双语:美国对外侵略战争造成严重人道主义灾难

    摘要

    Full Text: Severe Humanitarian Disasters Caused by U.S. Aggressive Wars against Foreign Countries

    《美国对外侵略战争造成严重人道主义灾难》英文版

    美国对外侵略战争造成严重人道主义灾难

    Severe Humanitarian Disasters Caused by US Aggressive Wars Against Foreign Countries

     

    中国人权研究会

    The China Society for Human Rights Studies (CSHRS)

     

    2021年4月

    April, 2021

     

    美国一直自诩为“山巅之城”,支持“天赋人权”,肩负“天赋使命”,时常打着“人道主义干涉”的旗号对外动武。自1776年7月4日宣布独立以来,在240多年的历史中,美国没有参与战争的时间不足20年。据不完全统计,从1945年第二次世界大战结束到2001年,世界上153个地区发生了248次武装冲突,其中美国发起的就有201场,约占81%。美国发动的多数侵略战争都是单边主义行动,甚至还遭致其盟友的反对。这些战争不仅夺去了大量各方军人的生命,更造成了极为严重的平民伤亡和财产损失,导致惊人的人道主义灾难。美国的自私和虚伪也通过这些对外干涉行为表露无遗。

     

    The United States has always praised itself as “a city upon a hill” that is an example to others in the way it supports “natural human rights” and fulfills “natural responsibilities”, and it has repeatedly waged foreign wars under the banner of “humanitarian intervention”. During the past 240-plus years after it declared independence on July 4th, 1776, the United States was not involved in any war for merely less than 20 years. According to incomplete statistics, from the end of World War II in 1945 to 2001, among the 248 armed conflicts that occurred in 153 regions of the world, 201 were initiated by the United States, accounting for 81 percent of the total number. Most of the wars of aggression waged by the United States have been unilateralist actions, and some of these wars were even opposed by its own allies. These wars not only cost the belligerent parties a large number of military lives but also caused extremely serious civilian casualties and property damage, leading to horrific humanitarian disasters. The selfishness and hypocrisy of the United States have also been fully exposed through these foreign wars.

     

    一、二战后美国发动的主要侵略战争

    1. Major Aggressive Wars Waged by the United States after World War II

     

    1.朝鲜战争。发生于20世纪50年代初的朝鲜战争时间虽短但异常血腥,战争导致300多万名平民死亡,另有约300万人成为难民。根据朝方的统计,战争摧毁了约8700座工厂、5000所学校、1000家医院和60万户家庭,有200万18岁以下的儿童因战争流离失所。而韩方的损失高达412.3亿韩元,相当于官方汇率下的69亿美元;战争期间韩方约有60万套住房、46.9%的铁路、1656条公路、1453座桥梁被毁。此外,战争导致的南北分治还造成大量家庭分离。在韩国统一部登记有离散家属的韩国人约为13万人,其中7.5万人已经离世。美国《外交官》杂志网站2020年6月25日报道,截至2019年11月,韩国分裂家庭成员的平均年龄为81岁,自1988年以来133370名申请团聚者中的60%以上已经去世,他们中的绝大部分人在分离后就再也没见过自己的亲人。

     

    (1) The Korean War. The Korean War, which took place in the early 1950s, did not persist for a long time but it was extremely bloody, leading to more than three million civilian deaths and creating more than three million refugees. According to statistics from the DPRK, the war destroyed about 8,700 factories, 5,000 schools, 1,000 hospitals, and 600,000 households, and more than two million children under the age of 18 were uprooted by the war. During this war, the ROK side lost 41.23 billion won, which was equivalent to 6.9 billion US dollars according to the official exchange rate at that time; and about 600,000 houses, 46.9 percent of railways, 1,656 highways, and 1,453 bridges in the ROK were destroyed. Worse still, the war led to the division of the DPRK and the ROK, causing a large number of family separations. Among the more than 130,000 Koreans registered in the Ministry of Unification in the ROK who have family members cut off by the war, 75,000 have passed away, forever losing the chance to meet their lost family members again. The website of the United States’ The Diplomat magazine reported on June 25, 2020, that as of November 2019, the average age of these family separation victims in the ROK had reached 81, and 60 percent of the 133,370 victims registered since 1988 had passed away, and that most of the registered victims never succeeded in meeting their lost family members again.

     

    2.越南战争。20世纪50年代至70年代发生的越南战争,是二战后延续时间最长也最为残酷的一场战争。据越南政府估计,约有110万名北越士兵和30万名南越士兵丧生,多达200万名平民在战争中死亡,其中有些是被美军以“打击越共”的名义有计划屠杀的。美军在越南、老挝和柬埔寨投下的炸弹超过二战期间各方投下炸弹的三倍。据估计,越南至少还遗留着35万吨可爆炸的炸弹与地雷,按照目前的速度,需要300年才能将它们从越南的土地上清除干净。《赫芬顿邮报》网站2012年12月3日报道,越南政府的统计数据显示,自1975年战争正式结束以来,战争遗留弹药已杀死约42000人。此外,美军还在越南投放了2000万加仑(约合7571万升)的落叶剂,导致40万越南人死亡,约200万越南人因为接触到落叶剂而罹患癌症或其他疾病。延续十几年的战争导致300多万难民外逃,在漂洋过海的路途中有大量人员死亡。在逃离越南的难民中,有92%的被调查者表示,落叶剂的影响使其感觉持续疲劳,其他表现包括流产和出生缺陷问题。美国官方的数据显示,越南20%的丛林和20%至36%的红树林被落叶剂摧毁。

     

