双语:中共中央 国务院关于完整准确全面贯彻新发展理念做好碳达峰碳中和工作的意见

摘要Full Text: Working Guidance for Carbon Dioxide Peaking and Carbon Neutrality in Full and Faithful Implementation of the New Development Philosophy


中共中央 国务院关于完整准确全面贯彻新发展理念做好碳达峰碳中和工作的意见文章源自英文巴士-https://www.en84.com/12424.html

Working Guidance for Carbon Dioxide Peaking and Carbon Neutrality in Full and Faithful Implementation of the New Development Philosophy文章源自英文巴士-https://www.en84.com/12424.html



22 September 2021文章源自英文巴士-https://www.en84.com/12424.html




To peak carbon dioxide emissions and achieve carbon neutrality is a major strategic decision taken by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core in light of both domestic and international imperatives. This is the natural choice for China to address acute resource and environmental constraints and achieve sustained development of the Chinese nation, and constitutes China’s solemn commitment to building a shared future for mankind. In full and faithful implementation of the new development philosophy, the work on carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality should be guided by the following:文章源自英文巴士-https://www.en84.com/12424.html



I. General Guidance




1. Guiding Principles


We must follow the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, fully implement the guiding principles from the 19th CPC National Congress and the second through fifth plenary sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee, and thoroughly apply Xi Jinping’s thought on ecological civilization. We need to ground our work in the new stage of development, apply the new development philosophy, and foster a new pattern of development. Through the application of systematic thinking, we will strike a balance between development and emissions reduction, between overall and local imperatives, and between short-term and longer-term considerations. Endeavors to peak carbon dioxide emissions and achieve carbon neutrality must be incorporated into the overall economic and social development framework. In this way, we aim to effect a comprehensive green transformation in respect of economic and social development, with a special focus on the development of green and low-carbon energy, with a view to expediting the development of industrial structures, production modes, living patterns, and spatial zones that will conserve resources and protect the environment. We are firmly committed to a green, low-carbon and high-quality development path that gives primacy to ecological civilization. This will ensure that the carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality goals are achieved as planned.




2. Working Guidelines




To achieve the objectives for carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality, we must follow the principles of exercising nationwide planning, prioritizing conservation, leveraging the strengths of the government and the market, coordinating efforts on the domestic and international fronts, and guarding against risks.




Exercising nationwide planning. Taking a whole-of-nation approach, we will strengthen top-level design, leverage institutional strengths, hold both CPC committees and governments responsible, and ensure responsibilities are fulfilled by all parties. Policies will be implemented on a categorized basis in light of local circumstance in order to encourage local authorities to act on their own initiative and take the lead in peaking carbon dioxide emissions.




Prioritizing conservation. To give first priority to the conservation of energy and resources, we need to introduce a comprehensive conservation strategy. We will continue to reduce energy and resource consumption and carbon emissions per unit of output, improve resource input-output efficiency, advocate simple, moderate, green and low-carbon living patterns, and effectively control carbon emissions at their source and point of entry.




Leveraging the strengths of the government and the market. Both the government and the market have an important role to play. We need to establish a new system for mobilizing the nation to boost technological and institutional innovation and accelerate the revolution in green and low-carbon technology. We will deepen reform in energy and related fields, give full play to the role of market mechanisms, and create effective incentive and restraint mechanisms.




Coordinating efforts on the domestic and international fronts. Based on China’s national context, we will coordinate planning for domestic and international energy and resources and promote advanced green and low-carbon technologies and practices. In the international response to climate change, we need to be prepared to both stand our ground and engage in cooperation, continue to increase China’s influence and voice on the world stage, and resolutely safeguard our development rights and interests.




Guarding against risks. The efforts to reduce pollution and carbon emissions must be balanced with the need to ensure the security of energy, industrial chains, supply chains, and food, as well as normal daily life. We need to respond appropriately to any economic, financial, and social risks that may arise during the green and low-carbon transformation to prevent any excessive response and ensure carbon emissions are reduced in a safe and secure way.



