双语:《中国交通运输发展》白皮书

摘要

Full Text: Development of China’s Transport

中国交通运输发展

Development of China’s Transport

 

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

 

2016年12月

December 2016

 

目录

Contents

 

前言

Preamble

 

一、发展历程

I. Course of Development

 

二、综合交通运输体系建设

II. Comprehensive Transport System

 

三、发挥基础性先导性服务性作用

III. Playing a Basic, Pioneering and Serving Role

 

四、对外开放与国际合作

IV. Opening up and International Cooperation

 

五、未来五年的发展目标

V. Development Goals for the Next Five Years

 

结束语

Conclusion

 

前言

Preamble

 

新中国成立以来,特别是改革开放以来,交通运输面貌发生了历史性变化,为经济社会发展、人民群众安全便捷出行作出了重要贡献。

 

Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, and especially since the introduction of the reform and opening-up policy in 1978, China’s transport has undergone historic changes, making significant contributions to the country’s social and economic development, and the people’s safe and convenient travel.

 

新世纪以来,中国政府全面深化交通运输改革,加快建设现代综合交通运输体系,不断提升交通运输行业治理体系和治理能力现代化水平,交通运输进入了各种运输方式交汇融合、统筹发展的新阶段。

 

Since the start of the 21st century, the Chinese government has furthered the reform in transport, built a modernized comprehensive transport system, improved the management system, and modernized management capacity in transport, bringing China’s transport to a new stage that incorporates multiple modes of transport and promotes their coordinated development.

 

2020年,中国将全面建成小康社会。实现第一个“百年目标”,交通运输需要进一步加快发展,充分发挥基础性先导性服务性作用,当好先行官,为全面建成小康社会提供坚强保障。

 

China intends to complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020, which is the first of its Two Centenary Goals. For this end, transport should quicken its pace of development, and fully play its basic, pioneering and serving role as a vanguard and solid guarantee for completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

一、发展历程

I. Course of Development

 

新中国成立之初,交通运输面貌十分落后。全国铁路总里程仅2.18万公里,有一半处于瘫痪状态。能通车的公路仅8.08万公里,民用汽车5.1万辆。内河航道处于自然状态。民航航线只有12条。邮政服务网点较少。主要运输工具还是畜力车和木帆船等。

 

When the PRC was founded in 1949, transport was underdeveloped. Total railway length was only 21,800 km, half of which was paralyzed. Highway traffic length was only 80,800 km, and civil automobiles numbered only 51,000. Inland waterways were undeveloped, and only 12 civil air routes were operative. Postal outlets were limited. The major means of transport were animal-drawn vehicles and primitive boats.

 

新中国成立后,中国政府明确提出首先要创造一些基本条件恢复交通运输。经过3年的国民经济恢复期,修复了被破坏的交通运输设施设备,恢复了水陆空运输。1953年起,开始有计划地进行交通运输建设。在第一个、第二个五年计划和国民经济调整期间(1953—1965年),国家投资向交通运输倾斜,改造和新建了一批铁路、公路、港口码头、民用机场,提高了西部和边远地区的交通运输基础设施覆盖程度,疏浚了主要航道,新开辟了国际、国内水路和空中航线,扩大了邮政网络,增加了运输装备数量。“文化大革命”期间(1966—1976年),交通运输发展一度受到严重干扰,但设施和装备规模、运输线路仍在增加,特别是针对沿海主要港口压船、压港、压货日趋严重的局面,加快了港口基础设施建设。在此期间,管道运输也得到了发展。

 

Following the founding of the PRC, the Chinese government decided to create the basic conditions to restore transport. During the economic recovery period (1949-1952) damaged transport facilities were repaired, and water, land and air transport were resumed. In 1953 China began to develop transport in a planned way. During the First (1953-1957) and Second (1958-1962) Five-Year Plan periods and the economic adjustment period (1961-1965) China tilted state investment in support of transport. It renovated and built a number of railways, highways, ports and piers, and civil airports; expanded the transport infrastructure coverage in the western and remote regions; dredged major navigation channels; opened new international and domestic sea and air routes; expanded the postal network; and increased the amount of transport equipment.

 

During the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), transport was seriously disturbed, but facilities, equipment and routes kept increasing; in view of the severe delays in unloading and transshipment, and overstocking at major coastal ports, port infrastructure construction was accelerated; and pipeline transport developed.

 

1978年,改革开放揭开了中国经济社会发展的新篇章,交通运输步入了快速发展阶段。中国政府把交通运输放在优先发展的位置,加大政策扶持力度,在放开交通运输市场、建立社会化融资机制方面进行开创性探索,积极扭转交通运输不适应经济社会发展的被动局面。铁路实行经济承包责任制;出台了提高养路费征收标准、开征车辆购置附加费以及“贷款修路、收费还贷”等扶持公路发展的三项政策;公路、水运工程建设项目开始实行招投标制度;港口率先对外开放,海运业最早实现“走出去”;民航走上了企业化发展道路,航空运输市场开始形成;实施邮政管理体制改革,成立中国速递服务公司,恢复办理邮政储蓄业务;加大交通运输建设投资力度,吸引社会资本参与基础设施建设。1988年沪嘉高速公路通车,实现中国大陆高速公路零的突破。

 

The reform and opening-up policy adopted in 1978 ushered in a new stage of social and economic development, bringing about the rapid development of transport. The Chinese government prioritized transport development, increased pertinent policy support, made pioneering attempts to open wider the transport market and establish social financing mechanisms, and reversed the adverse situation that transport was unable to match social and economic development.

 

China implemented the contract responsibility system in railway operation; issued three policies for supporting highway development, namely, raising highway maintenance fee levied on highway users, collecting vehicle purchase tax, and building highways with loans and repaying the loans with tolls. Highway construction and water transport engineering projects started to adopt public bidding. Ports were the first to be opened up to the outside world, and sea transport was the first sector to go global. Civil aviation began to operate as an enterprise, and an air transport market took shape. The postal services management system was reformed, Express Mail Service (EMS) was set up, and postal savings services were resumed. Investment in transport development was increased and non-government capital was attracted to go into transport infrastructure construction. In 1988, the Shanghai-Jiading Expressway was opened to traffic, the first expressway on China’s mainland.

 

1992年,中国确立了建立社会主义市场经济体制的改革目标。交通运输不断加大改革开放力度,各种运输方式发展取得突破性进展。开展铁路建设大会战,1997年起铁路进行了连续六次大提速。公路和水运实施公路主骨架、水运主通道、港站主枢纽和支持保障系统的“三主一支持”规划,制定了加快建设步伐的目标任务。民航机场建设费和基础设施建设基金、铁路建设基金、内河航运建设基金先后设立。为应对东南亚金融危机,中国实施积极的财政政策,公路建设投资进入“快车道”,高速公路建设大规模兴起。实施西部大开发战略,全面加强西部地区铁路、公路、机场、天然气管道干线建设。提出“修好农村路,服务城镇化,让农民兄弟走上油路和水泥路”发展目标,掀起农村公路建设新高潮。深化港口管理体制改革,加快港口建设。实行邮电分营和邮政政企分开,邮政向信息流、资金流和物流“三流合一”的现代邮政业方向发展。《中长期铁路网规划》《国家高速公路网规划》等一系列规划陆续出台。大力提升交通运输基本公共服务水平,全面加强城乡客运、城市公共交通、交通运输安全应急救助等领域建设。2008年组建交通运输部,交通运输大部门体制改革迈出实质性步伐。同年,京津城际铁路通车运营,中国开启了“高铁时代”。