    (2) The Vietnam War. The Vietnam War which lasted from the 1950s to the 1970s is the longest and most brutal war since the end of World War II. The Vietnamese government estimated that the war killed approximately 1.1 million North Vietnamese soldiers and 300,000 South Vietnamese soldiers, and caused as many as two million civilian deaths. The government also pointed out that some of the deaths were caused by the US troops’ planned massacres that were carried out in the name of “combating the Vietnamese Communist Party”. During the war, the US forces dropped a large number of bombs in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, almost three times the total number of bombs dropped during World War II. It is estimated that as of today, there are at least 350,000 metric tons of unexploded mines and bombs left by the US military in Vietnam alone, and these mines and bombs are still explosive. At the current rate, it will take 300 years to clean out these explosives. The website of The Huffington Post reported on December 3, 2012, that statistics from the Vietnamese government showed that since the end of the war in 1975, the explosive remnants of the war had killed more than 42,000 people. Apart from the above-mentioned explosives, the US forces dropped 20 million gallons (about 75.71 million liters) of defoliants in Vietnam during the war, directly causing more than 400,000 Vietnamese deaths. Another approximately two million Vietnamese who came into contact with this chemical got cancer and other diseases. This war that lasted for more than 10 years also caused more than three million refugees to flee and die in large numbers on the way across the ocean. Among the refugees that were surveyed, 92 percent were troubled by fatigue, and others suffered unexplained pregnancy losses and birth defects. According to the United States’ Vietnam War statistics, defoliants destroyed about 20 percent of the jungles and 20 to 36 percent of the mangrove forests in Vietnam.

     

    3.海湾战争。1991年,以美国为首的盟军出兵伊拉克,在对伊空袭中有2500至3500名平民死亡,9000座房屋被毁。战争结束后因为基础设施的破坏和缺医少粮,有约11.1万名平民死亡。而根据联合国儿童基金会的估计,战争和随后的制裁导致约50万名儿童死亡。战争中盟军故意破坏伊拉克的基础设施,导致其大多数发电站(92%的装机容量)、炼油厂(80%的生产能力)、石化综合体、电信中心(包括135个电话网)、桥梁(100多座)、高速公路、铁路、广播电视站、水泥厂以及生产铝材、纺织品、电线和医疗用品的工厂被毁。海湾战争还导致了严重的环境污染,约有6000万桶石油被倾倒入沙漠,污染了约4000万吨土壤;有2400万桶石油从油井溢出,形成了246个“湖泊”;人为点燃油井生成的烟雾和烟尘污染了953平方公里的土地。在海湾战争中,美军还首次使用了贫铀弹。

     

    (3) The Gulf War. In 1991, the US-led coalition forces attacked Iraq, directly leading to about 2,500 to 3,500 civilian deaths and destroying approximately 9,000 civilian houses. The war-inflicted famine and damage to the local infrastructure and medical facilities caused about 111,000 civilian deaths, and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) estimated that the war and the post-war sanctions on Iraq caused the death of about 500,000 of the country’s children. The coalition forces targeted Iraq’s infrastructure and wantonly destroyed most of its power stations (accounting for 92 percent of the country’s total installed generating capacity), refineries (accounting for 80 percent of the country’s production capacity), petrochemical complexes, telecommunication centers (including 135 telephone networks), bridges (numbering more than 100), highways, railways, radio and television stations, cement plants, and factories producing aluminum, textiles, wires, and medical supplies. This war led to serious environmental pollution: about 60 million barrels of petroleum were dumped into the desert, polluting about 40 million metric tons of soil; about 24 million barrels of petroleum spilled out of oil wells, forming 246 oil lakes; and the smoke and dust generated by purposely ignited oil wells polluted 953 square kilometers of land. In addition, the US troops’ depleted uranium (DU) weapons, which contain highly toxic and radioactive material, were also first used on the battlefield during this Gulf War against Iraq.

     

    4.科索沃战争。1999年3月,以美国为首的北约军队打着“避免人道主义灾难”的旗号,公然绕过联合国安理会,对南联盟进行了78天的持续轰炸,造成2000多名无辜平民丧生,6000多人受伤,近100万人流离失所,200多万人失去生活来源。北约军队还有意识地针对南联盟的基础设施进行定点打击以消除其抵抗决心。据塞尔维亚经济学家估计,轰炸造成的经济损失总额约为296亿美元。轰炸造成大量桥梁、公路、铁路以及25000户家庭、176处文化古迹、69所学校、19家医院和20个保健中心受损,150万儿童无法上学。此外,北约军队至少使用了3.1万枚贫铀弹,导致该地区癌症和白血病发病率激增,并对当地和整个欧洲的生态环境产生长期的灾难性影响。

     

    (4) The Kosovo War. In March 1999, NATO troops led by the United States blatantly set the UN Security Council aside and carried out a 78-day continuous bombing of Yugoslavia under the banner of “preventing humanitarian disasters”, killing 2,000-plus innocent civilians, injuring more than 6,000, and uprooting nearly one million. During the war, more than two million Yugoslavians lost their sources of income, and about 1.5 million children could not go to school. NATO troops deliberately targeted the infrastructure of Yugoslavia in order to weaken the country’s determination to resist. Economists of Serbia estimated that the total economic loss caused by the bombing was as much as 29.6 billion US dollars. Lots of bridges, roads, railways, and other buildings were destroyed during the bombing, affecting 25,000 households, 176 cultural relics, 69 schools, 19 hospitals, and 20 health centers. Apart from that, during this war, NATO troops used at least 31,000 DU bombs and shells, leading to a surge in cancer and leukemia cases in Yugoslavia and inflicting a long-term disastrous impact on the ecological environment of Yugoslavia and Europe.

