坚成效是明显的。

 

To identify standards and procedures for exiting poverty, I mentioned four points at the meeting in 2015: setting a timetable, giving a grace period, evaluating the results of our work against strict criteria, and identifying exits from poverty on a per-household basis. We have clearly defined the standards and procedures for poor counties, villages, and people to exit poverty, guided localities in rationally formulating rolling programs and annual plans for poverty alleviation, and organized strict third-party assessments of poor counties that are prepared to exit poverty, with relevant policies remaining stable. According to feedback from various sources, concrete results have been secured in counties that have declared their exit from poverty. Generally speaking, we have achieved clear results in our fight against poverty.

 

一是脱贫摘帽有序推进。现行标准下农村贫困人口从2012年的9899万人减少到2018年的1660万人,累计减少8239万人,连续6年每年减贫规模都在1000万人以上,贫困发生率由10.2%降至1.7%,改变了以往新标准实施后减贫人数逐年递减的趋势,打破了前两轮扶贫每当贫困人口减到3000万左右就减不动的瓶颈。全国832个贫困县,153个已宣布摘帽,284个正在进行摘帽评估,改变了贫困县越扶越多的局面。今年再完成减贫1000万人以上、摘帽330个县的任务,到2020年初预计全国只剩下600万左右贫困人口和60多个贫困县。

 

First, we have promoted exits from poverty in an orderly manner. The number of rural residents living below the current poverty line decreased from 98.99 million in 2012 to 16.6 million in 2018, a total reduction of 82.39 million. An average of more than ten million people have been lifted out of poverty each year for six years running, and poverty rate has dropped from 10.2% to 1.7%. We have changed the former trend toward a year-on-year decrease in the number of people being lifted out of poverty after adopting new standards for exiting poverty, and broken the bottleneck that existed in the past two rounds of poverty alleviation in which we were unable to further reduce the poor population when it dropped to about 30 million. Among the country’s 832 poor counties, 153 have declared that they have left poverty behind, and 284 are undergoing relevant evaluation. The number of poor counties, which used to increase despite our poverty alleviation efforts, is now decreasing. It is estimated that after fulfilling this year’s task of lifting ten million people and 330 counties out of poverty, there will be only six million poor people and 60-plus poor counties across the country at the beginning of 2020.

 

二是“两不愁”总体实现。贫困群众不愁吃、不愁穿应该说普遍做到了,困扰群众的行路难、吃水难、用电难、通讯难、上学难、就医难、住危房等问题在大部分地区得到了较好解决。

 

Second, we have achieved overall success with regard to the “two assurances.” We have ensured that essentially all of our poor citizens have adequate food and clothing, and that people in most areas have access to roads, drinking water, electricity, communication, education, medical services, and safe housing.

 

三是易地扶贫搬迁建设任务即将完成。“十三五”期间,我们计划对“一方水土养活不了一方人”的地方易地搬迁1000万左右建档立卡贫困人口,到去年底已经完成870万贫困人口的搬迁建设任务,大部分搬迁人口脱了贫,今年剩余建设任务将全面完成。

 

Third, construction tasks in alleviating poverty through relocation are nearing completion. During the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016-2020), we planned to relocate about ten million people registered as living in poverty from inhospitable areas. By the end of last year, construction tasks related to the relocation of 8.7 million people had been completed, and most relocated people have been lifted out of poverty. We expect that the remaining construction tasks will be fully completed this year.

 

四是党在农村的执政基础更加巩固。一大批干部在脱贫攻坚战中得到锤炼,农村基层党组织凝聚力和战斗力明显增强,农村基层治理能力和管理水平明显提高,党群干群关系不断改善。

 

Fourth, the CPC’s governing foundations in rural areas have been further consolidated. A large number of officials have been tempered in the fight against poverty, local CPC organizations in rural areas have seen their cohesiveness and effectiveness significantly enhanced, rural governance and management capacity at the local level has improved markedly, and the relationship between the Party and the public and between officials and the public has continued to improve.

 

我们在扶贫脱贫方面取得的成就和经验,为全球减贫事业贡献了中国智慧和中国方案,彰显了中国共产党领导和我国社会主义制度的政治优势,赢得了国际社会高度评价,很多国家和国际组织表示希望分享中国减贫经验。在发展中国家中,只有中国实现了快速发展和大规模减贫同步,贫困人口共享改革发展成果,这是一个了不起的人间奇迹。

 

The success and experience that we have gained in poverty alleviation have contributed Chinese wisdom and solutions to the cause of global poverty reduction, demonstrating the political strength of the CPC’s leadership and China’s socialist system and winning praise from the international community. Many countries and international organizations have expressed their hope to benefit from China’s experience in poverty reduction. China is the only developing country that has simultaneously brought about rapid development and large-scale poverty reduction and enabled the poor population to share the fruits of reform and development. This is a miraculous achievement.

