双语:《人类减贫的中国实践》白皮书

    摘要

    Full Text: Poverty Alleviation: China’s Experience and Contribution

    《人类减贫的中国实践》英文版

    人类减贫的中国实践

    Poverty Alleviation: China’s Experience and Contribution

     

    中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

    The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

     

    2021年4月

    April 2021

     

    目录

    Contents

     

    前言

    Preface

     

    一、中国共产党的庄严承诺

    I. The Solemn Commitment of the CPC

     

    二、新时代脱贫攻坚取得全面胜利

    II. Final Victory in the Fight Against Extreme Poverty

     

    三、实施精准扶贫方略

    III. The Strategy of Targeted Poverty Alleviation

     

    四、为人类减贫探索新的路径

    IV. Exploring a New Path of Poverty Alleviation

     

    五、携手共建没有贫困共同发展的人类命运共同体

    V. A Global Community of Shared Future Free from Poverty

     

    结束语

    Conclusion

     

    附录

    Appendix

     

    前言

    Preface

     

    贫困是人类社会的顽疾,是全世界面临的共同挑战。贫困及其伴生的饥饿、疾病、社会冲突等一系列难题,严重阻碍人类对美好生活的追求。消除贫困是人类梦寐以求的理想,人类发展史就是与贫困不懈斗争的历史。

     

    Poverty is a chronic affliction of human society and a common challenge faced by the whole world. Poverty and its associated problems, including hunger, diseases, and social conflicts, are serious impediments to people’s pursuit of a better life, so the eradication of poverty has always been a wish to be fulfilled. The history of humankind is the history of relentless struggle against poverty.

     

    中国是拥有14亿人口、世界上最大的发展中国家,基础差、底子薄,发展不平衡,长期饱受贫困问题困扰。中国的贫困规模之大、贫困分布之广、贫困程度之深世所罕见,贫困治理难度超乎想象。

     

    China is the world’s largest developing country, with a population of 1.4 billion. In addition to its weak foundations and uneven development, the nation had long been plagued by poverty at a scale and a level of severity that has rarely been seen anywhere else in the world. As a result, the challenge of poverty alleviation in China almost defies imagination.

     

    今年是中国共产党成立100周年。100年来,中国共产党团结带领人民,以坚定不移、顽强不屈的信念和意志与贫困作斗争。中共十八大以来,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央领导下,中国组织实施了人类历史上规模空前、力度最大、惠及人口最多的脱贫攻坚战。2021年2月25日,习近平总书记在全国脱贫攻坚总结表彰大会上庄严宣告,脱贫攻坚战取得了全面胜利,中国完成了消除绝对贫困的艰巨任务。

     

    This year marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China (CPC). Over the past century, the Party has united and led the Chinese people in the battle against poverty with unwavering faith and will. Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, the Party Central Committee, with General Secretary Xi Jinping at the core, has fought a decisive battle against poverty that is unprecedented in scale and intensity, and has benefited the largest number of people in human history. At a grand gathering held on February 25, 2021, to mark China’s achievements in poverty alleviation and to honor its model fighters against poverty, General Secretary Xi solemnly declared: Victory in the battle against poverty is complete, and China completed the arduous task of eliminating extreme poverty.

     

    占世界人口近五分之一的中国全面消除绝对贫困,提前10年实现《联合国2030年可持续发展议程》减贫目标,不仅是中华民族发展史上具有里程碑意义的大事件,也是人类减贫史乃至人类发展史上的大事件,为全球减贫事业发展和人类发展进步作出了重大贡献。

     

    China is home to nearly one fifth of the world’s population. Its complete eradication of extreme poverty – the first target of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development – 10 years ahead of schedule, is a milestone in the history of the Chinese nation and the history of humankind, making an important contribution to the cause of global poverty alleviation.

     

    贫穷不是命中注定,贫困并非不可战胜。中国减贫的实践表明,与贫困作斗争,最重要的是勇气、远见、责任和担当。只要有坚定意志和决心并付诸实际行动,就能够向着摆脱贫困、实现共同富裕的美好前景不断迈进。

     

    Poverty is not predestined, nor is it unconquerable. China’s experience in poverty alleviation indicates that courage, vision, sense of responsibility, and the eagerness to take on challenges are the most essential. With strong will and determination, as well as practical action, one can make steady progress towards overcoming poverty and realizing common prosperity.

     

    为记录中国消除绝对贫困的伟大历程,介绍人类减贫的中国探索和实践,分享中国扶贫脱贫的经验做法,特发布本白皮书。

     

    This white paper is being issued to record the course of the Chinese people’s great fight in eliminating extreme poverty, introduce China’s approach, and share its experience and actions in poverty alleviation.

     

    一、中国共产党的庄严承诺

    I. The Solemn Commitment of the CPC

     

    中华民族是历史悠久、勤劳智慧的民族,创造了辉煌灿烂的中华文明。中华民族又是饱经苦难的民族,广大劳动人民长期处于贫困状态。几千年来,中国人民始终为摆脱贫困艰难求索。近代以后,在封建腐朽统治和西方列强侵略下,中国沦为半殖民地半封建社会,亿万民众处于贫困甚至赤贫状态。中国人民始终不屈不挠、奋力抗争,始终梦想实现国家富强、民族复兴,始终梦想过上幸福美好的生活。

     

    The Chinese nation has a long history, diligent and intelligent people and splendid civilization. Over the history of thousands of years, eliminating poverty has been the persistent goal of the Chinese people, who suffered hardships and difficulties frequently. From the middle of the 19th century, foreign aggression and the decadence of the imperial dynasty reduced China to a semi-colonial, semi-feudal society, and hundreds of millions of its people were plunged into poverty or even extreme poverty. But the Chinese people have fought with fortitude to realize their dream – achieving economic prosperity, national rejuvenation, and a happy and better life.