     

    5.阿富汗战争。2001年10月,美国出兵阿富汗,在打击基地组织和塔利班的同时,也造成了大量平民伤亡。由于缺乏权威的统计数据,各方对于阿富汗战争中平民的伤亡数据没有定论。一般认为,自美军2001年10月7日进入阿富汗以来,当地已有3万多名平民被美军打死、炸死或因美军带来的战乱死亡,受伤人数超过6万,约1100万人沦为难民。2014年美军宣布撤离后,阿富汗依然处于动荡中。《纽约时报》网站2019年7月30日报道,2019年上半年确定死于美军炸弹的有363人,包括89名儿童。根据喀布尔大学学者的评估,阿富汗战争平均每天造成约6000万美元经济损失、约250人伤亡。

     

    (5) The Afghanistan War. In October 2001, the United States sent troops to Afghanistan. While combating al-Qaeda and the Taliban, it also caused a large number of unnecessary civilian casualties. Due to the lack of authoritative statistical data, there is no established opinion about the number of civilian casualties during the Afghanistan War, but it is generally agreed that since entering Afghanistan, the US troops caused the deaths of more than 30,000 civilians, injured more than 60,000 civilians, and created about 11 million refugees. After the US military announced its withdrawal in 2014, Afghanistan continued to be in turmoil. The website of The New York Times reported on July 30, 2019, that in the first half of 2019, there were 363 confirmed deaths due to the US bombs in Afghanistan, including 89 children. Scholars at Kabul University estimated that since its beginning, the Afghanistan War has caused about 250 casualties and the loss of 60 million US dollars per day.

     

    6.伊拉克战争。2003年,美国不顾国际社会的普遍反对,以莫须有的罪名侵入伊拉克,导致的平民死亡人数难以精确统计,据估计约为20万至25万人,其中美军直接致死的超过16000人。此外,美军还严重违反国际人道主义原则,制造了多起虐囚事件。美国2011年宣布从伊拉克撤军后,当地战事和袭击不断。以美国为首的联军还在伊拉克大量使用了贫铀弹、集束炸弹和白磷弹,且没有采取任何措施来尽量减少对平民的伤害。据联合国估计,如今伊拉克依然有约2500万枚地雷和其他爆炸遗留物需要清除。目前美国仍迟迟未能完成从阿富汗和伊拉克撤军的承诺。

     

    (6) The Iraq War. In 2003, despite the general opposition of the international community, US troops still invaded Iraq on unfounded charges. It is hard to find precise statistics about the civilian casualties inflicted by the war, but the number is estimated to be around 200,000 to 250,000, including 16,000 civilian deaths directly caused by US forces. Apart from that, the occupying US forces have seriously violated international humanitarian principles and created multiple “prisoner abuse cases”. After the US military announced its withdrawal from Iraq in 2011, local warfare and attacks in the country have continued. The US-led coalition forces have used a large number of DU bombs and shells, cluster bombs, and white phosphorus bombs in Iraq, and have not taken any measures to minimize the damage these bombs have inflicted upon civilians. According to the estimate of the United Nations, today in Iraq, there are still 25 million mines and other explosive remnants that need to be removed. The United States has not yet withdrawn all its troops from Afghanistan or Iraq for now.

     

    7.叙利亚战争。2017年以来,美国以“阻止叙利亚政府使用化学武器”为由,对叙展开空中打击。2016年至2019年,叙利亚有记载死于战乱的平民达33584人。其中,美国领导的联军轰炸直接致死3833人,有半数是妇女和儿童。美国公共电视网2018年11月9日报道,仅美军对拉卡市发动的所谓“史上最精确的空袭”,就导致1600名平民被炸死。根据世界粮食计划署2020年4月的调查,大约三分之一的叙利亚人没有足够的食物,87%的人没有储蓄。根据世界医生组织的估算,叙利亚战乱开始以来,有约1.5万名医生(约占该国医生总量的一半)逃离出境,650万人在国内流离失所,500万人作为难民外逃。

     

    (7) The Syrian War. Since 2017, the United States has launched airstrikes on Syria under the pretext of “preventing the use of chemical weapons by the Syrian government”. From 2016 to 2019, the confirmed war-related civilian deaths amounted to 33,584 in Syria, and the number of Syrian civilians directly killed by the airstrikes reached 3,833, with half of them being women and children. The website of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) reported on November 9, 2018, that the so-called “most accurate air strike in history” launched by the United States on Raqqa killed 1,600 civilians. According to a survey conducted by the World Food Programme (WFP) in April 2020, about one-third of Syrians were faced with a food shortage crisis, and 87 percent of Syrians had no deposits in their accounts. Doctors of the World (Médecins du Monde/MdM) estimated that since the beginning of the Syrian War, about 15,000 Syrian doctors (about half of the country’s total) had fled the country, 6.5 million Syrian people had run away from their homes, and about five million Syrian people had wandered homeless around the world.

     

    此外,美国还以支持代理人战争、煽动国内叛乱、暗杀、提供武器弹药、培训反政府武装等直接或间接方式频频对其他国家进行干涉,给相关国家社会安定和民众安全带来严重伤害。由于大量此类事件属美国政府暗中操弄,其造成的具体破坏后果难以统计。

     

    Apart from being directly involved in wars, the United States has intervened directly or indirectly in other countries’ affairs by supporting proxy wars, inciting anti-government insurgencies, carrying out assassinations, providing weapons and ammunition, and training anti-government armed forces, which have caused serious harm to the social stability and public security of the relevant countries. As such activities are great in number and most of them have not been made public, it is hard to collect specific data regarding them.