 

在肯定成绩的同时,我们也要清醒认识全面打赢脱贫攻坚战面临的困难和问题。困难和问题主要有3类。

 

While acknowledging our achievements, we must also be clearly aware of the difficulties and problems that we face as we push toward an overall victory in the fight against poverty. These fall into three main categories.

 

第一类是直接影响脱贫攻坚目标任务实现的问题。比如,脱贫标准把握不精准,有的降低标准,没实现“两不愁三保障”就宣布脱贫,更多是拔高标准,像易地搬迁面积超标准、看病不花钱、上什么学都免费等,脱离国情不可持续。再比如,深度贫困地区脱贫任务依然艰巨,“三区三州”仍有172万建档立卡贫困人口,占全国现有贫困人口的12.5%,贫困发生率8.2%。全国还有98个县贫困发生率在10%以上,建档立卡贫困人口359.6万人,占全国的26%,贫困发生率比全国高出13.3个百分点,是难中之难、坚中之坚。还比如,“三保障”工作不扎实,义务教育、基本医疗、住房安全和饮水安全等方面还存在薄弱环节。现在,全国贫困人口中14%需要解决“三保障”问题。还有,脱贫摘帽后工作放松,有的摘帽县出现撤摊子、甩包袱、歇歇脚的情况,有的摘帽县不是把精力物力用在巩固成果上,而是庆功搞铺张浪费。

 

The first includes problems that directly impact our efforts to realize our objectives in fighting poverty. For example, there are regions failing to accurately apply poverty alleviation standards. Some have lowered standards and claimed that they have exited poverty without seeing that the “two assurances and three guarantees” are fully in place. Even more have raised standards by pursuing free medical services, free education, or relocation with excessive living space. Such actions are not sustainable since they give no consideration to our national conditions. Another problem is that deeply impoverished areas are still facing daunting poverty alleviation tasks. There are still 1.72 million people registered as living in poverty in the “three regions” (Tibet, the four prefectures of Hotan, Aksu, Kashgar, and Kizilsu in southern Xinjiang, and the ethnic Tibetan areas in Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu, and Qinghai) and the “three prefectures” (Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan, Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan, and Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu). With a poverty rate of 8.2%, these areas make up 12.5% of the country’s poor population. There are still 98 counties across the country where the poverty rate is above 10%. In these counties, there are 3.596 million people registered as living in poverty, accounting for 26% of the country’s poor population, and the poverty rate is 13.3 percentage points higher than the national rate. These areas represent the most stubborn challenge in our fight against poverty. Furthermore, we have yet to secure the “three guarantees,” since weak links still exist in guaranteeing access to compulsory education, basic medical services, safe housing, and safe drinking water. At present, issues covered in the “three guarantees” have yet to be resolved for 14% of the country’s poor population. Finally, we have seen efforts slacken after exits from poverty, with some counties abandoning poverty alleviation projects, shirking their responsibilities, or choosing to take a break, while others have wasted energy and resources on celebrations instead of building on their achievements.

 

第二类是工作中需要进一步改进的问题。比如,脱贫攻坚责任不落实、政策不落实、工作不落实问题,形式主义、官僚主义问题,数字脱贫、虚假脱贫问题,以及贪占挪用扶贫资金等问题。

 

The second includes further improvements that need to be made to our work. For example, numerous problems have emerged in poverty alleviation such as failure to assume responsibilities, implement policies, and carry out initiatives, going through formalities for formality sake and bureaucratic practices, deception and manipulation of figures, and misappropriation of poverty alleviation funds.

 

第三类是需要长期逐步解决的问题。比如,产业发展基础薄弱,易地扶贫搬迁后续帮扶措施乏力,稳定脱贫长效机制没有建立,贫困群众内生动力不足、陈规陋习难改等。对这些问题,要分清轻重缓急、妥善解决,必须解决且有能力解决的要抓紧解决,不能影响脱贫攻坚目标任务完成;有的问题是长期性的,攻坚期内不能毕其功于一役,但要有总体安排,创造条件分阶段逐步解决。

 

The third includes problems that need to be resolved gradually over the long term. For example, the foundations for industrial development are weak, follow-up assistance measures for poor people that have been relocated are insufficient, and long-term mechanisms for people to steadily make their way out of poverty have yet to be established. Among poor population, there is a lack of endogenous drive as well as outmoded customs and habits are difficult to break away from. We must properly resolve these problems by setting clear priorities. For problems that must and can be resolved, we should work quickly to find solutions so that they do not hinder us from completing our objectives in the fight against poverty. For certain protracted problems that cannot be solved overnight, we should make overall arrangements and lay the groundwork for them to be resolved in a step-by-step manner. 

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