 

In 1992, China set the reform goal of establishing a socialist market economic system. Reform and opening-up efforts were furthered in transport while the development of various modes of transport achieved breakthrough progress. Since 1997, it has raised its average railway speed six times as a result of large-scale construction. A plan was made to build a transport framework where highways, waterways and ports play the major role, and put in place an advanced transport support system. A goal was set to accelerate related construction. China began to collect civil airport construction fees, and set up a civil airport infrastructure construction fund, a railway construction fund and an inland water transport construction fund in succession. To address the Financial Crisis starting in Southeast Asia, China implemented proactive fiscal policies to speed up investment in highway construction, which spurred the emergence of large-scale expressway construction. Around that time, the country implemented the strategy of developing the western regions, and enhanced the construction of railways, highways, airports and major gas pipelines there. It set the goal of “building asphalt and cement roads in rural areas to facilitate urbanization,” bringing a new upsurge of rural road construction. China furthered the reform of the port management system and accelerated the construction of ports. It separated postal services and telecommunications services, and government functions and enterprise operation in postal services, promoting modern postal services integrating information flow, capital flow and logistics.

 

The Chinese government issued the Medium- and Long-Term Railway Network Plan, National Expressways Network Plan and related programs, while vigorously improving basic transport public service capacity, urban and rural passenger transport, urban public transport and transport safety emergency rescue. In 2008, China’s Ministry of Transport (MOT) was established, and efforts were made to put all management of transport by air, water and land, as well as postal services under the ministry. The same year, the Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Railway was opened to traffic, marking the start of China’s high-speed rail era.

 

党的十八大以来,交通运输进入了加快现代综合交通运输体系建设的新阶段。2013年,铁路实现政企分开,交通运输大部门体制改革基本落实到位。交通运输全面深化改革,建设法治政府部门,加快综合交通、智慧交通、绿色交通、平安交通“四个交通”建设,围绕“一带一路”建设、京津冀协同发展、长江经济带建设三大国家战略制定发展规划。加快综合交通运输基础设施成网,推进多种运输方式有效衔接。促进现代物流业发展,提升综合运输服务保障水平。加强交通运输基本公共服务供给和管理,支持集中连片特困地区交通运输基础设施、城乡客运、城市公共交通发展。推进东、中、西、东北“四大板块”区域交通协调发展,西部地区高铁加快发展,中西部地区交通条件显著改善。2013年,西藏墨脱公路建成通车,中国真正实现县县通公路。

 

Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, the construction of a modernized comprehensive transport system has been accelerated. In 2013, railway sector realized separation of government functions from commercial operations, and the institutional reform to establish an efficient government department to exercise unified management of transport by air, water and land, as well as postal services was basically completed. The transport sector has pushed reform to a higher level by enhancing law-based management, promoting comprehensive, smart, green and safe transport, and formulating development plans to serve the Three Initiatives – the Belt and Road Initiative, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Integration Initiative and the Yangtze River Economic Belt Initiative. China has expedited the building of a comprehensive transport infrastructure network, and reinforced the connectivity of multiple modes of transport, advancing modern logistics in this sector and securing comprehensive transport services. It has enhanced the supply and management of basic public services for transport, supporting the development of transport infrastructure in contiguous impoverished areas, urban and rural passenger transport and urban public transport. China has also promoted balanced development of transport in its eastern, central, western and northeastern regions. In this regard, western China has quickened its pace in developing high-speed railways, and overall central and western China’s transport conditions have been greatly improved. In 2013, the Motuo Highway in Tibet was opened to traffic, indicating that every county in China now had access to highways.

 

60多年来,中国交通运输总体上经历了从“瓶颈制约”到“初步缓解”,再到“基本适应”经济社会发展需求的奋斗历程,与世界一流水平的差距快速缩小,部分领域已经实现超越,一个走向现代化的综合交通运输体系正展现在世界面前。

 

Over the past 60-odd years, China’s transport has undergone the phases of bottleneck, preliminary alleviation and basic adaptation to socio-economic development demands. China has narrowed its gap with world-class transport, and surpassed the latter in several fields. A modernized comprehensive transport system is now emerging on the horizon.

二、综合交通运输体系建设

II. Comprehensive Transport System

 

经过多年改革发展,多节点、全覆盖的综合交通运输网络初步形成,“五纵五横”综合运输大通道基本贯通,一大批综合客运、货运枢纽站场(物流园区)投入运营,运输装备发展不断升级,运输服务水平显著提升,科技创新和应用实现重大突破,交通运输市场体系、管理体制和法规体系不断完善。

 

Through years of reform and development, China has formed a multi-nodal and full-coverage transport network; opened up five vertical and five horizontal transport trunk railway lines; put into operation a large number of passenger and freight transport stations (logistics parks); upgraded transport equipment and improved transport service capacity; achieved major breakthroughs in technology innovation and application; and improved the transport market system, management mechanisms and related laws and regulations.

 

(一)基础设施网络

 

  1. Infrastructure Network

 

多层次的铁路网基本形成。截至2015年年底,全国铁路营业总里程达12.1万公里,规模居世界第二;其中高速铁路1.9万公里,位居世界第一。以高速铁路为骨架、以城际铁路为补充的快速客运网络初步建成。全国铁路复线率和电气化率分别达到53.5%和61.8%。横跨东西、纵贯南北的大能力通道逐步形成,物流设施同步完善,逐步实现了货物运输直达化、快捷化、重载化。

 

A multi-level railway network has been formed. By the end of 2015, China’s total railway operation length reached 121,000 km, ranking the world’s second, including 19,000-km high-speed railway, ranking the world’s first. An express passenger transport network with high-speed railway as framework and supplemented by intercity railway has been built. The proportion of double-line railway in China was 53.5 percent, and the proportion of electric railway 61.8 percent. China has formed east-west and north-south railway passageways with great transport capacity, improved logistics infrastructure, and realized nonstop, speedy, and heavy-haul freight transport.

 

广覆盖的公路网建立起来。截至2015年年底,全国公路通车总里程达457.73万公里。高速公路通车里程达12.35万公里,位居世界第一。国省干线公路网络不断完善,连接了全国县级及以上行政区。农村公路里程达到398.06万公里,通达99.9%的乡镇和99.8%的建制村。路网技术结构不断优化,等级公路里程占公路总里程的88.4%。

 

A full-coverage highway network has been set up. By the end of 2015, China’s total highway traffic length was 4.58 million km. Expressway length was 123,500 km, ranking first in the world. The national and provincial trunk highway network has been improved, connecting administrative regions at and above the county level nationwide. Rural highway length was 3.98 million km, connecting 99.9 percent of towns and townships and 99.8 percent of administrative villages. The technology structure of the highway network has been improved, with graded highway length accounting for 88.4 percent of total highway length.