     

    (一)中国共产党领导人民夺取革命胜利,建立新中国,开启了实现国家富强、人民富裕的崭新历程

     

    1. The CPC Led the People to Win Victory in the Revolution, Build the People’s Republic of China (PRC), Opening a New Journey Towards Prosperity

     

    1921年7月,中国共产党诞生。中国产生了共产党,这是开天辟地的大事变。从诞生之日起,中国共产党就把为中国人民谋幸福、为中华民族谋复兴作为初心使命,团结带领人民为创造自己的美好生活进行了长期艰辛奋斗。以毛泽东同志为核心的第一代中央领导集体,把农民翻身解放作为革命的基本问题,领导人民进行土地革命、实行“耕者有其田”,推翻了帝国主义、封建主义和官僚资本主义的反动统治,取得新民主主义革命胜利,建立了新中国,结束了中国人民长期以来遭受压迫与剥削的历史,结束了国家战乱频仍、四分五裂的局面,实现了民族独立和人民解放,为中国摆脱贫穷落后、实现繁荣富强扫清了障碍、创造了根本政治条件。

     

    The founding of the CPC in July 1921 was an epochal event in China’s history. The CPC has taken the happiness of the people and rejuvenation of the nation as its aspiration since its founding, and united and led the people to fight for a better life over the decades. The Party’s first generation of central collective leadership under Mao Zedong regarded the liberation of peasants as the fundamental issue of the revolution, led the people to launch the Agrarian Revolution to realize the goal of “the land to the tiller”, overthrew the rule of imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucrat-capitalism, and won victory in the New Democratic Revolution and established the PRC, bringing an end to sustained oppression, exploitation of the people, frequent wars, and partitioning of the country, and realizing the goals of national independence and people’s liberation. This helped to remove the obstacles to China’s progress, and created the political conditions it needed to eradicate poverty, regain national strength, and realize prosperity for everyone.

     

    1949年10月1日,中华人民共和国成立,中国人民从此站立起来、当家做主,真正成为新国家新社会的主人。面对一穷二白、百业凋敝的困难局面,中国共产党团结带领人民自力更生、艰苦奋斗,发奋图强、重整山河。在全国开展轰轰烈烈的土地改革,延续2000多年的封建土地制度被废除,消除了造成农民贫困的主要制度因素。对农业、手工业和资本主义工商业进行社会主义改造,建立起社会主义基本制度,为从根本上解决贫困问题提供了最基本制度保证。开展大规模社会主义建设,建立独立的、比较完整的工业体系和国民经济体系,大力发展集体经济,大兴农田水利。大办农村教育和合作医疗,探索建立以集体经济为基础、以“五保”制度①和特困群体救济为主体的农村初级社会保障体系。社会主义建设在曲折中向前推进,人民物质生活和文化水平逐步提高,占世界近四分之一人口的中国人民特别是农民的基本生活需求得到初步满足。

     

    The founding of the PRC on October 1, 1949, allowed the Chinese people to stand upright and become the true masters of the country. To change the backward situation starting from scratch, the CPC united and led the people to rely on themselves and strived to build their homeland with strong determination and concerted effort. Land reform was rolled out across the country, abolishing the feudal land system that had endured for over 2,000 years. This removed the major institutional obstacle to eliminating poverty. Socialist transformation was carried out in agriculture, individual craft industries, and capitalist industry and commerce. The establishment of the socialist system provided a basic institutional guarantee for addressing the root causes of poverty. Socialist development was carried out on all fronts, creating an independent and rather complete industrial system and economic system. Efforts were made to develop the collective economy, improve farmland irrigation and water conservation, and develop rural education and cooperative medical services. A preliminary social security system took shape, with the collective economy at the base, and the “five guarantees” [The National Agricultural Development Program (1956-1967) specified that agricultural cooperatives should give proper care to commune members who could not work and had no family to support them, by providing them with proper food, clothing, fuel, and education (for children and teenagers), and by paying their burial expenses.] and relief for people in extreme poverty as the core. The Chinese people – including the farmers – who made up nearly one quarter of the world’s population, saw their basic living needs met. Their living standards and educational level improved. Socialist building during this period pressed ahead amidst successes and setbacks.

     

    (二)改革开放极大促进了中国发展,中国减贫进程加快推进

     

    2. Reform and Opening Up Accelerated Development and Poverty Alleviation in China

     

    1978年12月,中共中央召开十一届三中全会,开启了中国改革开放和社会主义现代化建设新时期。改革开放是中国人民和中华民族发展史上的又一次伟大革命,为中国注入了创新和发展的强大动力。中国经济社会快速发展,中国减贫进程加快推进,贫困人口大幅度减少。

     

    Held in December 1978, the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee ushered in a new chapter of reform and opening up and socialist modernization in China. Reform and opening up has been another great revolution in the history of the Chinese people and Chinese nation, injecting momentum and innovation. The rapid socioeconomic development that ensued gave a vigorous boost to poverty alleviation, and resulted in a sharp decline in the impoverished population.

     

    改革开放初期,面对中国农村贫困人口基数大、贫困发生率高的严峻形势,以邓小平同志为核心的第二代中央领导集体,作出“贫穷不是社会主义,社会主义要消灭贫穷”的重要论断,提出到20世纪末人民生活达到小康水平的目标,制定“三步走”发展战略②,提出“两个大局”的战略构想③,实施一系列农业农村重大改革,从国家层面开展大规模、有计划、有组织的扶贫开发。在农村实施以家庭联产承包为主的生产责任制和统分结合的双层经营体制,理顺了农村最基本的生产关系,调动了农民生产积极性,使农业生产迅速扭转了长期徘徊不前的局面。实施农产品流通体制改革,大力发展乡镇企业,促进了农村整体收入水平提高。成立专门扶贫机构,确定了扶贫标准、重点片区和贫困县,启动实施“三西”④农业建设。通过一系列重大举措,解放了农村生产力,释放了农村活力,推动了农村经济发展,促进了农民收入增加和观念更新,中国扶贫开发进入历史新时期。

     

