双语:把握经济全球化大势 坚定不移全面扩大开放

    摘要

    Full Text: Understanding the Great Trend of Economic Globalization and Expanding Opening Up on All Fronts

    把握经济全球化大势 坚定不移全面扩大开放

    把握经济全球化大势 坚定不移全面扩大开放

    Understanding the Great Trend of Economic Globalization and Expanding Opening Up on All Fronts

     

    中共商务部党组

    CPC Leadership Group of the Ministry of Commerce

     

    2017年,在逆全球化抬头、世界经济阴霾重重之际,习近平总书记站在人类历史长河的高度,在达沃斯论坛发表了历史性演讲,表明了中国捍卫经济全球化的坚定立场,指明了经济全球化的正确方向,为世界注入了强大信心和正能量。

     

    In 2017, just as de-globalization was gaining ground and dark clouds were hanging over the world economy, President Xi Jinping delivered his historic speech at the Davos Forum, in which he declared China’s firm stance on defending economic globalization and pointed out the right direction for economic globalization’s future development from the vantage point of humanity’s long history. His words provided a much-needed boost of confidence and positivity to the world.

     

    此后,习近平总书记在二十国集团(G20)峰会、亚太经合组织(APEC)峰会、进博会等众多国际重要场合,进一步阐明支持经济全球化和多边主义的鲜明立场,贡献了中国智慧,彰显了大国担当。中国说到做到,主动全面扩大对外开放,积极参与全球经济治理,推动构建人类命运共同体。今年提出的加快构建新发展格局,是开放的国内国际双循环,与达沃斯论坛的中国主张一脉相承,成为中国推动经济全球化的最新方案。

     

    Since then, at important international arenas such as G20 summits, APEC meetings, and the China International Import Expo, President Xi has further articulated China’s clear-cut position on economic globalization and multilateralism, contributing China’s knowledge and showing it to be a responsible major country. China has done what it said it would do; it has opened up to the outside world on all fronts, played an active part in global economic governance, and promoted the building of a global community with a shared future. Its announcement in 2020 to accelerate the creation of a new development dynamic, featuring open domestic and international flows, is a continuation of China’s Davos position. It is China’s new plan for promoting economic globalization.

     

    一、把握经济全球化历史大势,推动世界共同开放

    1. Understanding the historical trend of economic globalization and promoting mutual opening up around the world

     

    习近平总书记指出,经济全球化是社会生产力发展的客观要求和科技进步的必然结果,是不可逆转的时代潮流,不是哪些人、哪些国家人为造出来的;世界经济的大海,你要还是不要,都在那儿,是回避不了的;要共同把全球市场的蛋糕做大、把全球共享的机制做实、把全球合作的方式做活,共同把经济全球化动力搞得越大越好、阻力搞得越小越好;当前世界上出现的一些逆全球化动向只不过是全球化潮流中激起的几朵浪花,阻挡不住全球化大潮;我们决不能被逆风和回头浪所阻,要站在历史正确的一边,坚定不移全面扩大开放。

     

    President Xi has made the following important points: Economic globalization is the result of growing social productivity, a natural outcome of scientific and technological progress, and an irreversible contemporary current, not the creation of any individual or country. Whether we like it or not, the global economy is the big ocean that we simply cannot escape. The world must work together to make the pie of the global market even bigger, strengthen the mechanisms for sharing benefits globally, and explore new ways of international cooperation, so that we can give more impetus to economic globalization and remove its impediments as much as we can. The trend of de-globalization emerging in the world today amounts to nothing more than ripples in a great current, which are not enough to halt the great globalization tide. We must not be stopped by headwinds or undertows; we must stand on the right side of history and firmly proceed with opening up on all fronts.