 

初步形成干支衔接的水运网。截至2015年年底,全国港口拥有生产性码头泊位3.13万个,其中万吨级及以上泊位2221个,煤炭、原油、金属矿石、集装箱等专业化泊位达1173个,港口大型化、深水化、专业化、自动化水平进一步提升。内河航道通航里程达12.7万公里,等级航道占52.2%,高等级航道达标里程1.36万公里,长江、西江、京杭运河等航道通航条件不断改善,初步建成了以“两横一纵两网十八线”为主体的内河航道体系。

 

A water transport network connecting trunk and branch lines has been established. By the end of 2015, China had 31,300 quay berths for production use, including 2,221 berths of 10,000-ton-class or above and 1,173 specialized berths for coal, crude oil, metal ores and containers, and improved large-scale, professional and automated deep-water ports. Inland waterway navigable length was 127,000 km, with graded waterways accounting for 52.2 percent, and the length of high-grade waterways reaching 13,600 km. China has improved the navigation conditions of the Yangtze and Xijiang rivers and the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, and formed an inland waterway system composed of two horizontal trunk waterways, one vertical trunk waterway, two high-grade waterway networks and 18 high-grade mainstream and tributary waterways.

 

民用机场体系基本成型。截至2015年年底,全国民航运输机场达210个,初步形成了以北京、上海、广州等国际枢纽机场为中心,省会城市和重点城市区域枢纽机场为骨干,以及其他干、支线机场相互配合的格局。空管设施建设不断加强,2015年保障飞机起降达到856.6万架次。通用机场加快发展。机场轨道交通和机场快速通道加快建设,机场与其他交通运输方式的衔接更加紧密。

 

A civil airport system has taken shape. By the end of 2015, China had 210 civil transport airports, forming a pattern with international hub airports in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou as centers, with regional hub airports in provincial capitals and major cities as junctures, and some other support trunk and branch airports. Air traffic control facilities have been improved, which secured 8.57 million takeoffs and landings in 2015. General aviation airports have been developing quickly. Airport rail and fast-track transit have been rapidly improved, and the connectivity between airports and other modes of transport has been enhanced.

 

乡乡设所、村村通邮总体实现。截至2015年年底,全国邮路总条数达2.5万条,邮路总长度(单程)达637.6万公里,邮政普遍服务营业场所总数达5.4万处,村邮站总数达21万个。快递服务营业网点达18.3万处,网路总长度(单程)达2370.5万公里。

 

Post offices for each township and postal services for each village have been realized. By the end of 2015, China’s postal routes totaled 25,000, with a total length of 6.38 million km; postal outlets totaled 54,000, and village mail stations totaled 210,000. Express delivery outlets numbered 183,000, with a total network length of 23.71 million km.

 

油气管道骨干网络初步形成。截至2015年年底,全国陆上油气管道总里程达11.2万公里,初步形成了覆盖全国31个省(区、市)的原油、成品油和天然气三大主干网络和“西油东送、北油南运、西气东输、北气南下、海气登陆”的油气输送网络。

 

Oil and gas pipelines have formed a trunk network. By the end of 2015, China’s onshore oil and gas pipelines had a total length of 112,000 km, covering 31 provinces, municipalities directly under the central government and autonomous regions, forming a trunk-pipeline network for crude oil, refined oil and natural gas as well as an oil and gas transmission network which transports oil from the west to the east and from the north to the south, transmits gas from the west to the east and from the north to the south, and brings gas from offshore.

 

(二)运输服务能力

 

  1. Transport Service Capacity

 

运输量位居世界前位。2015年,全社会完成客运量194.3亿人、旅客周转量30047亿人公里;完成货运量410亿吨、货物周转量173690.6亿吨公里。铁路旅客周转量、货运量居世界第一,货运周转量居世界第二,公路客货运输量及周转量、水路货运量及周转量均居世界第一,民航运输总周转量、旅客周转量、货邮周转量均居世界第二。全国港口完成货物吞吐量和集装箱吞吐量均居世界第一。邮政业年服务用户超过700亿人次,快递年业务量居世界第一,大型网络购物促销“双11”活动单日处理峰值超过1.6亿件。管道货运量达7.1亿吨,周转量达4138.8亿吨公里。

 

China’s transport volume leads the world. In 2015, China’s passenger transport volume was 19.43 billion persons, and passenger turnover was 3.0 trillion passenger-km (pkm); freight transport volume was 41 billion tons, and freight turnover was 17.37 trillion ton-km (tkm). In terms of railway transport, passenger turnover and freight transport volume ranked first in the world, and freight turnover ranked second. In terms of highway transport, passenger and freight transport volume and passenger and freight turnover ranked first in the world. In terms of waterway transport, freight transport volume and freight turnover also ranked first in the world. In terms of civil aviation transport, total turnover, passenger turnover, and cargo and mail turnover all ranked second in the world. In terms of port transport, cargo throughput and container throughput ranked first in the world. In terms of postal services, the number of customers exceeded 70 billion. In terms of express delivery, business volume ranked first in the world; on November 11, Online Shopping Day, the number of parcels delivered in one day reached the year’s peak of 160 million pieces. In terms of pipeline transportation, freight transport volume was 710 million tons and freight turnover was 413.88 billion tkm.

 

运输服务质量全面提升。多式联运、甩挂运输等先进运输组织模式及冷链等专业物流快速发展,集装箱、厢式货车等标准化运载单元加快推广,城乡物流配送信息化、集约化程度明显提升,提高了社会物流运行效率。交通运输安全水平大幅改善,铁路旅客运输总体安全水平居世界前列,2015年道路交通万车事故死亡人数较2005年下降了72.4%,全国运输船舶百万吨港口吞吐量等级以上事故件数平均每年下降5%,民航运输航空百万小时重大事故率10年滚动值为0.018(世界平均水平为0.24)。大力提升客运基本公共服务均等化水平,“公交优先”战略扎实推进,全国公交专用车道达8569公里,快速公交系统(BRT)线路长度达3081公里,定制公交、夜间公交等特色公共交通服务产品的新模式不断丰富,网约出租汽车等新业态快速发展。

 

Transport service quality has been improved. Multimodal transport, drop and pull transport and cold chain logistics have developed quickly; the use of standardized transport units such as containers and vans has been promoted; and urban and rural logistics have enhanced IT application and intensified services, thus increasing logistics efficiency. Transport safety has been greatly improved, and China’s railway passenger transport safety leads the world. In 2015, the number of death toll per 10,000 vehicle road accidents dropped by 72.4 percent over 2005; the number of accidents of cargo vessels of a million-ton-class throughput and above has decreased by five percent on average annually since 2005; the rolling ten-year accident rate per one million flight hours in civil aviation transport was 0.018 in 2015 (the world’s average is 0.24). Equitable basic public services in passenger transport and the strategy of “public transit priority” have been promoted. The length of exclusive bus lanes has reached 8,569 km, and the length of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) lines 3,081 km. In addition, new and specialized public transport services, such as customized shuttle and night buses, have increased, and new models of transport service including online taxi booking have been developing rapidly.

 

运输服务通达性显著增强。高速铁路覆盖百万人口以上城市比例达65%。道路客运线路达18.1万条。全国城市公共汽(电)车运营线路突破4.5万条,城市轨道交通运营线路达105条,运营线路总长度达3195公里。水路国际运输航线和集装箱班轮航线往来100多个国家和地区的1000多个港口。民航定期航班航线达3326条,航线里程超过786.6万公里(按重复距离计算),通达境内204个城市,香港、澳门、台湾地区以及55个国家(地区)的137个城市。全国乡镇快递服务营业网点覆盖率达70%。

 

Transport service accessibility has been expanded. High-speed railway coverage of cities with a population of over one million each has reached 65 percent, and the number of passenger transport routes has reached 181,000. The number of urban bus and trolley bus routes in operation has exceeded 45,000, and the number of urban rail transit routes in operation has reached 105, with a total length of 3,195 km. International waterway transport routes and container shipment routes now connect over 1,000 ports in more than 100 countries and regions. Scheduled civil aviation flights operate on 3,326 routes, with a total length of 7.87 million km, reaching 204 cities in China’s mainland, the Hong Kong SAR, Macao SAR and Taiwan, as well as 137 cities in 55 foreign countries and regions. Express delivery outlets now serve 70 percent of towns and townships nationwide.