    In the initial period of reform and opening up, confronted by the grim challenge of a large rural impoverished population base and a high incidence of poverty, the second generation of the central collective leadership headed by Deng Xiaoping issued a declaration that “Poverty is not socialism; socialism means eliminating poverty”. It set the goal of ensuring the people a moderately prosperous life by the end of the 20th century, formulated a three-step strategic plan [The 13th CPC National Congress proposed that a three-step strategic plan for China’s economic development would be laid out after the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee: doubling the 1980 GNP by the end of the 1980s and ensuring that the people would have adequate food and clothing as the first step; doubling the 1990 GNP by the end of the 20th century and ensuring the people a moderately prosperous life as the second step; and increasing the per capita GNP level to that of moderately developed countries, ensuring the people a relatively affluent life, and realizing basic modernization by the middle of the 21st century as the third step.], and articulated the vision of “Two Development Strategies” [In 1988, Deng Xiaoping proposed that “The coastal areas, which comprise a vast region with a population of 200 million, should accelerate their opening to the outside world, and we should help them develop rapidly first; afterwards they can promote the development of the interior. The development of the coastal areas is of overriding importance, and the interior provinces should subordinate themselves to it. When the coastal areas have developed to a certain extent, they will be required to give more help to the interior. Then, the development of the interior provinces will be of overriding importance, and the coastal areas will in turn have to subordinate themselves to it.” (Source: “The Central Leadership Must Have Authority”, Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, Vol III.)]. A swathe of major reforms involving agriculture and rural areas were launched, providing for a massive, planned, well-organized poverty alleviation effort at the national level. The two-tier management system adopted in the rural areas, integrating cooperative management with household contract management, clarified the most basic production relations and inspired the farmers’ enthusiasm, bringing an end to a period of protracted stagnation in agricultural output. Reform of the distribution system for agricultural products was enacted. A major effort was made to develop township enterprises in order to increase overall incomes in rural areas. Special poverty alleviation agencies were set up, poverty standards were set, key impoverished areas and counties were identified, and a special plan for agricultural development in the three western regions [The three western regions were Hexi Region and Dingxi Region in Gansu Province and the mountainous region in southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the most impoverished contiguous areas in the country at the beginning of reform and opening up. In December 1982, China launched poverty alleviation initiatives in these regions to boost their agricultural development. This involved 47 counties, cities and districts (which expanded to 57 in 1992). It was a groundbreaking project in China’s poverty alleviation efforts. It set a precedent in regional poverty alleviation, accumulating rich experience in moving from relief-based poverty alleviation to development-driven poverty alleviation, pooling resources for the development of impoverished areas, for poverty alleviation through relocation, and for combining development-driven poverty alleviation with developing the eco-economy. These successful measures have had a profound influence on massive, planned, well-organized poverty alleviation efforts across the country starting from 1986.] was launched. These measures liberated the rural productive forces, released vitality, boosted economic development, increased farmers’ incomes, and updated their mindsets. Development-driven poverty alleviation opened a new chapter in China.

     

    上世纪90年代初,在农村贫困问题大大缓解的同时,贫困问题由普遍性分布呈现分层、分块、分化等新特征,区域间发展不均衡问题凸显。以江泽民同志为核心的第三代中央领导集体,制定新的“三步走”发展战略⑤,提出全面建设小康社会目标,继续推进大规模扶贫开发国家行动。1994年,中国国务院印发《国家八七扶贫攻坚计划(1994-2000年)》,这是新中国历史上第一个有明确目标、明确对象、明确措施和明确期限的全国扶贫开发工作纲领。“八七计划”提出,从1994年到2000年,力争用7年左右的时间,基本解决当时全国农村8000万贫困人口的温饱问题。1996年,中共中央召开扶贫开发工作会议,进一步明确到20世纪末基本解决贫困人口温饱问题的目标绝不动摇,确定了由救济式扶贫转向开发式扶贫的基本方针。1999年,中共中央召开扶贫开发工作会议,对夺取“八七计划”的胜利作出部署。2001年,中共中央召开扶贫开发工作会议,中国国务院印发《中国农村扶贫开发纲要(2001-2010年)》。中国的扶贫开发在取得重要阶段性进展基础上,继续向纵深推进。按照当时的扶贫标准,2000年底,中国农村贫困人口减少到3209万人,贫困发生率降低到3.5%。

     

    By the early 1990s, there had been visible progress in poverty alleviation in rural areas. In the meantime, poverty had evolved from a widespread problem into one afflicting particular regions, groups and populations, highlighting the problem of uneven regional development. The Party’s third generation of central collective leadership with Comrade Jiang Zemin at the core formulated a three-step development strategic plan [The 15th CPC National Congress held in 1997 drew up a new three-step strategic plan. The first step involved doubling the 2000 GNP, giving the people greater prosperity, and putting in place a relatively complete socialist market economy system, all by the end of 2010. The second step involved working hard for another decade to further develop the economy by the centenary of the CPC, and to improve all relevant systems. The third step involved realizing basic modernization and developing China into a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, and culturally advanced by the time we celebrate the centenary of the PRC in the middle of the 21st century.], put forward the goal of achieving moderate prosperity in all respects, and continued to press ahead with massive national campaigns on poverty alleviation. In 1994, the State Council launched the Priority Poverty Alleviation Program (1994-2000), China’s first ever national poverty alleviation program with definite goals, targets, measures and deadlines. It committed to ensuring that the basic needs of 80 million impoverished rural residents would be met in the seven years from 1994 to 2000. In 1996, the central authorities held the National Conference on Development-driven Poverty Alleviation, further clarifying the steadfast commitment to the goal of being able to provide adequate food and clothing for the impoverished people by the end of the 20th century and confirming the shift from relief-based poverty alleviation to development-driven poverty alleviation. In 1999, the central authorities held the National Conference on Development-driven Poverty Alleviation, making plans to ensure success of the Priority Poverty Alleviation Program. Another conference on poverty alleviation was convened in 2001, and the State Council issued the Outline of Development-driven Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas (2001-2010). On the basis of initial progress of China’s poverty alleviation, the campaign continued with further measures. By the end of 2000, the impoverished population in rural areas had been reduced to 32.09 million and the incidence of poverty down to 3.5%, based on the poverty alleviation standard at the time.