II. Main Objectives




By 2025, China will have created an initial framework for a green, low-carbon and circular economy and greatly improved the energy efficiency of key industries. Energy consumption per unit of GDP will be lowered by 13.5% from the 2020 level; carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit of GDP will be lowered by 18% from the 2020 level; the share of non-fossil energy consumption will have reached around 20%; the forest coverage rate will have reached 24.1%, and the forest stock volume will have risen to 18 billion cubic meters. All the above will lay a solid foundation for carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality.




By 2030, China will see significant accomplishments from the comprehensive green transformation in economic and social development, with energy efficiency in key energy-consuming industries reaching advanced international levels. Energy consumption per unit of GDP will have declined significantly; CO2 emissions per unit of GDP will have dropped by more than 65% compared with the 2005 level; the share of non-fossil energy consumption will have reached around 25%, with the total installed capacity of wind power and solar power reaching over 1200 gigawatts; the forest coverage rate will have reached about 25%, and the forest stock volume will have reached 19 billion cubic meters. CO2 emissions will reach peak and stabilization and then decline.




By 2060, China will have fully established a green, low-carbon and circular economy and a clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient energy system. Energy efficiency will be at the advanced international level, and the share of non-fossil energy consumption will be over 80%. China will be carbon neutral, and it will have achieved fruitful results in ecological civilization and reached a new level of harmony between humanity and nature.



III. Promoting Comprehensive Green Transformation in Economic and Social Development




3. Strengthening guidance in planning of green and low-carbon development. We will fully incorporate the objectives for carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality into the medium- and long-term plans for economic and social development, and we will reinforce the support and safeguards of national development plans, territorial spatial plans and sector-based plans, as well as plans at the regional and local level. We will enhance coordination between various categories and levels of plans to ensure that across all regions and sectors, carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality objectives, development directions, and major policies and projects are aligned and consistent.




4. Optimizing plans for regional green and low-carbon development. We will continue to optimize the layout of major infrastructure, major production capacities, and public resources and create a new model of development and protection for territorial space that will help to peak carbon dioxide emissions and achieve carbon neutrality. Stronger guidance and requirements on green and low-carbon development will be provided in the implementation of major regional development strategies, including the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the development of the Yangtze Economic Belt, the development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, the integrated development of the Yangtze River Delta, and the ecological conservation and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin.




5. Accelerating the formation of green production modes and living patterns. In the endeavor to conserve energy and reduce emissions, we will promote clean production across the board, accelerate the development of a circular economy, and improve comprehensive resource utilization, so as to continuously enhance the level of green and low-carbon development. We will expand the supply and consumption of products and advocate living patterns that are green and low-carbon. We should incorporate green and low-carbon development into our national education system, and we will launch demonstration initiatives for a green and low-carbon society. We will build societal consensus and move quickly to create a system for facilitating full public participation.



IV. In-Depth Industrial Restructuring




6. Optimizing and upgrading industrial structures. We will move faster to promote green agricultural development and improve carbon sequestration and efficiency in agriculture. We will create implementation plans for industries and fields including energy, steel, non-ferrous metals, petrochemicals, building materials, transportation and construction. Based on the goals of energy conservation and carbon reduction, we will revise the Catalog for Guiding Industry Restructuring. Authorities will be “looking back” to inspect steel and coal facilities that have cut overcapacity in order to consolidate achievements in this area. We will accelerate innovation in low-carbon industrial processes and the digital transformation of the industrial sector. We will launch the construction of demonstration zones for peaking carbon dioxide emissions. In fields such as goods distribution and information services, green transformations will be accelerated, and low-carbon development will be enhanced in the service sector.




7. Firmly curbing irrational expansion of energy-intensive and high-emission projects. Capacity substitutions must be strictly implemented at equal or reduced levels for new entries and expansion of energy-intensive and high-emission projects in areas such as steel, cement, flat glass, and electrolytic aluminum. We will introduce production capacity control policies for coal-fired power, petrochemical, and coal-based chemical industries. Oil refinery operations not listed in national industrial plans will be prohibited from engaging in new construction, reconstruction, or expansion, and unlisted ethylene, paraxylene, and coal-to-olefins projects will be banned from engaging in new construction. We will keep production capacity for coal-to-liquids and coal-to-gas at an appropriate scale, raise the energy-consumption access standards for energy-intensive and high-emission projects, and enhance analysis, early warnings, and window guidance for overcapacity.