     

    二、美国发动战争的恶果

    1. The Disastrous Consequences of Foreign Wars Launched by the United States

     

    二战以来,几乎所有美国总统在任内都曾发动或介入过对外战争,战争理由包括“阻止共产主义蔓延”、“维护正义”、“制止侵略”、“人道主义干预”、打击恐怖主义、防止“大规模杀伤性武器”扩散、保护美国侨民安全,等等。其中,只有一次是针对美国本土直接遭受恐怖主义袭击后所做出的反击,其他都是在与美国切身利益没有直接关联的背景下主动对外动武的。即使这唯一的一次“正当防卫”也明显属于防卫过当:在“消除基地组织威胁”的旗号下,美军本着“宁可错杀、不可漏杀”的原则,在反恐战争中随意扩大打击范围,造成大量当地平民死伤;即便美军声称使用了“相对精确”的无人机攻击,滥杀无辜的现象仍屡屡发生。

     

    Since the end of World War II, almost every US president has waged or intervened in foreign wars during their terms of office. The pretexts they used include: stopping the spread of communism, maintaining justice, stopping aggression, humanitarian intervention, combating terrorism, preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), protecting the safety of overseas US citizens, etc. Among all these foreign wars, only one was waged as a counterattack in response to a direct terrorist attack on the United States; the others were waged in a situation where the vital interests of the United States were not directly affected. Unfortunately, even this singular “justifiable counterattack” was obviously an excessive display of defense. Under the banner of eliminating the threat of al-Qaeda, the US military wantonly expanded the scope of the attack in the anti-terrorism war in accordance with the principle “better to kill by mistake than to miss out by accident”, resulting in a large number of civilian causalities in the war-affected areas, and despite using the relatively accurate drone strikes, the US military still did not succeed in reducing and mitigating the causalities of the innocent local people.

     

    从美国对外动武所遵循的程序来看,有的是在操纵联合国后通过安理会授权这一“合法渠道”来对外发起军事打击,但更多的是将安理会抛在一边,不顾其他国家甚至盟友的反对,一意孤行对一个独立的主权国家发起攻击,甚至在连具有唯一法定宣战权的美国国会都未批准的情况下就对外挑起战争。

     

    As for the procedures followed by the United States to start aggressive wars against foreign countries, some were “legitimate procedures” that the United States managed to obtain by manipulating the UN into authorizing them through the Security Council; more often, the United States just set the Security Council aside and neglected the opposition of other countries, and even the opposition of its own allies, when willfully and arbitrarily launching an attack on an independent country. Some US foreign wars were initiated without the approval of the US Congress, which has the sole power to declare war for the country.

     

    从后果来看,美国发动的对外战争,引发了各种各样的地区和国际危机。

     

    US foreign wars have triggered various regional and international crises.

     

    ——战争直接导致了当事国的人道主义灾难,包括人员伤亡、设施破坏、生产停滞,尤其是造成大量无辜平民伤亡。在战火蔓延到的区域,人们死于家里、市场中、道路上,死于炸弹、子弹、简易爆炸装置、无人机,死于美军的空袭、政府军的扫荡、恐怖和极端组织的屠杀以及国内的暴乱。根据美国布朗大学2018年11月发布的研究报告,在阿富汗、巴基斯坦、伊拉克、叙利亚和也门因战乱致死的平民分别有43074人、23924人、184382-207156人、49591人、12000人,殉职的记者和媒体人员分别有67人、8人、277人、75人、31人,殉职的人道主义救援人员分别有424人、97人、63人、185人、38人。人员伤亡往往还会被美国政府轻描淡写。美国“截击”网站2018年11月19日报道,伊拉克平民的实际死亡人数远超美国军方正式报告的数字。

     

    First of all, these wars have directly led to humanitarian disasters in the war-affected countries, such as personnel casualties, damage to facilities, production stagnation, and especially unnecessary civilian casualties. In the war-affected areas, people died in their homes, markets, and streets, they were killed by bombs, bullets, improvised explosive devices, and drones, and they lost their lives during airstrikes launched by US forces, raids launched by their government forces, terrorist and extremist massacres, and domestic riots. In November 2018, Brown University released a research study that showed that the number of civilian deaths during the wars in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Syria, and Yemen were 43,074; 23,924; 184,382 to 207,156; 49,591; and 12,000 respectively, the number of journalists and media personnel who died at their posts during these wars, were 67; 8; 277; 75; and 31 respectively, and the number of humanitarian relief workers who were killed at their posts during these wars were 424; 97; 63; 185; and 38 respectively. Such casualties are often understated by the US government. The Intercept website reported on November 19, 2018, that the actual civilian deaths in Iraq were far higher than the number officially released by the US military.