     

    进入21世纪,以胡锦涛同志为总书记的中共中央,坚持科学发展观,构建社会主义和谐社会,提出全面建成小康社会目标,推进社会主义新农村建设,制定实施一系列扶贫开发新政策新举措。对扶贫工作重点与瞄准对象作出重大调整,把中西部地区作为扶贫工作重点区域,在592个国家扶贫工作重点县的基础上,选定15万个贫困村作为扶贫对象,实施参与式“整村推进”扶贫。大力推进产业扶贫和劳动力培训转移,积极开展易地搬迁扶贫和生态移民。实施西部大开发、振兴东北地区等老工业基地、中部地区崛起等国家区域发展战略,促进区域、城乡协调发展。取消农业税,建立新型农村合作医疗等一系列农村社会保障制度,农民负担重的状况得到根本性改变。2011年,中共中央召开扶贫开发工作会议,中共中央、国务院印发《中国农村扶贫开发纲要(2011-2020年)》。中国的扶贫开发,从以解决温饱为主要任务的阶段转入巩固温饱成果、加快脱贫致富、改善生态环境、提高发展能力、缩小发展差距的新阶段。按照当时的扶贫标准,2010年底,中国农村贫困人口减少到2688万人,贫困发生率降为2.8%;2011年,中国将扶贫标准提高到2300元,在新的扶贫标准下,中国贫困人口为1.22亿。

     

    In the 21st century, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Hu Jintao as General Secretary embraced the Scientific Outlook on Development. Its goals were to advance the development of a harmonious society, build a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and facilitate the development of a new socialist countryside.

     

    It enacted a new series of poverty alleviation policies and measures. This resulted in major adjustments to the focus and targets of poverty alleviation work, listing the central and western regions as the priority region, and choosing as individual targets 150,000 impoverished villages besides the 592 key counties, where the full participation of villagers in poverty alleviation efforts was encouraged.

     

    A whole range of efforts were directed to business development, the training and transfer of rural labor, poverty alleviation through relocation, and relocation for the development of the eco-economy. State strategy of regional development was implemented, such as developing west China, revitalizing old industrial bases in the northeast, and stimulating the rise of the central region. These achieved coordinated development between regions and between rural and urban areas. The Agricultural Tax was abolished and a series of rural social security systems such as the new cooperative medical care system were established, greatly easing the burden on farmers. The National Conference on Development-driven Poverty Alleviation in 2011 made plans for a new phase in the battle against poverty to ensure that moderate prosperity in all respects would be achieved by 2020. After the meeting, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council issued the Outline of Development-driven Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas (2011-2020). China’s poverty alleviation effort had evolved from its primary mission – meeting the basic needs of the poor – to a new stage of consolidating this achievement, accelerating poverty alleviation, improving the eco-environment, increasing development capacity, and bridging the development gap. By the end of 2010, according to the poverty standard, the impoverished rural population had been reduced to 26.88 million, and the incidence of poverty had fallen to 2.8%. In 2011, the standard was raised to RMB2,300, and accordingly the poor population was 122 million.

     

    (三)中国发展进入新时代,中国减贫进入脱贫攻坚历史新阶段

     

    3. China in a New Era and a New Battle Against Poverty

     

    中共十八大以来,中国发展进入新时代,全面建成小康社会、实现第一个百年奋斗目标进入关键阶段。经济社会快速发展,综合国力明显增强,社会保障体系更加健全,国家治理体系和治理能力现代化加快推进,为减贫事业发展奠定了坚实的人力、财力、物力基础,提供了有力制度支撑。同时,中国仍然面临严峻的贫困形势,面对的都是贫中之贫、坚中之坚,减贫进入啃硬骨头、攻坚拔寨的冲刺阶段,采用常规思路和办法、按部就班推进难以完成任务,必须以更大的决心、更明确的思路、更精准的举措、超常规的力度,众志成城实现脱贫攻坚目标。

     

    China marched into a new era after the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012. The country reached a critical stage in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and achieving the First Centenary Goal. Rapid economic and social development, a marked increase in comprehensive national strength, a better social security system, and progress in modernizing China’s system and capacity for governance provided solid manpower, material, and financial foundations and strong institutional support for its poverty alleviation efforts. But the country still faced a daunting challenge since it had to solve the most difficult problems in raising the poorest population out of poverty in the coming period. China’s battle against extreme poverty had entered the toughest stage. It was hard to complete the task with conventional approaches and ideas. To achieve the goal of poverty alleviation, the nation had to pull together with greater determination, sharper thinking, more targeted measures, and extraordinary efforts.

     

    以习近平同志为核心的中共中央,把人民对美好生活的向往作为奋斗目标,提出实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦,推进决胜全面建成小康社会,把贫困人口全部脱贫作为全面建成小康社会、实现第一个百年奋斗目标的底线任务和标志性指标,将脱贫攻坚纳入“五位一体”总体布局和“四个全面”战略布局,明确到2020年现行标准下农村贫困人口实现脱贫、贫困县全部摘帽、解决区域性整体贫困的目标任务,汇聚全党全国全社会之力打响脱贫攻坚战。习近平总书记时刻挂念贫困地区和困难群众,把扶贫作为治国理政的重要内容,花的精力最多,提出一系列重要思想重要论述,作出一系列重大决策部署。2012年,中共十八大提出全面建成小康社会奋斗目标,十八大召开后不久,习近平总书记就指出“小康不小康,关键看老乡,关键在贫困的老乡能不能脱贫”,强调“决不能落下一个贫困地区、一个贫困群众”,拉开了新时代脱贫攻坚的序幕。2013年,习近平总书记赴湖南省花垣县十八洞村考察时,首次提出“实事求是、因地制宜、分类指导、精准扶贫”的理念。2014年,习近平总书记在参加十二届全国人大二次会议贵州代表团审议时指出,“看真贫、扶真贫、真扶贫”。2015年,习近平总书记出席中央扶贫开发工作会议时指出,“要立下愚公移山志,咬定目标、苦干实干”,吹响了脱贫攻坚战的冲锋号。2017年,习近平总书记在中共十九大报告中指出,“让贫困人口和贫困地区同全国一道进入全面小康社会是我们党的庄严承诺”“坚决打赢脱贫攻坚战”,动员全党全国全社会聚力攻克深度贫困堡垒、决战决胜脱贫攻坚。2020年,面对突如其来的新冠肺炎疫情,习近平总书记主持召开决战决胜脱贫攻坚座谈会进行再部署再动员,指出农村贫困人口全部脱贫“必须如期实现,没有任何退路和弹性。这是一场硬仗,越到最后越要紧绷这根弦,不能停顿、不能大意、不能放松”,要求全党全国以更大的决心、更强的力度,做好“加试题”、打好收官战,信心百倍向着脱贫攻坚的最后胜利进军。

     