     

    经济全球化是不可逆转的历史潮流。经济全球化大致经历了三个阶段。一是殖民扩张和世界市场形成阶段,各国都被卷入世界经济体系之中。二是两个平行世界市场阶段,即二战后的两大阵营及市场。三是经济全球化阶段,冷战后世界经济一体化加速。世界各国要素禀赋不平衡和国际分工深化,是经济全球化的重要动力。各国都不同程度地存在着自然资源、资本、劳动力、技术、市场等不足的矛盾,面临“分工受市场规模限制”难题,15世纪的地理大发现,推动了世界市场形成。科技革命和产业革命,为经济全球化提供了深厚的物质技术基础。几次工业革命大大降低了货物运输、信息传播和人员流动的成本,特别是互联网等新科技革命推动世界扁平化,各国经济相互依赖前所未有。国际经济治理体系和冷战后市场化改革,为经济全球化提供了经济制度保障。二战后,布雷顿森林体系及关贸总协定、国际货币基金组织和世界银行三大支柱出现,提供了国际经济治理的制度架构,加之冷战后新兴经济体的市场化改革,推动了经济全球化大发展。总之,经济全球化是由生产力发展和生产关系变革共同推动的客观历史进程,不以人的意志为转移。历史上瘟疫、战争、危机等都曾阻碍经济全球化发展,但全球化潮流最终还是浩浩荡荡,滚滚向前,奔向浩瀚的大海。

     

    Economic globalization is an irreversible historical trend.

     

    Economic globalization has experienced roughly three stages. The first was the stage of colonial expansionism and world market formation. In this stage, all countries were drawn into the world economic system. The second stage saw two parallel world markets, or two opposing blocs and markets, prevail after World War II. The third stage is the stage of economic globalization, in which world economic integration has accelerated since the end of the Cold War. Uneven factor endowments among countries and an ever-finer division of labor along international lines have been important forces for economic globalization. All countries face shortages of natural resources, capital, labor, technology, and markets to greater or lesser degree, as well as restrictions on their division of labor determined by the size of their markets. The geographical discoveries of the 15th century opened the way for the formation of a world market. Thereafter, scientific, technological, and industrial revolutions provided the material and technological foundations for economic globalization. Several rounds of industrial transformation dramatically reduced the cost of goods transportation, the dissemination of information, and the movement of people. In particular, new technological revolutions such as the internet have led to a leveling out in the world and to a degree of interdependence hitherto unknown. The international economic governance system and the post-Cold War market reforms have served as institutional guarantors for economic globalization. After World War II, the Bretton Woods system and the three pillars of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the IMF, and the World Bank emerged as an institutional framework for global economic governance. Coupled with the market reforms of emerging economies after the end of the Cold War, these drove a major upsurge in economic globalization.

     

    In summary, economic globalization is an objective historical process driven jointly by the development of productive forces and changes to the relations of production; it is not determined by the will of man. In the past, plagues, wars, and crises have impeded economic globalization, yet ultimately, its great surge continues ever onward.

     

    经济全球化经历曲折,但向前的大方向没有改变。经济全球化同时存在“向前的动力、向后的阻力”:动力是新一轮科技革命和产业变革;阻力是单边主义、保护主义、霸凌主义。总体上看,动力仍大于阻力,开放合作仍是发展大势。经济全球化更多是增量放缓而非存量下降。除少数危机年份外,货物贸易保持稳定,2019年全球货物出口比金融危机前的2008年增长17.1%,服务贸易蓬勃发展,2019年全球服务贸易出口比2008年增长52.4%。数字贸易方兴未艾,全球跨境电商市场规模年均增长近30%,未来跨境数字贸易有望爆发。区域一体化深入发展。目前向世贸组织通报并生效的自贸安排数量比危机前增加了237个。主要国家通过区域贸易安排,推动更高水平开放,谈判议题从“边境上”贸易壁垒深入“边境后”规制,反映了经济全球化深化发展大趋势。地球村时代,全球价值链深度拓展,各国更加紧密联系在一起,形成利益共同体、责任共同体和命运共同体。再退回到“孤岛”状态,开历史“倒车”,不符合人类共同利益。

     

    Economic globalization has witnessed twists and turns but its general forward direction has remained unchanged.