8. Vigorously developing green and low-carbon industries. We need to accelerate the development of strategic emerging industries in areas such as next-generation information technology, biotechnology, new energy, new materials, high-end equipment, new energy vehicles, environmental protection, aerospace, and marine equipment. We will establish a green manufacturing system and embed the internet, big data, artificial intelligence, 5G, and other emerging technologies into green and low-carbon industries.



V. Accelerating the Development of a Clean, Low-Carbon, Safe and Efficient Energy System




9. Strengthening dual-controls over energy intensity and gross energy consumption. Adhering to a conservation-first energy development strategy, we will strictly control energy consumption and CO2 emission intensity, appropriately control total energy consumption, and establish a system to control the total volume of CO2 emissions. We must ensure proper linkages among the spatial distribution of industries, structure adjustment, energy conservation audit, dual-controls over energy intensity and total energy consumption, so that regions in danger of missing energy intensity reduction targets will face delay or restriction of project approvals and introduce energy substitutions at equal or reduced levels. We will step up supervision and law enforcement of energy conservation, enhance analysis and early warning for energy consumption and CO2 emission control targets, and ensure strict responsibility implementation and performance evaluations. Controls over methane and other non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs) will also be strengthened.




10. Significantly improving energy efficiency. Energy conservation must be a key feature of the entire process and all sectors of economic and social development. We must continue to improve energy conservation in key areas including industry, construction, transportation, and public institutions and enhance the energy efficiency of data centers, new communications, and other information infrastructure. We will improve the energy management system and strengthen management for major energy consumers and assign them stronger targets and responsibilities. To reach advanced international efficiency standards, we should accelerate energy conservation and carbon reduction retrofits and upgrades and work to cultivate leaders in energy efficiency.




11. Strictly controlling fossil fuel consumption. Coal consumption will be reduced at an accelerated pace. We will strictly limit the increase in coal consumption over the 14th Five-Year Plan period and phase it down in the 15th Five-Year Plan period, when petroleum consumption will reach its peak plateau. Coal-fired power will be developed in coordination with power supplies and peak shaving capacities, so as to strictly control coal-fired power generation projects. Upgrades and power flexibility retrofitting projects should be accelerated for existing coal power generators. The burning of bulk coal will be gradually phased out before the introduction of a complete ban. Scaled development of unconventional oil and gas resources such as shale gas, coal bed gas, and tight oil and gas will pick up pace. Risk management must be enhanced to ensure a stable and safe energy supply and a smooth transition.




12. Actively developing non-fossil energy. We will carry out initiatives to substitute renewable energy for fossil fuels, vigorously develop wind, solar, biomass, marine, and geothermal energy sources among others, and continuously increase the share of non-fossil energy in total energy consumption. We will advocate both centralized and distributed energy production, while prioritizing local development and use of wind and solar power. We will develop hydro power according to local circumstances, actively develop nuclear power in a safe and orderly manner, and take appropriate steps to develop biomass energy. Faster moves must be made to scale up the use of pumped storage hydro power and other new forms of energy storage. We will coordinate the development of a complete hydrogen energy chain covering production, storage, transmission, and use. To develop new electric power systems based on new energy sources, we must boost the capacity of the power grid to uptake and accommodate a high proportion of renewable energy.




13. Deepening reforms of energy systems and mechanisms. We will advance market-oriented reforms in the electric power sector across the board, accelerating the development of independent market entities in the distribution and sales fields and improving the linking mechanisms for medium- and long-term markets, spot markets, and ancillary services markets, so as to achieve an expansion in the scale of market transactions. We will advance reform of the power grid system and clarify the market entity positions of incremental distribution network, microgrids, and distributed power sources that mostly operate on renewable energy. We must accelerate the formation of a development mechanism for new power installations based on power storage and peak-shaving capacities. We will improve market pricing mechanisms for electricity and other energy types. We will carry out electricity price reforms with a view to promoting energy conservation, overhauling pricing structures for transmission and distribution, and lifting all pricing controls in competitive areas. Market reforms will be advanced in areas like coal, oil, and gas, and faster steps will be taken to improve the national unified energy market.

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