    The CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core takes the desire of the people for a better life as its goal. It has committed to realizing the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation and securing a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Poverty alleviation, a key task and index of the realization of the First Centenary Goal, has been included in the Five-sphere Integrated Plan and the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy. The CPC set the goals that by 2020 it would help all the rural population out of poverty as defined by the existing standard, raise all impoverished counties out of poverty, and eliminate poverty over entire regions – mobilizing the whole Party, the whole country, and all sectors of society to engage in this battle. President Xi Jinping, always concerned about impoverished regions and families in straitened circumstances, has always put poverty alleviation at the top of his work agenda and devoted much of his energy to it. He has presented a series of important ideas and proposals, and made some major policy decisions. The 18th CPC National Congress in 2012 set the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Soon after that, Xi enunciated, “To achieve initial prosperity in the countryside, it is essential to raise rural living standards and particularly those of impoverished villagers.” Launching the campaign against poverty in the new era, he also emphasized, “No single poor area or single poor person should be left behind in achieving this goal.” In 2013, on his inspection tour to Shibadong Village, Huayuan County, Hunan Province, Xi proposed for the first time the concept of “giving differentiated guidance for targeted poverty alleviation in line with local conditions by seeking truth from facts”. In 2014, while attending the deliberation session of the Guizhou delegation at the Second Plenary Session of the 12th National People’s Congress, Xi stated, “Inspection tours must be conducted to identify the truly poor. Poverty alleviation must reach those who truly need it, and poverty must be fully eliminated.” In 2015, at the National Conference on Development-driven Poverty Alleviation, he sounded the bugle call to battle, “We should be determined, dedicate ourselves, and work hard towards the goal.” In 2017, in the report to the 19th CPC National Congress, Xi emphasized the need to mobilize the energies of the whole Party, the whole country, and the whole of society to win the battle against extreme poverty and eradicate it, “Ensuring that poor people and poor areas will enter the moderately prosperous society together with the rest of the country is a solemn promise made by our Party… We must win the battle against poverty.” In 2020, faced with the sudden attack of Covid-19, Xi mapped out new plans for mobilization at a seminar on poverty alleviation, emphasizing that lifting poor people in the rural areas out of poverty “must be achieved as scheduled”. “It is non-negotiable. This is a tough battle with no route of retreat. We must double our efforts till the last minute. We must not pause, slacken off or be negligent.” He asked the whole Party to perform well in this “difficult test”, to apply more determination and more vigor, and to be confident of bringing the battle to a successful end.

     

    习近平总书记亲自指挥、亲自部署、亲自督战,出席中央扶贫开发工作会议,7次主持召开中央扶贫工作座谈会,50多次调研扶贫工作,连续5年审定脱贫攻坚成效考核结果,连续7年在全国扶贫日期间出席重要活动或作出重要指示,连续7年在新年贺词中强调脱贫攻坚,每年在全国两会期间下团组同代表委员共商脱贫攻坚大计,多次回信勉励基层干部群众投身减贫事业。习近平总书记走遍全国14个集中连片特困地区,考察了20多个贫困村,深入贫困家庭访贫问苦,倾听贫困群众意见建议,了解扶贫脱贫需求,极大鼓舞了贫困群众脱贫致富的信心和决心。2021年2月25日,习近平总书记在全国脱贫攻坚总结表彰大会上庄严宣告中国脱贫攻坚战取得了全面胜利,完成了消除绝对贫困的艰巨任务,创造了又一个彪炳史册的人间奇迹。

     

    President Xi Jinping has assumed leadership, made plans, and directed the battle in person.

     

    He has attended the National Conference on Development-driven Poverty Alleviation, and presided over seven seminars on poverty elimination. He has made over 50 fact-finding trips. In every one of the last five years, he has reviewed the evaluation reports of the poverty alleviation work. In every one of the last seven years, he has attended important events or issued directives on the National Poverty Alleviation Day. In every one of the last seven years, he has expounded on the fight against extreme poverty in his New Year address. In every one of the last eight years, he has discussed plans for the battle against poverty with delegates during the Two Sessions and written letters to encourage grassroots officials and communities to engage in the great fight. He has visited every one of the 14 contiguous poor areas across the country and over 20 poor villages, and sat in the homes of impoverished households to hear of their difficulties, suggestions, and needs, building up their confidence and determination, and their belief that they can work their way out of poverty. On February 25, 2021, at the National Poverty Alleviation Summary and Commendation Conference, he declared that China had secured a comprehensive victory in the fight against poverty, and completed the arduous task of eradicating extreme poverty – an outstanding and historic achievement.

     

    回顾中国共产党领导人民消除绝对贫困的艰辛历程,极不平凡,极不容易。100年来,中国共产党始终坚守初心使命,担当起对人民的责任,践行对人民的承诺,为实现民族独立、人民解放和国家富强、人民富裕接续奋斗,付出巨大牺牲,赢得了人民的拥护和信赖。100年来,在中国共产党的领导下,中国人民自强不息、艰苦奋斗,依靠自己的双手,付出难以想象的辛劳和汗水,摆脱了绝对贫困,走上了全面小康、共同富裕的康庄大道。100年来,在中国共产党的领导下,中国迎来了从站起来、富起来到强起来的伟大飞跃,人民的生存权发展权充分保障,社会公平正义有力彰显,为更好实现人的全面发展奠定了坚实基础。

     

    The strenuous process whereby the CPC has led the Chinese people in the battle against poverty has been extraordinary and difficult. Over the past 100 years, the Party has committed itself to the original aspiration of seeking happiness for the people, taken on its responsibility for the people, honored its promise to the people, and made huge sacrifices in fighting to win national independence and people’s liberation, to make China prosperous and strong, and to bring common prosperity to all. In the process it has won the support and trust of the people.

     

    Over the past 100 years the Chinese people, under the leadership of the CPC, have never faltered in pursuit of progress, have put in unimaginable efforts, and have relied on themselves to eradicate extreme poverty, and march towards shared all-round prosperity.

     

    Over the past 100 years, under the leadership of the CPC, China has stood tall, become prosperous, and grown in overall national strength. The protection of the rights to subsistence and development, and the promotion of equality and justice have laid solid foundations for well-rounded human development.