     

    There is momentum both for and against economic globalization: the new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation are providing driving forces, while resistance is coming from unilateralism, protectionism, and hegemony. Overall, the forces propelling economic globalization are greater than those pulling it back, and openness and cooperation remain the main trends of development. Economic globalization is experiencing a slowdown rather than a decline. Save for a few years of crisis, trade in goods has remained stable, with global exports of goods in 2019 up 17.1% when compared to the period prior to the financial crisis in 2008. Trade in services has flourished, with global service exports in 2019 up 52.4% compared to 2008. There has also been a boom in digital trade. The size of the global cross-border e-commerce market has grown at an average annual rate of nearly 30%, with an explosion in cross-border digital trade expected in the coming years. Regional integration has deepened. Compared to before the financial crisis, 237 more free trade agreements have been reported to the WTO and entered into force. Major countries are also promoting higher levels of openness through regional trade arrangements. The focus of negotiations has shifted from trade barriers on the border to regulations behind the border, reflecting the general trend of deeper economic globalization. In the era of the global village, the global value chain has been greatly extended. All countries are more closely bound together in communities of shared interests, common responsibilities, and a shared future. Thus, to reverse history and return to a state of isolation is simply not in the common interests of humankind.

     

    改革开放40多年来,我国始终坚持对外开放基本国策,不断扩大对外开放,实现了从封闭半封闭到全方位开放的伟大历史转折,成为经济全球化的受益者和重要贡献者。

     

    Over the past 40 years of reform and opening, China has implemented a basic state policy of opening up. It has continuously opened its door wider to the world, achieving a great historical turnaround from a closed and semi-closed state to one of all-round opening up. It has been both a beneficiary and important contributor to economic globalization.

     

    ——推动贸易高质量发展。促进外贸创新发展,培育新业态新模式,持续优化贸易结构,降低关税和非关税壁垒,推动贸易自由化便利化,扩大优质商品进口,创新发展服务贸易。2016—2019年,我国货物贸易进出口额年均增长7.5%,连续11年保持第一出口大国地位;服务贸易进出口额年均增长6%,稳居世界第二。今年前11个月,我国货物出口同比增长0.6%,预计全年实现正增长,贸易大国地位不断巩固。未来,我们要增强对外贸易综合竞争力,稳步推动贸易强国建设。

     

    Promoting high-quality trade. China has created new ways of developing foreign trade, cultivated new business models, made continued improvements to its trade structures, and reduced tariffs and non-tariff barriers. It has liberalized and simplified trade, expanded imports of high-quality goods, and made innovations in trade in services. In 2016-2019, China’s import and export trade registered an average annual growth rate of 7.5%, maintaining China’s status as the world’s largest exporter for 11 years running. In services, trade imports and exports grew at an average annual rate of 6%, the second fastest in the world. In the first 11 months of 2020, China’s exports of goods grew by 0.6% year-on-year. Growth is expected to be positive for the year as a whole, thus further consolidating its status as a major trading country. Going forward, China will enhance its overall competitiveness in foreign trade and steadily develop itself as a trader of both quality and quantity.

     

    ——提高利用外资水平。主动扩大市场准入,放宽银行、证券、保险业外资股比限制,扩大高端制造和服务业开放,加大知识产权保护力度,持续改善营商环境,对国际资本形成巨大“引力场”。2016—2019年,我国共利用外资5496亿美元,成为全球第二大外资流入国,高技术产业利用外资年均增长24%。今年前10个月,我国实际利用外资1151亿美元,同比增长3.9%。未来,我们要继续放宽市场准入,依法保护外资企业合法权益,让外商留得住、有发展。

     

    Raising the level of utilized foreign investment. China has actively expanded access to its markets, eased restrictions on foreign ownership in the banking, securities, and insurance sectors, increased the openness of high-end manufacturing and services, and improved the protection of intellectual property rights. The business environment has been continuously improved, becoming a vast “gravitational field” for international investment. From 2016 to 2019, China’s utilized foreign investment totaled US$549.6 billion, making it the world’s second-largest receiver of inbound investment, with an average annual growth of 24% in high-tech industries. In the first 10 months of 2020, actual utilized foreign investment was US$115.1 billion, up 3.9% year-on-year. Going forward, China will continue to widen market access and protect the legitimate rights and interests of foreign enterprises in accordance with law. It will ensure that foreign investors can stay and develop in China over the long term.