 

运输工具技术水平不断提高。截至2015年年底,铁路主要干线全部实现内燃、电力机车牵引,客货运输车辆品种和结构均实现升级换代。民用汽车数量达到17228万辆,公路客货营运车辆总数达1473万辆,货运车辆平均吨位数由6.3吨增加至7.5吨,专用货车(含甩挂运输车辆)占比由5.1%提高至27.2%,营运客车高档化、舒适化和货运车辆大型化、专业化程度不断提高。水上运输船舶达16.6万艘,海运船队运力总规模达1.6亿吨,内河货运船舶平均吨位超过800吨,高等级航道通航水域船型标准化率达到50%,船舶大型化、专业化和标准化发展趋势明显。民航拥有运输飞机在册架数2650架,通用航空企业拥有在册航空器1904架。邮政业拥有各类汽车24.4万辆、国内快递专用货机71架。

 

Means of transport and technology have been improved. By the end of 2015, all railway trunk lines had realized diesel and electric locomotive traction; types and structures of passenger and freight transport vehicles had been upgraded and updated. Civil automobiles numbered 172.28 million; highway passenger and freight transport vehicles in operation totaled 14.73 million; the average tonnage of freight transport vehicles increased from 6.3 to 7.5 tons; the proportion of special-use freight vehicles (including trailers) rose from 5.1 percent to 27.2 percent; passenger transport vehicles in operation have become advanced and comfortable, while freight transport vehicles have become larger and have been specified for various uses. Water transport vessels numbered 166,000; ocean cargo fleet had a total capacity of 160 million tons; inland waterway freight transport vessels had an average tonnage of more than 800 tons; the rate of standard ship types operating in navigable waters of high-grade waterways reached 50 percent; transport vessels have been developed towards large-size, specialized-use and standard types. Civil aviation had 2,650 registered planes, while general aviation had 1,904. Postal services had 244,000 transport vehicles and 71 cargo planes for domestic express delivery.

 

初步建立高效的安全监管和海上应急救助体系。建立和完善国家海上搜救和重大海上溢油应急处置部际联席会议制度,海上搜救打捞力量持续增强,搜救志愿者队伍不断扩大。初步构建了广泛覆盖、反应迅速、立体高效的水上交通安全监管和海上应急保障体系。

 

An efficient safety regulation and maritime emergency aid system has been established. China has established and improved the inter-ministerial joint conference system for maritime search and rescue, and major marine oil spill emergency disposal. It has also improved its maritime search and rescue efforts and increased the number of volunteers. Overall, China has preliminarily built an extensive, prompt and efficient system of waterway transport safety regulation and maritime emergency support.

 

(三)科技创新和应用

 

  1. Technology Innovation and Application

 

基础设施建设技术世界领先。高速铁路、高寒铁路、高原铁路、重载铁路技术迈入世界先进行列,高速铁路成为“中国制造”和“走出去”的新名片。高原冻土、膨胀土、沙漠等特殊地质的铁路、公路建设技术克服世界级难题,青藏公路、青藏铁路先后建成通车运营。陆续建成一批世界级特大桥隧,特大桥隧建造技术达到世界先进水平。离岸深水港建设关键技术、巨型河口航道整治技术、长河段航道系统治理技术以及大型机场工程建设技术世界领先,实施港珠澳大桥、洋山港集装箱码头、长江口深水航道治理等系列重大工程。

 

China leads the world in infrastructure construction. China’s technologies for high-speed, alpine, plateau and heavy-haul railways have reached the world’s advanced level, while high-speed railways have become a symbol of made-in-China and going-global products. Railway and highway construction technologies have overcome world-level geological challenges such as plateau permafrost, and expansive soil and desert. The construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Highway and Qinghai-Tibet Railway has been completed and they have been opened to traffic. A number of world-class large bridges and tunnels have been built with globally advanced construction technologies. China’s key construction technologies for offshore deep-water ports, improved technologies for large estuary waterways and long waterways, and construction technologies for large-scale airports are leading the world. The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, Yangshan Port Container Terminal, Yangtze Estuary Deepwater Channel Improvement Project, and other major construction projects have been carried out.

 

装备制造技术快速进步。以高速列车、大功率机车为代表的一批具有自主知识产权的高性能铁路装备技术达到世界先进水平,部分达到世界领先水平。新能源道路运输装备初步实现产业化。自主研制的支线客机、通用飞机、直升机已交付使用,C919大型客机总装下线,中国成为世界上为数不多的能够自主研制大飞机的国家。大型专业化码头装卸设备制造、海工机械特种船舶、集装箱成套设备制造技术领先世界,300米饱和潜水取得创新性突破。邮政光学字符识别(OCR)、视频补码、码址校验等分拣技术处于世界领先水平。

 

Equipment manufacturing has made rapid progress. High-performance railway equipment technologies with proprietary intellectual property rights, represented by high-speed railways and high-power locomotives, have reached the advanced world level, with some of them leading the world. New-energy road transport equipment has realized preliminary industrialization. Feeder liners, general aviation aircraft and helicopters independently developed by China have been put into use, and the C919 airliner has rolled off the assembly line, making China one of the few countries capable of developing large airliners independently. China’s manufacturing technologies for large, specialized equipment for terminal loading and unloading, special marine engineering machinery vessels and complete sets of container transport equipment are world-leaders, while its 300-m saturation diving technology has achieved a breakthrough. Sorting technologies in postal services, including optical character recognition (OCR), video complement and address check via bar code have reached the world’s top level.

 

信息化智能化技术广泛应用。大数据、云计算、物联网、移动互联网等信息通信技术在交通运输领域广泛应用,线上线下结合的商业模式蓬勃发展。铁路建成了客运联网售票系统,实现了运输生产调度指挥信息化。高速公路电子不停车收费系统(ETC)基本实现了全国联网。港口电子数据交换系统(EDI)、船舶交通管理系统(VTS)、船舶自动识别系统(AIS)在水运管理中广泛应用,开发了长江干线电子航道图技术。民航商务信息系统处于世界先进水平。邮政建立国家、省、市三级联动视频监控体系。无线射频识别技术(RFID)、全球卫星导航系统(GNSS)等现代导航信息技术在民航运输、物流配送中广泛应用。北斗导航系统成为第三个面向国际航海应用的全球卫星导航系统。

 

Information and intelligent technologies have been extensively applied. Information and communications technologies, such as big data, cloud computing, Internet of Things and mobile Internet, have been widely applied in transport, and combined online and traditional business models are thriving. Railway passenger transport has developed an online booking system, and realized IT application in transport management. Expressway transport has formed a nationwide Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) network. Port Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) and Vessel Automatic Identification System (AIS) have been widely applied in water transport management, and an electronic nautical chart of the trunk waterways of the Yangtze River has been developed. China’s civil aviation business information system is globally advanced. Postal services have established a video joint monitoring system at national, provincial and municipal levels. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and other modern navigation technologies have been applied to civil aviation and logistics. The Beidou Navigation Satellite System has become the third GNSS applied in international navigation.