     

    二、新时代脱贫攻坚取得全面胜利

    II. Final Victory in the Fight Against Extreme Poverty

     

    中共十八大以来,经过8年持续奋斗,到2020年底,中国如期完成新时代脱贫攻坚目标任务,现行标准下9899万农村贫困人口全部脱贫(图1),832个贫困县全部摘帽(图2),12.8万个贫困村全部出列,区域性整体贫困得到解决,完成消除绝对贫困的艰巨任务。

     

    China’s fight against poverty entered a critical stage after the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012. At the end of 2020, through eight years of hard work, China achieved the goal of eliminating extreme poverty – a key goal for the new era of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. The 98.99 million people in rural areas who were living below the current poverty threshold all shook off poverty (Figure 1); all the 128,000 impoverished villages and 832 designated poor counties got rid of poverty (Figure 2). China has eliminated poverty over entire regions and eradicated extreme poverty.

     

    脱贫攻坚战对中国农村的改变是历史性的、全方位的,是中国农村的又一次伟大革命,深刻改变了贫困地区落后面貌,有力推动了中国农村整体发展,补齐了全面建成小康社会最突出短板,为全面建设社会主义现代化国家、实现第二个百年奋斗目标奠定了坚实基础。脱贫攻坚战全面胜利,中华民族在几千年发展历史上首次整体消除绝对贫困,实现了中国人民的千年梦想、百年夙愿。

     

    The battle against poverty has been another great revolution in rural China, leading to historic and comprehensive changes. The campaign saw an end to the backwardness of poverty-stricken areas, boosted overall rural development, resolved the greatest threat to success in achieving moderate prosperity in all respects, and laid a solid foundation for building a modern socialist China and realizing the Second Centenary Goal. China has secured a complete victory in the battle against extreme poverty, eliminating overall and extreme poverty for the first time in its history of thousands of years, and realizing a century-long aspiration of the Chinese people.

     

    (一)贫困人口生活水平显著提升

     

    1. Significant Improvement in the Living Standards of the Poor

     

    经过脱贫攻坚战,贫困人口的收入和福利水平大幅提高,“两不愁三保障”⑥全面实现,教育、医疗、住房、饮水等条件明显改善,既满足了基本生存需要,也为后续发展奠定了基础。脱贫攻坚的阳光照耀到每一个角落,贫困群众的生活发生了巨大变化。

     

    Through poverty alleviation, there has been a substantial improvement in the incomes and welfare of the poor. The Two Assurances and Three Guarantees [This refers to assurances of adequate food and clothing, and guarantees of access to compulsory education, basic medical services and safe housing for impoverished rural residents.] have been realized; education, healthcare, housing and drinking water supplies are much improved. These provisions have covered all basic needs and laid the foundations for future development. The fight against poverty has led to dramatic changes in the lives of the impoverished.

     

    贫困人口收入水平持续提升(图3)。贫困地区农村居民人均可支配收入,从2013的6079元增长到2020年的12588元,年均增长11.6%,增长持续快于全国农村,增速比全国农村高2.3个百分点。贫困人口工资性收入和经营性收入占比逐年上升,转移性收入占比逐年下降,自主增收脱贫能力稳步提高。少数民族和民族地区脱贫攻坚成效显著,2016年至2020年,内蒙古自治区、广西壮族自治区、西藏自治区、宁夏回族自治区、新疆维吾尔自治区和贵州、云南、青海三个多民族省份贫困人口累计减少1560万人。28个人口较少民族全部实现整族脱贫,一些新中国成立后“一步跨千年”进入社会主义社会的“直过民族”⑦,又实现了从贫穷落后到全面小康的第二次历史性跨越。

     

    The incomes of the impoverished are increasing (Figure 3). The per capita disposable income of the rural poor increased from RMB6,079 in 2013 to RMB12,588 in 2020, up by 11.6% per annum on average. The growth rate was 2.3 percentage points higher than the national rural average. Their salary income and operative income kept increasing over the years in proportion to their transfer income, showing a stronger ability to shake off poverty through their own efforts.

     

    Ethnic minority areas have made notable progress in fighting poverty. From 2016 to 2020, in the five autonomous regions (Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Tibet, Ningxia and Xinjiang) and three provinces with a large multi-ethnic population (Guizhou, Yunnan and Qinghai), the number of the poor dropped by 15.6 million. Extreme poverty was eliminated in all 28 of the minority ethnic groups with a small population. Some ethnic groups, still at the later stage of primitive society when the PRC was founded in 1949, leapfrogged to socialism and then again made great strides towards moderate prosperity in all respects.

     

    “两不愁三保障”全面实现。脱贫攻坚普查⑧显示,贫困户全面实现不愁吃、不愁穿,平时吃得饱且能适当吃好,一年四季都有应季的换洗衣物和御寒被褥。贫困人口受教育的机会显著增多、水平持续提高,农村贫困家庭子女义务教育阶段辍学问题实现动态清零,2020年贫困县九年义务教育巩固率达到94.8%。持续完善县乡村三级医疗卫生服务体系,把贫困人口全部纳入基本医疗保险、大病保险、医疗救助三重制度保障范围,实施大病集中救治、慢病签约管理、重病兜底保障等措施,99.9%以上的贫困人口参加基本医疗保险,全面实现贫困人口看病有地方、有医生、有医疗保险制度保障,看病难、看病贵问题有效解决。实施农村危房改造,贫困人口全面实现住房安全有保障(专栏1)。实施农村饮水安全和巩固提升工程,累计解决2889万贫困人口的饮水安全问题,饮用水量和水质全部达标,3.82亿农村人口受益;贫困地区自来水普及率从2015年的70%提高到2020年的83%。

     

    The Two Assurances and Three Guarantees have been realized. According to the national survey of poverty alleviation [The national survey of poverty alleviation is a full review of China’s progress in fighting poverty and has a fundamental importance for targeted poverty alleviation. From 2020 to 2021, the survey was conducted in 22 provinces and equivalent administrative units in central and western China, focusing on the veracity of poverty alleviation results, particularly the overall progress in designated poor counties. The survey includes registration of poverty-stricken populations, progress in the Two Assurances and Three Guarantees, participation of the impoverished in poverty alleviation programs, and basic public services in poor counties and villages.], poor households now have adequate food and clothing all year round and a proper supply of nutritious food. They have clothing for all four seasons and comforters that protect them from cold weather.

     

    Access to good quality education for the impoverished has improved remarkably; there are no dropouts in the countryside due to financial difficulties; nine-year compulsory education is now available to all children from rural poor households, and the completion rate in 2020 was 94.8%.