     

    ——创新对外投资方式。顺应全球产业转移趋势,鼓励企业走出去,优化国别产业布局,增强全球配置资源能力,打造中国投资品牌,构建面向全球的贸易、投资、生产、服务网络。2016—2019年,我国对外直接投资合计达6344亿美元,稳居世界前列;通过对外投资合作,累计带动出口5000多亿美元。截至2019年末,共在188个国家和地区设立4.4万家企业;“走出去”企业外籍员工超过220万人,促进了当地工业化进程和民生福祉改善。未来,我们将健全促进和保障境外投资的法律、政策和服务体系,帮助企业提高跨国经营能力,拉紧利益纽带,推动共同发展。

     

    Developing new methods of outbound investment. In line with the global trend of industrial relocation, China has encouraged its enterprises to “go out,” improved its industrial arrangements with other countries, and better allocated resources at the global level. It has built Chinese investment brands and fostered a global network of trade, investment, production, and services. From 2016 to 2019, China’s outward direct investment reached US$634.4 billion, ranking among the highest in the world. Through outward investment and cooperation, it has driven more than US$500 billion of exports. By the end of 2019, Chinese investors had established 44,000 enterprises in 188 countries and regions. More than 2.2 million foreign employees were employed in Chinese enterprises, which are contributing to industrialization and people’s wellbeing in the regions where they have a presence. In the future, China will improve the legal, policy, and service systems for promoting and protecting overseas investments, and help enterprises improve their ability to operate across borders, in order to create closer shared interests and promote common development.

     

    二、把握全球治理变革趋势,贡献更多“中国智慧”

    1. Focusing on global governance reform and contributing China’s knowhow

     

    习近平总书记指出,当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局,新冠肺炎疫情全球大流行使这个大变局加速变化,世界进入动荡变革期;弱肉强食、赢者通吃是一条越走越窄的死胡同,包容普惠、互利共赢才是越走越宽的人间正道;当前,争夺全球治理和国际规则制定主导权的较量十分激烈;要为改革和优化全球治理注入中国力量;推动经济全球化朝着更加开放、包容、普惠、平衡、共赢的方向发展。

     

    President Xi has pointed out that the world today is undergoing momentous changes of a kind unseen in a century. The Covid-19 pandemic has accelerated these changes, and the world is entering a period of turmoil and change. He has declared that practicing the law of the jungle and winner-takes-all approaches will only lead to a dead end and inclusive growth for all is surely the right way forward; that the present competition for the initiative in global governance and international rule-making is extremely intense; and that China should contribute its strength to the reform and improvement of global governance. Together, Xi has argued, the world must work to make economic globalization more open, inclusive, and balanced for the benefit of all.

     

    全球经济治理体系变革处在历史转折点。世界百年未有之大变局进入加速演变期,全球性挑战增多,加强全球治理、推进全球经济治理体系变革是大势所趋。国际力量对比“东升西降”是最具革命性的变化。新兴市场和发展中国家群体性崛起,经济及贸易的世界占比,都比20世纪90年代提高了20个百分点左右,对外投资占比提高了18个百分点。全球治理多极化趋势明显。发展中国家参与治理的意愿和能力不断提升,推进全球治理体系更加公正合理,需要持续努力。

     

    Reform of the global governance system has reached a historical turning point.