 

(四)改革与法治建设

 

  1. Reform and Rule of Law

 

市场体系不断完善。经过30多年的市场化进程,交通建设、养护、运输不断推向市场。积极推行市场准入负面清单制度,鼓励和引导社会资本参与交通运输投资运营,大力推广社会资本与政府合作模式(PPP)。交通运输全面实现政企分开。不断推进简政放权,创新优化行政审批服务方式。加快市场信用体系建设,市场监管体系逐步完善,统一开放、竞争有序的交通运输市场基本形成。

 

Market system has been improved. Through over 30 years of marketization, transport construction, maintenance and traffic have become market-oriented. China has issued its Negative List for Market Access, encouraging non-government capital to invest in transport operation, and vigorously promoting Public-Private Partnership (PPP). Transport has separated government functions from enterprise operation completely. The government has also streamlined its administration and delegated authority, and innovated and improved government approval services. Transport has been boosting the market credit system and improving market regulation. As a result, a unified, open transport market of orderly competition has been formed.

 

法律法规体系基本形成。适应改革发展需要,对交通运输法律法规进行了大量的立、改、废工作。目前,共有《铁路法》《公路法》《港口法》《航道法》《海商法》《海上交通安全法》《民用航空法》《邮政法》等8部法律、《铁路安全管理条例》《公路安全保护条例》《道路运输条例》《国际海运条例》《内河交通安全管理条例》《船员条例》《民用机场管理条例》《民用航空安全保卫条例》《邮政法实施细则》等65部行政法规,以及300余件部门规章。

 

Legal framework has taken shape. To meet the demands of reform and development, China has promulgated, revised and annulled transport laws and regulations. Currently, China has eight relevant laws, namely, the Railway Law, Highway Law, Law on Ports, Waterway Law, Maritime Law, Maritime Traffic Safety Law, Civil Aviation Law and Postal Law. In addition, there are 65 relevant administrative regulations, including the Regulations on the Administration of Railway Safety, Regulations on the Administration of Highway Safety, Regulations on Road Transport, Regulations on International Maritime Transport, Regulations on the Administration of Traffic Safety in Inland Waters, Regulations on Seamen, Regulations on the Administration of Civil Airports, Regulations on Civil Aviation Safety, and Rules for the Implementation of the Postal Law. There are also more than 300 relevant departmental rules.

 

综合交通运输管理体制初步建立。2008年、2013年实施两轮交通运输大部门制改革,形成了由交通运输部管理国家铁路局、中国民用航空局、国家邮政局的大部门管理体制架构。各地积极推进综合交通运输管理体制改革,加快综合交通运输体系建设。

 

Comprehensive transport management system has been preliminarily established. In 2008 and 2013 respectively, China launched two rounds of institutional reform to establish a large transport department, namely, the Ministry of Transport, which put the National Railways Administration, Civil Aviation Administration of China and State Postal Bureau under its management. All localities are promoting structural reform for comprehensive transport management, and quickening their pace in building a comprehensive transport system.

三、发挥基础性先导性服务性作用

III. Playing a Basic, Pioneering and Serving Role

 

着眼全面建成小康社会,中国政府坚持把交通运输摆在先行发展的重要位置,交通运输在推动经济社会发展、服务和改善民生以及促进生态文明建设方面,发挥了基础性先导性服务性作用。

 

To complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, the Chinese government gives priority to transport, which plays a basic, pioneering and serving role in promoting economic and social development, in serving the people and improving their living standards, and in enhancing ecological progress.

 

(一)推动经济社会发展

 

  1. Promoting Economic and Social Development

 

支撑经济增长。交通运输基础设施投资是经济稳定增长的助推器,“十二五”期间,中国交通运输基础设施完成投资12.5万亿元。交通运输网络的完善和服务水平的提高,推动了经济运行效率提升,降低了物流成本,带动了汽车、船舶、冶金、物流、电商、旅游、房地产等相关产业发展,创造了大量就业岗位。2015年,邮政业支撑的国内网购交易额突破3万亿元。

 

Supporting economic growth. Investment in transport infrastructure is the engine of stable economic growth. During the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011-2015), a total of RMB12.5 trillion was invested in China’s transport infrastructure. The improvement in the transport network and relevant services has increased the efficiency of economic operation, reduced logistics cost, boosted the development of relevant industries such as automobiles, shipping, metallurgy, logistics, e-commerce, tourism and real estate, and created many jobs. In 2015, China’s total online purchasing transactions, supported by the postal industry, surpassed RMB3 trillion.

 

保障物资运输。便捷高效的物流基础设施网络,促进了多种运输方式顺畅衔接和高效中转,提升了物流体系综合服务水平,有力保障了煤炭、原油、铁矿石、粮食等重点物资运输,2015年中国港口完成煤炭一次下水量6.7亿吨、外贸原油接卸量3.2亿吨、外贸铁矿石接卸量10亿吨。开辟鲜活农产品“绿色通道”,有效保障和满足了人民群众的生产生活需求。

 

Ensuring cargo transport. China’s convenient and efficient logistics network has ensured the smooth and efficient transition between different means of transport, enhanced the efficiency of the logistics system, and guaranteed the transport of coal, crude oil, iron ore, grain, and other key items of cargo. In 2015, some 670 million tons of coal were shipped at Chinese ports, which also unloaded 320 million tons of crude oil and 1 billion tons of iron ore. Express lines were made available for fresh farm produce, effectively meeting the needs of the people.

 

促进区域和城乡协调发展。中国政府把推进交通运输先行发展作为支撑“四大板块”“三大战略”等国家区域发展总体战略的重点任务,积极打通发达地区、中等发达地区、欠发达地区之间的联系通道。依托京沪、京广、沿海、沿江等综合运输大通道以及长三角、珠三角、环渤海等港口群形成的经济带、城市群,成为中国经济最具活力、人口最为密集的区域。城际公路客运普及和城际轨道加快建设促进了城市群一体化发展,城乡交通一体化让城乡经济融合更紧密。

 

Facilitating the coordinated development between regions and between urban and rural areas. The Chinese government gives priority to the development of transport and enables the transport industry to play a pioneering role in supporting the regional development of eastern, central, western and northeastern China and the Three Initiatives, in an effort to connect China’s developed, moderately developed and underdeveloped areas. China is building economic belts and urban agglomerations along the railway lines from Beijing to Shanghai and Guangzhou, along the coastline and the Yangtze River, near the ports in the Yangtze River and Pearl River deltas and along the Bohai Sea Rim, striving to make these areas the most economically viable and populous in the country. The growth of intercity highway transport and the development of intercity rails have facilitated the integrated development of urban agglomerations, and the integration of urban and rural transport is bringing the urban and rural areas closer economically.

 

(二)服务和改善民生

 

  1. Serving the People and Improving Their Living Standards

 

服务群众安全便捷出行。推动“平安交通”建设,着力构建科学完善的交通运输安全体系,运输结构不断优化,服务水平不断提升,人民群众出行由“走得了”向“走得好”升级发展。“春运”等节假日综合运输服务保障能力显著提升。城市公交出行分担率稳步提高,舒适度不断提升。“互联网+交通运输”快速发展,提供实时交通运行状态查询、出行路线规划、线(网)上购票、智能停车等“一站式”服务。12328交通运输服务监督电话全面开通。

 

Providing transport services to the people and making their travel safe and convenient. China is striving to build a sound system to improve transport safety, upgrade the transport structure and improve transport services, in an effort to provide better services to people. The transport capacity and service during the Spring Festival (i.e., Chinese New Year) and other travel peaks have been significantly enhanced. In cities, the percentage of people taking public transit is on the rise, and comfort level of such transport means has been greatly enhanced. With the rapid growth of the “Internet + transport,” passengers can now check the real-time status of traffic, plan their trips ahead of time, purchase tickets online, and enjoy “smart” parking and other one-stop services. The transport service and complaints hotline 12328 has been put into use.