     

    The three-tier healthcare system at village, township and county levels has been improved. All poverty-stricken populations now have access to basic medical insurance, critical illness insurance, and medical assistance, to ensure medical treatment to the impoverished with major illnesses, contracted healthcare to the impoverished with chronic diseases, and guaranteed medical services for the impoverished with critical illnesses. Basic medical insurance coverage of the poor is now over 99.9%. All the impoverished have been guaranteed medical services and medical insurance. Through these measures, China has resolved the problem of difficult and expensive access to medical treatment for poverty-stricken residents.

     

    The program of renovation of dilapidated rural homes has ensured safe housing for all the impoverished (Box 1). The program of safe drinking water for rural residents has secured supplies to 28.89 million poor in terms of both quantity and quality, and benefited 382 million rural population; tap water coverage increased from 70% in 2015 to 83% in 2020.

     

    (二)贫困地区落后面貌根本改变

     

    2. Poverty-Stricken Areas Rid of Backwardness

     

    长期以来,贫困地区基础设施薄弱,公共服务匮乏,经济社会发展滞后。脱贫攻坚战不仅使农村贫困人口全部脱贫,而且使贫困地区经济社会发展大踏步赶上来,整体面貌发生历史性巨变。

     

    Poor areas have long suffered from weak infrastructure, inadequate public services, and social and economic underdevelopment. In the final stages of fighting poverty, China succeeded in raising all the rural poor out of extreme poverty and the impoverished areas achieved a big stride in economic and social development, taking on a brand-new look.

     

    基础设施显著改善。出行难、用电难、用水难、通信难,是长期以来制约贫困地区发展的瓶颈。把基础设施建设作为脱贫攻坚基础工程,集中力量,加大投入,全力推进,补齐了贫困地区基础设施短板,推动了贫困地区经济社会快速发展。以建好、管好、护好、运营好农村公路(简称“四好农村路”,专栏2)为牵引,积极推进贫困地区建设外通内联、通村畅乡、客车到村、安全便捷的交通运输网络。截至2020年底,全国贫困地区新改建公路110万公里、新增铁路里程3.5万公里,贫困地区具备条件的乡镇和建制村全部通硬化路、通客车、通邮路,贫困地区因路而兴、因路而富。努力改善贫困地区水利基础设施条件,2016年以来,新增和改善农田有效灌溉面积8029万亩,新增供水能力181亿立方米,水利支撑贫困地区发展的能力显著增强。大幅提升贫困地区用电条件,实施无电地区电力建设、农村电网改造升级、骨干电网和输电通道建设等电网专项工程,把电网延伸到更多偏远地区,农村地区基本实现稳定可靠的供电服务全覆盖,供电能力和服务水平明显提升(专栏3)。加强贫困地区通信设施建设,贫困村通光纤和4G比例均超过98%,远程教育加快向贫困地区学校推进,远程医疗、电子商务覆盖所有贫困县,贫困地区信息化建设实现跨越式发展。基础设施的极大改善,从根本上破解了贫困地区脱贫致富的难题,畅通了贫困地区与外界的人流、物流、知识流、信息流,为贫困地区发展提供了有力的硬件支撑。

     

    Infrastructure has been improved. Lack of access to transport, electricity, drinking water and communications hinders the development of poverty-stricken areas. Infrastructure construction is a basic element in the battle against poverty; through an intensified effort and further investment, new infrastructure in poor areas boosted their social and economic development.

     

    The construction, management, maintenance and operation of roads in rural areas have all seen significant improvement (Box 2). Transport networks now connect all villages with other local villages and with the outside world, and provide them with safe and easy access to bus services. By the end of 2020, impoverished areas had gained 1.1 million km of reconstructed highways and 35,000 km of new railways; all the villages, townships and towns in poverty-stricken areas with the right conditions were accessible by paved road and provided with bus and mail routes, which facilitated more economic development.

     

    Water infrastructure in impoverished areas has been improved in many ways. Since 2016, the effective irrigated area has increased by more than 5.35 million ha and water supply capacity has increased by 18.1 billion cu m. Better water infrastructure is also a provider of strong support for the development of poverty-stricken areas.

     

    Electricity access in poor areas has been improved through power grid construction projects such as power supply to areas without electricity, upgrading of rural power grids, and construction of trunk power grids and power transmission channels. Now, more remote areas are connected to power grids, and almost all rural areas enjoy a steady power supply (Box 3).

     

    Communications infrastructure has been extended in poverty-stricken areas. Now, over 98% of poor villages have access to optical fiber communications (OFC) and 4G technology; distance education is available at more schools in impoverished areas; telemedicine and e-commerce cover all designated poor counties. All of this represents an unprecedented pace of development of IT application in poverty-stricken areas.

     

    This comprehensive range of infrastructure improvements has resolved many historical problems trapping poor areas in poverty, facilitated the flows of personnel, logistics, knowledge and information between poor areas and the outside world, and provided solid support for social and economic development in impoverished areas.

     

    基本公共服务水平明显提升。在解决好贫困人口吃饭、穿衣、居住等温饱问题基础上,大力提升贫困地区教育、医疗、文化、社会保障等基本公共服务水平,实现贫困人口学有所教、病有所医、老有所养、弱有所扶,为贫困地区发展夯实基础、积蓄后劲。2013年以来,累计改造贫困地区义务教育薄弱学校10.8万所,实现贫困地区适龄儿童都能在所在村上幼儿园和小学。贫困地区公共文化服务水平不断提高,截至2020年底,中西部22个省份基层文化中心建设完成比例达到99.48%,基本实现村级文化设施全覆盖;持续推进文化下乡,贫困群众也有了丰富多彩的业余文化生活。贫困地区医疗条件显著改善,消除了乡村两级医疗卫生机构和人员“空白点”,98%的贫困县至少有一所二级以上医院,贫困地区县级医院收治病种中位数达到全国县级医院整体水平的90%,贫困人口的常见病、慢性病基本能够就近获得及时诊治,越来越多的大病在县域内就可以得到有效救治。综合保障体系逐步健全,贫困县农村低保标准全部超过国家扶贫标准,1936万贫困人口纳入农村低保或特困救助供养政策;6098万贫困人口参加了城乡居民基本养老保险,基本实现应保尽保。

     

    Basic public services have been improved. In addition to providing adequate food, clothing and safe housing for the impoverished, China has intensified efforts to improve basic public services covering education, healthcare, culture and social security. The goal is to guarantee impoverished people access to education, medical services, elderly care and social assistance, so as to support development in poverty-stricken areas.