     

    ——战争带来一系列复杂的社会问题,包括难民潮、社会动荡、生态危机、心理创伤等。据统计,近年来美军介入的几场战争导致难民数量居高不下,如阿富汗有1100万人,巴基斯坦有38万人,伊拉克有325万人,叙利亚有1259万人。这些难民被迫远离家园,阿富汗难民中约130万人流落到巴基斯坦,约90万人流落到伊朗;伊拉克、叙利亚难民中约350万人流落到土耳其,约100万人流落到伊朗。在阿富汗、伊拉克和巴基斯坦,由于缺医少药、营养不良和环境污染导致的人员死伤远超因战争直接伤亡的人数。据估计,非战争直接原因致死者的数量是战争直接致死人数的4倍。伊拉克巴士拉每公斤土壤的铀含量从1991年前的低于70贝克勒尔,暴升至2009年的10000贝克勒尔,在战争物资遗留地区更是高达36205贝克勒尔。英国《卫报》网站2016年8月22日报道,伊拉克2010年有先天缺陷的婴儿出生率高达30%,而正常情况下这一数据仅为2%至4%。

     

    Second, US foreign wars brought about a series of complex social problems, such as refugee waves, social unrest, ecological crises, psychological traumas, etc. Statistics show that each of the several recent US foreign wars created a larger number of refugees, such as the 11 million Afghan refugees, the 380,000 Pakistani refugees, the 3.25 million Iraqi refugees, and the 12.59 million Syrian refugees; these refugees have been forced to flee from their homes, of which 1.3 million Afghan refugees have fled to Pakistan, 900,000 Afghan refugees arrived in Iran, 3.5 million Iraqi and Syrian refugees fled to Turkey, and one million Iraqi and Syrian refugees fled to Iran. In Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan, the deaths and injuries caused by the lack of medical treatment, malnutrition, and environmental pollution have exceeded the casualties directly caused by the wars, with the former number being four times greater than the latter. The uranium content per kilogram of soil in Basra, Iraq, rose sharply from less than 70 becquerels before 1991 to 10,000 becquerels in 2009, and the number was as high as 36,205 becquerels in the areas polluted by war remnants. The website of the British newspaper The Guardian reported on August 22, 2016, that 30 percent of the babies born in Iraq in 2010 were born with some form of congenital anomaly, while this figure is around two to four percent under normal circumstances.

     

    ——美国发动的战争还产生了外溢效应,给未涉事国家造成伤害。例如,在越南战争中,美军以阻断“胡志明小道”为名,将战火蔓延到临近的柬埔寨和老挝等国,导致50万名以上的无辜平民死伤,并遗留下大量未爆弹药。在阿富汗战争中,美军飞机和无人机在打击恐怖分子时,时常将炸弹投向邻近的巴基斯坦村寨伤及无辜,甚至迎新的婚车和巴基斯坦边防军士兵都未能幸免。在对南联盟的持续空袭中,美军还将中国大使馆作为轰炸目标,导致3名中国记者死亡,十几人受伤。

     

    Third, US foreign wars have often produced spillover effects, causing harm to the countries that were not involved in the wars. For example, in the Vietnam War, the US military spread the fighting to neighboring countries such as Cambodia and Laos on the excuse of blocking the “Ho Chi Minh Trail” (a military supply route running from North Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia to South Vietnam), resulting in more than 500,000 unnecessary civilian casualties and leaving a large number of war remnants in those countries, which are still explosive. When attacking terrorists in the Afghanistan War, the US aircraft and drones often dropped bombs on neighboring Pakistani villages, and even on wedding cars and Pakistani border guard soldiers. In an airstrike on Yugoslavia, the US forces even targeted the Chinese embassy, leading to the deaths of three Chinese journalists and the injuries of a dozen embassy personnel.

     

    ——美国自身也成为其对外发动战争的牺牲品。根据美国退伍军人事务部的统计,美军在朝鲜战争和越南战争中的身体受伤人员分别高达103284人和153303人。2001年至2005年,从伊拉克和阿富汗战争中返回的103788名退伍军人中,约有三分之一被诊断出患有精神或心理疾病,56%的确诊者患有一种以上的疾病。美国国会研究局的研究显示,2008年至2016年,每年有超过6000名退伍军人自杀。美军给参加过朝鲜战争的老兵及其家庭的补偿每年达28亿美元,给参加过越南战争的老兵及其家庭的补偿每年超过220亿美元,为参加过阿富汗战争的退伍军人支付的医疗和伤残护理费已超过1700亿美元。《商业内幕》网站2019年12月报道,阿富汗战争爆发以来,估计有超过3800名美国平民承包商死亡,这远远超过政府统计数字,甚至超过美军死亡人数。

     

    Last but not least, even the United States itself has fallen victim to the foreign wars it has started. According to statistics from the US Department of Veterans Affairs, there were 103,284 US soldiers who suffered physical injuries during the Korean War, and the number reached 153,303 for the Vietnam War. Between 2001 and 2005, about one-third of the 103,788 veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan were diagnosed with mental or psychological illness, and 56 percent of those diagnosed had more than one disease. A study by the Congressional Research Service (CRS), which works exclusively for the United States Congress, pointed out that more than 6,000 veterans committed suicide every year from 2008 to 2016. The amount of economic compensation offered by the US military to the Korean War veterans reaches 2.8 billion US dollars per year, and the amount given to the Vietnam War veterans and their families is more than 22 billion US dollars per year. The cost of medical and disability care for the Afghanistan War veterans has exceeded 170 billion US dollars. Business Insider, a US business and technology news website, reported in December 2019 that the Afghanistan war has led to the deaths of more than 3,800 US contractors, and this number far exceeds the relevant statistical result released by the US government and even the US military deaths in Afghanistan.

     

    三、人道主义危机源于美国的霸权思维

    1. The Major Cause of the Above-Mentioned Humanitarian Crises: The United States’ Hegemonic Mentality

     

    纵观美国对外发动的多次侵略战争,可以看出其军事行动导致人道主义危机的案例不在少数。在当前战火未熄的阿富汗、伊拉克、叙利亚等国,“误炸误伤”频频发生,难民漂泊无处落脚,基础设施千疮百孔,国民生产停滞不前。美国在国外发起的战争,往往打着“人权高于主权”“人道主义干预”等旗号,为何最终演变为人道主义灾难呢?