     

    Momentous changes in the world of a kind unseen in a century are now unfolding at an accelerated rate. As global challenges mount, strengthening global governance and reforming the global economic governance system have become the underlying trends of our times. The most revolutionary aspect of these changes is the shift from West to East in the global balance of power. Emerging markets and developing countries are rising at the same time. Their share of the world economy and trade has grown by about 20 percentage points since the 1990s, and their share of foreign investment has increased by 18 percentage points. There is a marked trend toward multi-polarity in global governance. The willingness and ability of developing countries to participate in governance has grown continuously, but sustained efforts are needed to promote a more just and equitable governance system.

     

    现有国际经贸规则难以适应新变化。全球发展深层次矛盾日益突出:全球问题增多,解决方案不足;全球规则增多,国际协同不足;全球市场扩展,规制监管不足。全球治理重心发生变化。国际贸易投资不断创新发展,全球治理议题由市场开放等边境措施,转向补贴、劳工、环境等“边境后”规制。新一轮科技革命催生新的治理难题,网络安全、数字主权、数据流动等新议题博弈更趋激烈。

     

    Current international trade rules are not suited to new changes.

     

    Deep-rooted problems in global development are becoming increasingly prominent: global issues are increasing, but solutions have been found wanting; the number of global rules has increased, but international coordination is lacking; the global market is expanding, but regulation and supervision are inadequate. The focus of global governance has shifted. Innovations in international trade and investment are relentless, and “on-border” measures like the opening of markets are being replaced on the global governance agenda by “behind-border” regulations on issues such as subsidies, labor, and the environment. New global governance challenges and issues like cybersecurity, digital sovereignty, and data flows, brought about by the new scientific and technological revolutions, have intensified.

     

    中国推动经济全球化朝着更加均衡方向发展,推动建设开放型世界经济,旗帜鲜明反对贸易和投资保护主义,推动全球治理规则民主化法治化,努力维护和延长我国重要战略机遇期,成为全球经济治理的重要参与者和贡献者。

     

    China promotes more balanced economic globalization and works to build an open world economy. Decisively opposing trade and investment protectionism, it has sought to put global governance rules onto a more democratic and law-based footing. In doing so, it has become an important participant and contributor to global economic governance.

     

    ——中国理念和方案得到更多认同。提出构建人类命运共同体理念,坚持正确义利观,倡导共商共建共享的全球治理观,顺应时代潮流,增加了我国同各国利益汇合点,也丰富了全球治理理念;积极提供国际公共产品,举办中非合作论坛、进博会等重大主场外交活动,设立亚投行、金砖银行。一批中国主张、中国方案、中国倡议成为国际共识,国际社会期待我国在贸易投资、数字治理等领域发挥更多建设性作用。未来,我们要加强内外统筹,提出践行全球经济治理观的中国倡议,维护国际公平正义。

     

    Chinese ideas and solutions have gained greater recognition. China has put forward the vision of a global community with a shared future, adhered to the principle of pursuing the greater good and shared interests, and championed a vision for global governance featuring extensive consultation, joint contributions, and shared benefits. These efforts fit with the trends of the times. They offer additional points of convergence for the interests of different countries, and ultimately enrich the concept of global governance. China is also actively providing global public goods; it has hosted major diplomatic events such as the Forum of China-Africa Cooperation and the China International Import Expo, and it has initiated the establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and worked with other BRICS countries to set up the New Development Bank. A host of China’s proposals, solutions, and initiatives have become international consensus, and the international community is looking to China to play a more constructive role in trade and investment, digital governance, and other areas. Going forward, China will better coordinate its domestic and international imperatives, put forward initiatives for the practice of global economic governance, and work to safeguard international fairness and justice.