 

助力扶贫脱贫。进入21世纪以来,先后实施乡镇和建制村通达通畅工程、集中连片特困地区交通扶贫等10多个专项建设计划,加大对农村地区、贫困地区交通建设的支持力度。“十二五”期间,投入车购税资金超过5500亿元支持交通扶贫建设,集中连片特困地区83.8%的县城通二级及以上公路,86.2%的建制村实现通硬化路。提高贫困地区农村客运车辆通达率,逐步解决了溜索等特殊问题。

 

Supporting the poverty reduction and eradication effort. Entering the 21st century, China has initiated a dozen projects to connect townships, towns and administrative villages to the road grid, and built transport infrastructure in contiguous impoverished areas, with increased support for transport development in rural and impoverished areas. During the 12th Five-Year Plan period, over RMB550 billion of vehicle purchase tax was allocated to support transport development in poor areas. In contiguous impoverished areas, 83.8 percent of county seats now have roads of Grade II or above, and 86.2 percent of administrative villages have tarmac and cement roads. More buses now operate on routes linking poverty-stricken areas, and ropeways are being replaced by bridges.

 

有效应对突发事件。交通运输应急体系在重大自然灾害、安全事故等突发事件应急救援中发挥重要作用。在汶川、玉树等地震灾害和南方雨雪冰冻灾害中,交通运输救援队伍第一时间抢通救灾“生命线”,为抢救生命赢得宝贵时间。海上搜救力量妥善完成多起海上重大突发事件应急处置工作,积极参与马航MH370失事客机搜寻等工作。2010年至2015年,组织协调海上搜救行动12411次,搜救遇险人员108464人,其中外籍人员8070人。

 

Effectively addressing emergencies. The transport emergency response system plays a key role in the rescue and relief work following natural disasters, accidents and similar contingencies. In the wake of the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, Yushu earthquake in 2010 and the devastating snowstorms in southern China in 2008, emergency transport response teams were among the first to arrive at the scene and open up “lifelines” for relief. China’s marine search and rescue teams have been engaged in rescue work connected with many emergencies at sea, and actively took part in the search for the Malaysian Airline flight MH370. In the period 2010-2015, China organized and coordinated 12,411 marine search and rescue missions, saving 108,464 lives, including 8,070 foreigners.

 

(三)促进生态文明建设

 

  1. Enhancing Ecological Progress

 

促进节能减排。大力推进绿色交通建设,与2010年相比,2015年国家铁路单位运输工作量综合能耗下降6%,营运车辆单位运输周转量能耗下降6.5%,营运船舶单位运输周转量能耗下降10.5%,民航吨公里油耗下降近5%。实施“公交优先”战略,新能源和清洁能源运输工具不断增加,公共自行车系统快速兴起。在珠三角、长三角、环渤海(京津冀)水域设立了船舶排放控制区。长江干线、京杭运河、部分沿海地区开展水运行业应用液化天然气(LNG)试点示范,部分港口安装了码头油气回收装置,实施了船舶岸电工程。

 

Promoting energy-saving and emission-reduction. China has been vigorously promoting the green development of transport. Compared to the 2010 levels, in 2015, the comprehensive energy consumption per unit railway transport dropped by six percent, the energy consumption per unit transport turnover of operating vehicles and ships went down by 6.5 percent and 10.5 percent respectively, and the ton/km fuel consumption of civil aviation decreased by almost five percent. The strategy of “public transit priority” has been implemented, supported by growing new- and clean-energy means of transport and a rapidly developing public bicycle rental system. In the Pearl River and Yangtze River deltas, and Bohai Sea Rim (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) area, restriction zones have been set up to curb emissions from ships. Along the arteries of the Yangtze River and the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, and in some coastal regions, pilot and demonstration projects of LNG use have been launched for water-borne transport, oil vapor recovery units installed at some ports and shore power provided to ships.

 

保护生态环境。在交通运输规划、设计、建设、运营等环节贯彻生态保护理念,逐步建设了一批示范性绿色铁路、公路、港口和航道,探索创新荒漠区、高寒区、围填海区域交通运输基础设施生态修复技术。“十二五”期间,完成交通运输基础设施生态修复总里程近1300公里,修复总面积超过5000万平方米。公路路面废旧料循环利用率达到40%。全国煤炭运输港口、重点矿石运输港口开展粉尘污染控制措施,沿海地区、长江干线布设了溢油应急设备库和配置点。高速铁路采用“以桥代路”,有效节约了耕地,减少了对沿线城镇的切割。

 

Protecting the ecological environment. China is promoting ecological conservation in the planning, designing, construction, and operation of transport projects, and has built a number of railways, highways, ports and sea routes for demonstration purposes. It is also experimenting with ecological restoration technologies in transport infrastructure in deserts, alpine regions, and reclamation areas. During the 12th Five-Year Plan period, China restored the ecology along 1,300 km of transport lines, with a total area of 50 million sq m. The recycling rate of road-surface materials reached 40 percent. Measures have been adopted to control dust pollution at coal and other minerals transport ports, and equipment storages and installation venues have been set up in coastal areas and along the Yangtze River in case of oil spills. Instead of tracks laid on the ground, many of China’s high-speed trains run on elevated rails to spare farmlands and keep the towns along the routes intact.

四、对外开放与国际合作

IV. Opening up and International Cooperation

 

中国政府大力推进与国际间的互联互通,在扩大开放的同时,不断深化与世界合作,构建了全方位、多层次、多渠道的交通运输对外开放和国际合作新格局。

 

The Chinese government proactively enhances its connectivity with the world community, continuing to open up to and deepening its cooperation with the rest of the world. An all-dimensional, multi-layer and multi-channel framework has been formed in transport as regards opening up to the outside world and international cooperation.

 

(一)国际客货运输

 

  1. International Passenger and Freight Transport

 

加强国际互联互通。截至2015年年底,中国与周边14个国家中的5个国家有铁路联通,有11个铁路口岸,开行多条通往欧洲和亚洲国家的中欧、中亚铁路集装箱班列,常年开通的边境公路口岸基本通二级及以上公路,一批具有国际物流功能的物流园区和货运场站建成运营。积极推动航运国际和区域合作,中老缅泰共同推进澜沧江—湄公河国际航运开发。民航利用代码共享、航空联盟、航线联营、股权合作等方式,优化国际航线网络,不断提升航班频次和通达性。2015年国际及港澳台快递业务量达4.3亿件,快递企业服务网络拓展至海外市场。加强与“一带一路”沿线国家合作,积极推动交通基础设施互联互通和运输便利化。2015年,通过各种交通运输方式出境旅游的人次达1.2亿。

 

Strengthening international connectivity. By the end of 2015, China had established railway connections with five of its 14 neighboring countries, with 11 railway crossing points. Multiple container trains operate on railways to Central Europe and Central Asia; highway crossing points in border areas, open around the year, are connected to roads at Grade II or above; and a group of logistics parks and cargo operation centers capable of handling international logistics have been put into use. China actively promotes international and regional cooperation in shipping, and is jointly pushing forward the navigation development of the Lancang-Mekong River with Laos, Myanmar and Thailand. Through code-sharing, airline alliance, joint operation of air routes and equity cooperation, China’s civil aviation is striving to improve its international flight network, increase the number of flights and expand its operational scope. In 2015, Chinese express delivery services extended their networks overseas, with 430 million items of mail delivered to international destinations as well as to Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. At the same time, China is strengthening cooperation with countries involved in the Belt and Road Initiative, actively pushing forward the interconnectivity of transport infrastructure and enhancing transport convenience. In 2015, Chinese citizens made some 120 million trips overseas via various means of transport.