     

    When reviewing the many aggressive wars launched by the United States, it can be seen that many of these military actions have led to humanitarian crises. In Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, and other countries where wars are still ongoing, accidental bombings and injuries still frequently occur, and refugees have nowhere to stay. The infrastructure of these countries is crippled, and their national production is stagnant. The United States launched these foreign wars under the pretext of “humanitarian intervention” or “human rights overriding sovereignty”, but why did these wars fought for humanitarian purposes turn into humanitarian disasters in the end?

     

    美国《外交政策》杂志2011年4月曾总结出美国频繁对外动武的五个原因,除了军力优势导致其很难抵制住诉诸武力的诱惑、国内制衡机制难以发挥有效作用等因素外,并未提及美国价值观在其中发挥了什么作用。实际上,“维护人权”并非美国对外动武的明确驱动力,对外动武不过是美国达成自身目标的一种手段,虽然其中并不排斥道义感的驱使,但这并非充分或必要条件。只要认为需要,只要相信对自身有利,只要觉得力所能及,美国就会产生动武的冲动。而由此带来的人道主义灾难再可怕,也总是别人在承担,不会影响美国达成其目标,也不会直接伤害美国人。选择不计后果地动武,其背后透射出的是“美国优先”、强者通吃的霸权心态,是“唯我独尊、宁负天下”的单边思维。

     

    In April 2011, the US-based magazine Foreign Policy summarized five reasons for the frequent foreign wars waged by the United States, such as the military advantages of the United States making it hard to resist the temptation to resort to force, and the checks and balances mechanism within the United States failing to play an effective role, while excluding any reason related to the values of the United States. “To safeguard human rights” was not a clear driving force for US foreign wars and that waging foreign wars was only a means to an end, although such an act did not exclude a sense of morality. The United States may feel an impulse to start a foreign war as long as it is considered necessary, believed to be in its own favor, and within its ability, while a sense of morality is not a sufficient or necessary condition to initiate such a war; and as for the terrible humanitarian disasters caused by these foreign wars, they will be borne by others instead of directly harming US citizens and preventing the United States from reaching its goals. Choosing to use force irrespective of the consequences reveals the hegemonic aspirations of the United States, which propel the United States to prioritize itself, demonstrate its “winner-take-all” mentality, and expose its unilateralist ideas of dominating the world and wantonly doing injustice to other countries.

     

    在口口声声尊崇“普世价值”的美国政客眼里,“天赋给他们的人权”是否也被同等地赋予了普天下其他的人呢?

     

    US politicians claim that they respect “universal values”, but do they agree that their own natural human rights are also natural for other people in the world?

     

    既然美国国内确立了所有族群一律平等的法律,那么在面对国外民众时,美国是否真正认为他们也应享有同等的基本权益,还是仅仅因为他们手中没有美国选票就无须顾忌?

     

    The United States has formulated laws to ensure equality among all its ethnic groups within the country, but does it really believe that people of other countries should enjoy the same rights? Or, does it think that it can act wantonly in foreign countries just because the people there do not have a vote in US elections?

     

    美国相信发生在其本土的针对平民的恐怖袭击是卑劣的、应受惩罚的,难道发生在美国以外、由美军实施、导致大量无辜平民死伤的残暴事件就是可接受的、“必要的”牺牲吗?

     

    The United States believes that terrorist attacks targeting civilians within its territory are despicable and punishable, then what makes it accept that the incidents created by the US military in other countries, which have led to a large number of civilian deaths and injuries, are acceptable and even “necessary”?

     

    在别人的国土上就“宁可错杀、绝不漏杀”,肆意使用放射性武器,用有毒试剂摧毁所有植被,未辨明目标性质就随意开火,在实施这些行为时,美国价值观中“不言而喻”的人权被赋予了谁呢?

     

    When they adopt the principle “better to kill by mistake than to miss out by accident”, when they arbitrarily use radioactive weapons and destroy all vegetation with toxic reagents, and when they open fire before clearly identifying the targets, do the US forces still respect the “natural” human rights treasured by the values of the United States?

     

    那些仅仅因为无力逃离交战区域就随时要承担被当成恐怖分子射杀风险的平民,人权在哪里?那些出生时就因美军的化学武器而致残并将痛苦终生的孩童,人权在哪里?那些为躲避美军的战火流落他乡却无处落脚的难民,人权在哪里?

     

    The civilians who were unable to flee their war-affected areas and were treated as terrorists and shot at randomly did not have any human rights. The children who have been disabled at birth by the chemical weapons of the US forces and will suffer for the rest of their lives do not have any human rights. The refugees who have been forced to flee their homes and become homeless in other countries because of the US foreign wars do not have any human rights.

     

    归根结底,动辄以单边战争手段来解决争端的思维模式,本身就存在问题。人道主义与霸权主义存在内在的对立,期待霸权主义国家去捍卫他国人权无异于与虎谋皮。国际争端的解决要靠在联合国框架下的平等协商,要靠规范完善的国际机制来协调,要靠构建人类命运共同体来推进。只有丢弃私利至上的霸权思维,才能避免“人道主义干预”变成人道主义灾难,才能实现互利共赢,才能使各国人民都能真正享有各项基本人权。

     

    In the final analysis, the mindset of solving disputes by taking unilateral military actions is questionable. Given the inherent antagonism between humanitarianism and hegemony, it is ridiculous to expect a hegemonic country to defend the human rights of other countries. International disputes shall be settled through equal consultations within the framework of the United Nations. Coordinated efforts shall be actualized by regulating and improving international mechanisms and by establishing a community with a shared future for mankind. Only by discarding the hegemonic thinking, which is chiefly motivated by self-interest, can we prevent “humanitarian intervention” from becoming humanitarian disasters. Only in this way can we achieve mutual benefits and win-win results and can all the people across the globe truly enjoy natural human rights.