     

    Since 2013, China has renovated 108,000 schools to strengthen the provision of compulsory education in poor areas, and ensured that all school-age rural children receive kindergarten and elementary education within their own villages.

     

    Public cultural services in poor areas have also been improved. By the end of 2020, 99.48% of villages in 22 provinces and equivalent administrative units in central and western China had seen their own cultural centers completed. The campaign of bringing culture to the countryside has enriched the cultural life of the rural poor.

     

    There has been a notable improvement in healthcare provision in poor areas. This program has remedied the shortfall in medical workers and institutions at village and township level. 98% of the designated poor counties now have at least one grade-two hospital. The county-level hospitals in impoverished areas can treat 90% of the diseases that general county-level hospitals can. The impoverished can now have common ailments and chronic diseases treated at nearby medical institutions in a timely manner, and more major illnesses can be effectively treated at county-level hospitals.

     

    Comprehensive social security systems are now in place in poor areas. The standards of eligibility for rural subsistence allowances in designated poor counties are all higher than the national poverty threshold.

     

    Some 19.36 million impoverished people have been covered by rural subsistence allowances or extreme poverty relief funds, and 60.98 million by basic pension schemes for rural and non-working urban residents, achieving nearly 100% coverage.

     

    经济持续快速发展。脱贫攻坚极大释放了贫困地区蕴含的潜力,为经济发展注入强大动力。产业结构显著改善,特色优势产业不断发展,电子商务、光伏、旅游等新业态新产业蓬勃兴起,推动了贫困地区经济多元化发展,扩大了市场有效供给,厚植了经济发展基础。贫困地区的地区生产总值持续保持较快增长,2015年以来,人均一般公共预算收入年均增幅高出同期全国平均水平约7个百分点。收入的持续稳定增长,激发了贫困群众提升生活品质、丰富精神文化生活的需求,拉动了庞大的农村消费,为促进国内大循环提供了支撑。

     

    The economy has achieved sustained and rapid growth. The battle against poverty has released the potential of poor areas, and injected vigor into their economic development.

     

    Poverty-stricken areas have seen notable improvements in their economic structure. Businesses that leverage local strengths have been growing and thriving, including such new forms as e-commerce, photovoltaic technology, and tourism. The economy in poor areas has diversified, and effective market supply has increased. These developments provide solid foundations for economic growth.

     

    The GDP of impoverished areas has maintained rapid growth. Since 2015, the average annual increment in per capita revenue from the national general public budget has been seven percentage points higher than the national average. A steady increase in incomes has created higher demand for life quality and cultural activities. This has stimulated a surge in consumption in rural areas, and provided support for the domestic economy.

     

    优秀文化传承弘扬。加强贫困地区传统文化、特色文化、民族文化的保护、传承和弘扬,贫困地区优秀文化繁荣发展。实施国家传统工艺振兴工程,引导和推动革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区、贫困地区保护好、发展好当地优秀传统技艺。支持贫困地区深入挖掘民族文化、红色文化、乡土文化、非物质文化遗产特色资源,加强保护研究、人才培养、展示推广,打造特色文化旅游产业。开展留存扶贫印记活动,建立贫困村扶贫档案,鼓励支持扶贫题材影视文艺作品创作,生动记录脱贫致富历程。贫困地区优秀文化的保护传承,既促进了贫困群众增收致富,也延续了文脉、留住了乡愁。

     

    Cultural heritage has been protected. China has strengthened the protection and promotion of traditional culture, folk culture and ethnic culture in poor areas to maintain a wealth of cultural diversity. It has implemented the Plan on the Revitalization of Traditional Chinese Craftsmanship to protect and develop fine craftsmanship in old revolutionary base areas, areas with large ethnic minority populations, border areas, and poverty-stricken areas. It has supported poor areas to develop cultural resources with local characteristics, including ethnic culture, revolutionary sites, folk culture, and intangible cultural heritage. Local governments in poor areas have developed tourism there by conserving and promoting these cultural resources and training support staff. China has paid attention to keeping a record of the experiences of ordinary people in poverty alleviation, such as archives of poor villages, films, TV programs and literary works themed on poverty alleviation. Through the protection and promotion of cultural heritage in poor areas, the impoverished have gained additional income while retaining their cultural roots.

     

    生态环境更美更好。将扶贫开发与水土保持、环境保护、生态建设相结合,通过生态扶贫、农村人居环境整治、生态脆弱地区易地扶贫搬迁等措施,贫困地区生态保护水平明显改善,守护了绿水青山、换来了金山银山。脱贫攻坚既促进了贫困人口“增收”,又促进了贫困地区“增绿”,极大改善了贫困地区生态环境,广大农村旧貌换了新颜,生态宜居水平不断提高。

     

    The eco-environment has improved. China has integrated development-driven poverty alleviation with soil and water conservation and eco-environmental conservation. By developing the eco-economy, improving the rural living environment, and relocating the impoverished from inhospitable areas to places with better economic prospects, there have been remarkable improvements in the eco-environment of poverty-stricken areas. Lucid waters and lush mountains have become their invaluable assets. Through the fight against poverty, China has increased the incomes of the impoverished, improved the eco-environment of poor areas, and made the vast rural areas more livable spaces for their inhabitants.

     

    深度贫困地区是贫中之贫、坚中之坚。通过脱贫攻坚,“三区三州”⑨等深度贫困地区突出问题得到根本解决,基础设施和公共服务水平显著提升,特色主导产业加快发展,社会文明程度明显提高,区域性整体贫困问题彻底解决(专栏4)。

     

    Severely impoverished areas are the top priority in China’s battle against poverty. The “three areas and three prefectures” [The “three areas” refer to the Tibet Autonomous Region, the Hotan, Aksu, Kashgar prefectures and the Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture in southern Xinjiang, and prefectures and counties with large Tibetan populations in the provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu and Qinghai. The “three prefectures” refer to the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province, the Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province, and the Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu Province.] in extreme poverty have seen notable improvements in infrastructure, public services, and civil communal behavior, as well as rapid development in industries and businesses that leverage local strengths. All of these efforts have brought an end to regional and overall poverty (Box 4).

     

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