 

支撑对外贸易。中国是世界贸易大国,交通运输加快发展为中国加快构建全方位开放新格局、提升国家竞争力提供了重要保障。海上运输承担了90%以上的外贸货物运输量以及98%的进口铁矿石、91%的进口原油、92%的进口煤炭和99%的进口粮食运输量,成为加快发展外向型经济的重要支撑。中欧班列快速发展,已成为国际货物联运的重要组成部分。

 

Supporting foreign trade. China is a major trading nation, and the quickened development of its transport provides a strong basis for building a new multi-dimensional structure of opening up and for enhancing China’s competitiveness internationally. An important pillar for developing an export-oriented economy, China’s maritime transport carries 90 percent of the country’s foreign trade cargo, 98 percent of imported iron ore, 91 percent of imported crude oil, 92 percent of imported coal and 99 percent of imported grain. Trains between China and Europe have become an important component of international through freight traffic.

 

(二)国际交流合作与对外开放

 

  1. International Exchanges and Cooperation and Opening up

 

积极参与国际事务。中国政府历来重视并积极参与交通运输国际组织事务,认真履行各项国际义务,在铁路合作组织、国际海事组织、国际民用航空组织和万国邮政联盟等重要交通运输国际组织中发挥着建设性作用。作为铁路合作组织创始国之一,中国在各项标准和规范制订中具有重要影响力;自1972年恢复在万国邮政联盟合法席位以来,一直连任邮政经营理事会理事国,并一直当选行政理事会理事国;自1989年起,已连续14次当选国际海事组织A类理事国;自2004年起,已连续5次担任国际民航组织一类理事国;推进多双边合作和区域合作,与100多个国家签订了铁路、公路、海运、民用航空和邮政政府间协定及双边、区域合作文件;建立了中国—东盟交通部长会议、上海合作组织交通部长会议等多个交通运输合作机制,倡议成立亚太经济合作组织港口服务组织。积极履行国际义务,支持其他发展中国家交通发展,为亚洲、非洲多个国家援建了一批交通工程。

 

Actively participating in international affairs. The Chinese government has always valued the role of and actively participated in the activities of international transport organizations. It takes measures to fulfill its obligations, and plays a constructive role in the Organization for Railway Cooperation (OSJD), International Maritime Organization (IMO), International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Universal Postal Union (UPU) and other important international transport organizations. As a founder of the OSJD, China has made great contribution in formulating the organization’s various standards and regulations. China has served as member of both the UPU’s Postal Operations Council and Council of Administration since it resumed its legitimate seat at the organization in 1972. It has been elected 14 times as a category-A member of the IMO Council since 1989, and five times as a category-A member of the ICAO Council since 2004. China actively promotes bilateral and regional cooperation. It has signed intergovernmental agreements and bilateral and regional documents on railway, highway, maritime transport, civil aviation and postal service cooperation with more than 100 countries. Several transport cooperation mechanisms have been set up, such as the China-ASEAN and Shanghai Cooperation Organization transport ministers’ meetings, and a proposal has been made by China to establish a seaport service organization for APEC. China actively fulfills its international obligations, supports the transport development of other developing countries, and has aided the construction of a series of transport projects in Asia and Africa.

 

不断扩大对外开放。交通运输业是中国最早对外开放的行业之一。1979年,原交通部驻港企业招商局在深圳创办蛇口工业区,在全国改革开放的棋盘上先行一步。1984年国家设立14个沿海开放城市,沿海港口成为对外开放的“窗口”。目前在交通运输基础设施领域,除了铁路干线和民用机场的建设经营要求中方控股外,所有公路桥梁、港口码头、其他铁路和城市轨道对外资不设限。在运输服务领域,公路货运、国际集装箱多式联运、国际海运辅助服务完全放开。

 

Continuing to expand the scope of opening up. The transport industry was one of China’s first industries to open to the outside world. In 1979, the China Merchants Group, then under the administration of China’s former Ministry of Transport, founded the Shekou Industrial Zone in Shenzhen, taking the first step in the country’s opening-up initiative. In 1984, the Chinese government opened 14 coastal cities, and coastal ports became windows opened to the rest of the world. Today, in the area of transport infrastructure, except railway arteries and civil airports, all highways, bridges, ports, other types of railways and urban rail tracks are open to foreign capital as far as construction and operation is concerned. There is no limit on foreign capital for transport services such as highway freight, international container multimodal transport, and supporting services for international maritime transport.

 

加快“走出去”步伐。中国铁路、交通工程建设和港口运营领域等向全世界展示了雄厚的产业竞争实力。中国的国际海运量占全世界海运量的三分之一。中国交通运输企业不断加快“走出去”步伐,正在从传统劳务输出和工程承包向资本输出、技术输出、管理输出、标准输出转变,业务涉及交通运输基础设施建设、港口经营、远洋运输、交通运输装备、船舶检验、航海教育等众多领域。

 

Quickening the pace of Chinese enterprises’ “going global.” China has exhibited a strong competitive edge in the areas of railway building, transport projects and port operation. China transports one third of the total global maritime cargo. China’s transport businesses are quickening their steps of “going global,” and are transforming themselves from traditional labor export and project contracting entities to exporters of capital, technology, management and standards in the areas of transport infrastructure, port operation, ocean transport, transport equipment, ship inspection and maritime training.

五、未来五年的发展目标

V. Development Goals for the Next Five Years

 

“十三五”时期,中国交通运输发展将按照统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局和协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,牢固树立和贯彻落实创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的发展理念,坚持以人民为中心,提高发展质量和综合效率,积极发挥不同运输方式的比较优势,坚持网络化布局、智能化管理、一体化服务、绿色化发展,建设国内国际通道联通、区域城乡覆盖广泛、枢纽节点功能完善、运输服务一体高效的综合交通运输体系,为全面建成小康社会提供交通运输保障,更好地服务中国经济发展,更好地连通中国与世界。

 

During the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016-2020), China will continue to develop its transport industry in accordance with the overall plan to seek economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress and the Four-pronged Strategy. It will implement the guideline of innovation, coordination, green development, opening up, and sharing of benefits, continue to center on the people’s needs, improve the quality and efficiency of development, and fully utilize the comparative advantages of different means of transport. China will continue to develop its transport grid characterized by intelligent management, integrated services and green development, and build a comprehensive transport system with functional “nodes” that connect domestic and international transport channels, cover urban and rural areas, and provide integrated and efficient transport services. All this will contribute to the completion of the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, to the growth of the Chinese economy, and to connecting China more closely with the rest of the world.