     

    附:

    Appendix:

     

    1、二战以来美国主要对外侵略战争造成平民伤亡等情况一览表

     

    1. List of Civilian Casualties, Refugees, and Economic Losses Caused by Major Wars of Aggression Waged by the United States after the End of World War II

     

    朝鲜战争:平民死亡300万人,难民300万人;

     

    The Korean War: about 3 million civilian deaths and 3 million refugees;

     

    越南战争:平民死亡200万人,难民300万人,落叶剂受害者300万人;

     

    The Vietnam War: about 2 million civilian deaths, 3 million refugees, and 3 million victims of defoliants;

     

    空袭利比亚:军民死亡700人;

     

    The Airstrike on Libya: about 700 military and civilian deaths;

     

    入侵巴拿马:平民死亡302人,受伤3000人;

     

    Invasion of Panama: about 302 civilian deaths and 3,000 civilian injuries;

     

    出兵索马里:平民死亡200人,受伤300人;

     

    The Armed Intervention in Somalia: about 200 civilian deaths and 300 civilian injuries;

     

    海湾战争:战争致死平民12万人,制裁致死200万人,经济损失6000亿美元;

     

    The Gulf War: about 120,000 war-related civilian deaths and 2 million sanction-related civilian deaths, and economic losses amounting to 600 billion US dollars;

     

    科索沃战争:战争致死2000多人,致伤6000人,经济损失2000亿美元;

     

    The Kosovo War: more than 2,000 deaths and 6,000 injuries, and economic losses amounting to 200 billion US dollars;

     

    阿富汗战争:平民死亡超过3万人,受伤7万人,难民1100万人;

     

    The Afghanistan War: more than 30,000 civilian deaths, 70,000 civilian injuries, and 11 million refugees;

     

    伊拉克战争:平民死亡20万至25万人,难民325万人;

     

    The Iraq War: about 200,000–250,000 civilian deaths and 3.25 million refugees;

     

    叙利亚战争:平民死亡超过4万人,1259万人逃离家园。

     

    The Syrian War: more than 40,000 civilian deaths and 12.59 million refugees.

     

    2、二战以来美国侵略战争和对外干涉一览表

     

    1. List of Wars of Aggression Waged by the United States and the US Interventions in Foreign Countries after the End of World War II

     

    1947-1949:干涉希腊内战

     

    1947–1949: intervening in the Greek civil war

     

    1947-1970:干涉意大利选举,支持反共力量

     

    1947–1970: intervening in Italy’s elections and supporting anti-communism activities

     

    1948:在哥斯达黎加内战中支持反政府武装

     

    1948: supporting the anti-government forces in Costa Rica’s civil war

     

    1949-1953:支持阿尔巴尼亚反共活动

    1949–1953: supporting anti-communism activities in Albania

     

    1949:干涉叙利亚政府更迭

     

    1949: intervening in the government change in Syria

     

    1950-1953:发动朝鲜战争

     

    1950–1953: waging the Korean War

     

    1952:干涉埃及革命

     

    1952: intervening in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952

     

    1953:支持伊朗政变推翻政府

     

    1953: supporting a coup in Iran to overthrow the then Iranian government

     

    1954:支持危地马拉政府更迭

     

    1954: supporting the change of the then Guatemalan government

     

    1956-1957:密谋叙利亚政变

     

    1956–1957: plotting a coup in Syria

     

    1957-1959:支持印度尼西亚政变

     

    1957–1959: supporting a coup in Indonesia

     

    1958:制造黎巴嫩危机

     

    1958: creating a crisis in Lebanon

     

    1960-1961:支持刚果政变

     

    1960–1961: supporting a coup in the Congo

     

    1960:阻止老挝政府改革

     

    1960: stopping the government of Laos from starting a reform

     

    1961:支持入侵古巴的猪湾行动

     

    1961: supporting the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba

     

    1961-1975:支持老挝内战和鸦片贸易

     

    1961–1975: supporting civil war and opium trade in Laos

     

    1961-1964:支持巴西的反政府活动

     

    1961–1964: supporting anti-government activities in Brazil

     

    1963:支持伊拉克内乱

     

    1963: supporting civil strife in Iraq

     

    1963:支持厄瓜多尔叛乱

     

    1963: supporting riots in Ecuador

     

    1963-1975:参加越南战争

     

    1963–1975: fighting the Vietnam War

     

    1964:干涉刚果辛巴叛乱

     

    1964: intervening in the Simba rebellion in the Congo

     

    1965-1966:干涉多米尼加内战

     

    1965–1966: intervening in Dominica’s civil war

     

    1965-1967:支持印度尼西亚军政府对共产党人的大屠杀

     

    1965–1967: supporting the Indonesian military government’s massacre of communists

     

    1966:支持加纳国内叛乱

     

    1966: supporting an insurgency in Ghana

     

    1966-1969:在朝鲜非军事区制造冲突

     

    1966–1969: creating conflicts in the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), which is a region on the Korean peninsula that demarcates North Korea from South Korea

     

    1966-1967:支持玻利维亚叛乱

     

    1966–1967: supporting an insurgency in Bolivia

     

    1967:干涉希腊政府更迭

     

    1967: intervening in the change of the Greek government

     

    1967-1975:干涉柬埔寨内战

     

    1967–1975: intervening in Cambodia’s civil war

     

    1970:干涉阿曼内政

     

    1970: intervening in Oman’s domestic affairs

     

    1970-1973:支持智利军事政变

     

    1970–1973: supporting a military coup in Chile

     

    1970-1973:支持柬埔寨政变

     

    1970–1973: supporting a coup in Cambodia

     

    1971:支持玻利维亚政变

     

    1971: supporting a coup in Bolivia

     

    1972-1975:援助伊拉克反政府武装

     

    1972–1975: offering assistance to anti-government forces in Iraq

     

    1976:支持阿根廷政变

     

    1976: supporting a coup in Argentina

     

    1976-1992:干涉安哥拉内政

     

    1976–1992: intervening in Angola’s domestic affairs

     

    1977-1988:支持巴基斯坦政变

     

    1977–1988: supporting a coup in Pakistan

     

    1979-1993:支持柬埔寨反政府武装

     

    1979–1993: supporting anti-government forces in Cambodia

     

    1979-1989:干涉阿富汗战争

     

    1979–1989: intervening in the war in Afghanistan

     

    1980-1989:资助波兰团结工会反对政府

     

    1980–1989: financing the anti-government Solidarity trade union in Poland

     

    1980-1992:干涉萨尔瓦多内战

     

    1980–1992: intervening in El Salvador’s civil war

     

    1981:在锡德拉湾与利比亚对抗

     

    1981: confronting Libya in Gulf of Sidra

     

    1981-1982:推动乍得政府更迭

     

    1981–1982: pushing the change of the then Chadian government

     

    1982-1984:参与多边干涉黎巴嫩

     

    1982–1984: participating in a multilateral intervention in Lebanon

     

    1982-1989:支持尼加拉瓜反政府武装

     

    1982–1989: supporting anti-government forces in Nicaragua

     

    1983:入侵格林纳达

     

    1983: invading Grenada

     

    1986:侵入利比亚锡德拉湾

     

    1986: invading Gulf of Sidra, Libya

     

    1986:轰炸利比亚

     

    1986: bombing Libya

     

    1988:击落伊朗民航客机

     

    1988: shooting down an Iranian airliner

     

    1988:出兵洪都拉斯

     

    1988: sending troops to Honduras

     

    1989:与利比亚在托布鲁克对峙

     

    1989: confronting Libya in Tobruk

     

    1989:干涉菲律宾内政

     

    1989: intervening in the Philippines’ domestic affairs

     

    1989-1990:入侵巴拿马

     

    1989–1990: invading Panama

     

    1990-1991:发动海湾战争

     

    1990–1991: waging the Gulf War

     

    1991:干涉海地选举

     

    1991: intervening in Haiti’s elections

     

    1991-2003:主导伊拉克禁飞区强制行动

     

    1991–2003: leading the enforcement action to establish a no-fly zone in Iraq

     

    1992-1995:首次干涉索马里内战

     

    1992–1995: intervening in Somalia’s civil war for the first time

     

    1992-1995:干涉波斯尼亚战争

     

    1992–1995: intervening in the Bosnian War

     

    1994-1995:出兵海地

     

    1994–1995: sending troops to Haiti

     

    1996:支持伊拉克政变

     

    1996: supporting a coup in Iraq

     

    1997:出兵阿尔巴尼亚

     

    1997: sending troops to Albania

     

    1997:出兵塞拉利昂

     

    1997: sending troops to Sierra Leone

     

    1998-1999:发动科索沃战争

     

    1998–1999: waging the Kosovo War

     

    1998:用巡航导弹攻击苏丹和阿富汗

     

    1998: launching cruise missile attacks on Sudan and Afghanistan

     

    1998-1999:出兵肯尼亚和坦桑尼亚

     

    1998–1999: sending troops to Kenya and Tanzania

     

    2001-现在:发动阿富汗战争

     

    2001–present: waging the Afghanistan War

     

    2002:出兵科特迪瓦

     

    2002: sending troops to Côte d’Ivoire

     

    2003-2011:发动伊拉克战争

     

    2003–2011: waging the Iraq War

     

    2004-现在:发动巴基斯坦与阿富汗接壤地区的战争

     

    2004–now: inciting wars between Pakistan and Afghanistan in their contiguous areas

     

    2006-2007:支持巴勒斯坦法塔赫推翻民选政府哈马斯的行动

     

    2006–2007: supporting Fatah, a Palestinian political and military organization, in overthrowing the elected government of Hamas

     

    2007-现在:第二次干涉索马里内战

     

    2007–present: intervening in Somalia’s civil war for the second time

     

    2009:支持洪都拉斯政变

     

    2009: supporting a coup in Honduras

     

    2011:支持利比亚反政府武装

     

    2011: supporting anti-government forces in Libya

     

    2011-2017:开展在乌干达的军事行动

     

    2011–2017: carrying out military operations in Uganda

     

    2014-现在:美国领导的伊拉克干涉行动

     

    2014–present: leading the intervention actions in Iraq

     

    2014-现在:美国领导的叙利亚干涉行动

     

    2014–present: leading the intervention actions in Syria

     

    2015-现在:支持沙特参与也门内战

     

    2015–now: supporting Saudi Arabia’s participation in Yemen’s civil war

     

    2019:支持委内瑞拉政府更迭

     

    2019: supporting the change of the Venezuelan government

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    • 版权声明 本文源自 新华网 整理 发表于 2021年4月9日20:53:36