 

——全面深化交通运输改革。深入推进综合交通运输改革发展,促进各种运输方式深度融合,加快构建安全、便捷、高效、绿色、经济的现代综合交通运输体系。推进铁路市场化改革,深化投融资体制和财政事权与支出责任改革,加快推进空域管理体制改革。加快政府职能转变,持续推进简政放权、放管结合、优化服务,提高行政效能。

 

Driving the reform of transport to a deeper level. China will promote the further integration of different means of transport, and build a safe, convenient, efficient, green, and economical modern transport system. It will push ahead the market-oriented reform of its railways, deepen reforms of the investment and financing system, financial powers and expenditure responsibilities, and reform its airspace management system. At the same time, it will further promote the transformation of government functions, continue to streamline administration and delegate powers to lower levels, strengthen regulations, improve government services and enhance administrative efficiency.

 

——构建内通外联的运输通道网络。构建横贯东西、纵贯南北、内畅外通的综合运输大通道,推进对外交通走廊和海上丝绸之路走廊建设。打造高品质的快速网络,加快推进高速铁路成网,完善国家高速公路网络,适度建设地方高速公路,增强枢纽机场和干支线机场功能。完善广覆盖的基础网络,加快中西部铁路建设,推进普通国省道提质改造和瓶颈路段建设,提升沿海和内河水运设施专业化水平,加强农村公路、通用机场建设,推进油气管道区域互联。提升邮政网络服务水平,加强快递基础设施建设。到2020年,高速铁路营业里程达到3万公里,覆盖80%以上的大城市。新改建高速公路通车里程约3万公里。具备条件的建制村通硬化路和班车。村村直接通邮。

 

Building a transport network that covers the whole of China and extends beyond its borders. China will build a comprehensive transport network that spreads from east to west and south to north, construct passageways that extend beyond its borders, and develop sea routes for the Maritime Silk Road. China will develop a high-quality fast-transit grid, form a high-speed rail network, improve the national expressway network, build an appropriate number of expressways at the local level, and enhance the functions of airline hubs and national and regional airports. China will improve its basic road network to cover more areas, speed up the construction of railways in the central and western areas, upgrade national and provincial highways and construction of congested sections, improve coastal and inland river transport facilities, strengthen the construction of roads and airports in rural areas, and connect the oil and gas pipelines in different areas. China will improve its postal services and network, and strengthen the infrastructure for express mail delivery. By 2020, China will have 30,000 km of high-speed railways, covering 80 percent of big cities, and 30,000 km of newly renovated expressways. Administrative villages with the necessary conditions will have tarmac and cement roads and shuttle bus services, and all villages will have access to mail service.

 

——建设现代高效的城际城市交通。建设城市群中心城市间、中心城市与周边节点城市间1-2小时交通圈,打造城市群中心城市与周边重要城镇间1小时通勤都市圈。在城镇化地区大力发展城际铁路、市域(郊)铁路,形成多层次轨道交通骨干网络。实行公共交通优先,加快发展城市轨道交通、快速公交等大容量公共交通。到2020年,基本建成京津冀、长三角、珠三角、长江中游、中原、成渝、山东半岛城市群城际铁路网。加快300万以上人口城市轨道交通成网,新增城市轨道交通运营里程约3000公里。加强邮政、快递网络终端建设。

 

Developing modern and efficient intercity transport. In urban agglomerations, China will build commuting circles of 1-2 hours between the central cities and between central and peripheral cities, and one-hour commuting circles between central cities and key peripheral towns. In urban areas, it will vigorously develop intercity high-speed and suburban railways, and form a multi-level rail transit network. With priority focused on public transit, China will speed up the development of its urban rail and bus rapid transit, and other means of high-capacity public transport. By 2020, intercity railway networks will be completed in the urban agglomerations of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, middle reaches of the Yangtze River, Central Plains, Chengdu-Chongqing, and Shandong Peninsula areas. More efforts will be made in cities with three million or more residents to form urban rail transport networks, and about 3,000 km of new tracks will be added to the urban rail transit system. China will also strengthen the development of terminals for postal and express delivery services.

 

——打造一体衔接的综合交通枢纽。优化枢纽空间布局,建设北京、上海、广州等国际性综合交通枢纽,提升全国性、区域性和地区性综合交通枢纽水平,加强中西部重要枢纽建设,推进沿边重要口岸枢纽建设,提升枢纽内外辐射能力。完善枢纽综合服务功能,优化中转设施和集疏运网络,强化客运零距离换乘和货运无缝化衔接,实现不同运输方式协调高效,发挥综合优势,提升交通物流整体效率。

 

Building integrated transport hubs. China will enhance the layout of its transport hubs, build international transport hubs in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, and improve the services and functions of national, regional and local transport hubs. It will strengthen the construction of key transport centers in central and western China and key ports in border regions, and increase their impacts over a wider area. China will improve the services of its transport hubs, improve the transfer facilities and the collecting and distributing networks, enable seamless passenger and freight transfer, and coordinate different means of transport, so as to increase the efficiency of transport and logistics.

 

——推动运输服务绿色智能发展。推进交通运输绿色发展,集约节约利用资源,加强标准化、低碳化、现代化运输装备和节能环保运输工具推广应用。实施“互联网+交通运输”行动计划,加快智能交通发展,推广先进信息技术和智能技术装备应用,加强联程联运系统、智能管理系统、公共信息系统建设,加快发展多式联运,提高交通运输服务质量和效益。

 

Promoting the green and intelligent development of transport services. China is striving to push forward the green development of transport through conservation and intensive use of resources and promoting the use of standardized, low-carbon, and modern equipment and energy-saving means in the transport sector. With the implementation of the “Internet + transport” action plan, China is encouraging the development of intelligent transport, and the application of advanced information technology and smart appliances. More efforts will be made in the development of through-transport, smart management and public information systems, in strengthening multimodal transport, and in enhancing the quality and profit of transport services.

 

——提升交通运输安全管理水平。完善安全生产法规制度体系,有效落实企业主体责任和管理部门监管责任。加强应急能力建设,全面提升应急处置和救援水平。强化事前预防,开展平安交通专项行动,加大隐患排查治理和风险管控力度,突出重点领域安全监管,全面实施安全生产风险管理,坚决遏制重特大事故多发频发。

 

Improving safety in the transport industry. China will improve the regulations and system for transport safety control, and see to it that the responsibilities of transport businesses and those of the supervising organs are thoroughly implemented. China will strengthen its capacity for emergency response and rescue, emphasizing precautionary measures, carrying out special actions to ensure transport safety and strengthening the screening of potential safety hazards and security risks. It will also focus on key areas, fully implement safety control in the transport industry, and resolutely strive to reduce the occurrence of serious accidents.

 

结束语

Conclusion

 

实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦,对交通运输发展提出了新的更高要求。交通推动发展,交流促进合作,通达实现共赢。中国政府将不断提升交通运输服务品质,更好服务经济社会发展,并继续加强与世界各国在交通运输领域的深度合作,共享机遇、共迎挑战,实现共同发展、共同繁荣。

 

To achieve the Two Centenary Goals and realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, higher standards must be set for the development of transport in China. Transport promotes development, exchanges bring about cooperation, and interconnectivity enables mutual benefits. The Chinese government will continue to improve the country’s transport services so as to better serve China’s socioeconomic development, and continue to strengthen cooperation in the area of transport with other countries so that they can take new opportunities and address challenges together to realize common development and prosperity.

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  • 版权声明 本文源自 国新办 整理 发表于 2016年12月30日03:05:00