     

    ——共建“一带一路”走深走实。坚持共商共建共享原则,秉持绿色、开放、廉洁理念,认真落实“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛成果,“六廊六路多国多港”互联互通架构基本形成,一批综合效益好、带动作用强的项目落地生根。2019年,我国对沿线国家货物贸易总额占外贸比重提升至29.4%,直接投资占比提升至13.7%,分别比2016年提升了3.7和5.2个百分点。未来,我们要持续高质量共建“一带一路”,打造团结应对挑战的合作之路、维护人民健康安全的健康之路、促进经济社会恢复的复苏之路、释放发展潜力的增长之路。

     

    Concrete progress has been made in joint efforts to pursue the Belt and Road Initiative. China has acted on the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution, and shared benefit, and adhered to a vision of green development, openness, and clean governance for the Belt and Road Initiative. It has diligently implemented the outcomes from the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation, and given shape to a connectivity framework featuring six corridors, six routes, and multiple countries and ports. A host of highly efficient, pacesetting projects have taken root. In 2019, China’s total trade in goods with countries along the Belt and Road grew to 29.4% of its total foreign trade, and direct investment rose to 13.7%, up 3.7 and 5.2 percentage points respectively from 2016. In the time ahead, China will continue to pursue high-quality cooperation on the Belt and Road, working with its BRI partners to develop a platform for cooperating on challenges, protecting people’s health, promoting economic recovery, and unlocking growth potential.

     

    ——深化多双边与区域合作。积极参与世贸组织改革,提出“三项原则”和“五项主张”,推动电子商务等新兴领域规则制定。累计与26个国家和地区签署19个自贸协定,特别是新签署的区域全面经济伙伴关系协定,15个成员国总的人口、经济、贸易均占全球约30%,不仅是东亚区域合作深化的标志性成果,更是多边主义和自由贸易的胜利。努力稳住中美关系大局,深化中俄战略合作和中欧合作,加快中欧投资协定、中日韩等自由贸易协定谈判进程,拓展与发展中国家务实合作。未来,我们将积极参与世贸组织改革,实施自由贸易区提升战略,同更多国家商签高标准自由贸易协定,持续扩大“朋友圈”,推动世界开放发展。

     

    China has deepened multilateral and regional cooperation. China has been active in WTO reform, putting forward “three principles” and “five propositions” for the reform (the principles are 1. upholding the core values of the multilateral trading system, 2. safeguarding the development interests of developing members, 3. taking consensus-based decisions; the propositions are 1. not altering the status of the multilateral trading system as the main medium of trade, 2. prioritizing key issues that threaten the WTO’s survival, 3. addressing the fairness of trade rules and meeting the needs of the times, 4. ensuring special and differential treatment for developing members, 5. respecting members’ respective development models). It has also promoted the formulation of rules in emerging areas such as e-commerce. China has signed 19 FTAs with 26 countries and regions. Particularly noteworthy is the freshly inked Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement. The agreement’s 15 member countries account for about 30% of the world’s total population, economic output, and trade. The deal is not only a landmark achievement in deepening regional cooperation in East Asia but also a victory for multilateralism and free trade. China has worked to keep China-US relations generally stable and deepened its strategic cooperation with Russia and cooperation with the EU. It has accelerated negotiations on a China-EU investment agreement and a China-Japan-South Korea free trade agreement, and expanded practical cooperation with developing countries. Looking to the future, China will work to play an active role in WTO reform, implement a strategy of upgrading free trade zones, complete high-standard free trade agreements with more countries, and continue to expand its “circle of friends” and promote open development worldwide.

     

    三、把握疫情后经济全球化新动向,推动构建新发展格局

    III. Adapting to the new trend of economic globalization in the post-Covid world and promoting a new development dynamic

     

    习近平总书记指出,经济全球化遭遇逆流,世界进入动荡变革期;随着全球政治经济环境变化,逆全球化趋势加剧,有的国家大搞单边主义、保护主义,传统国际循环明显弱化;新发展格局决不是封闭的国内循环,而是开放的、相互促进的国内国际双循环;我们不追求一枝独秀,不搞你输我赢,也不会关起门来封闭运行,将逐步形成以国内大循环为主体、国内国际双循环相互促进的新发展格局,为中国经济发展开辟空间,为世界经济复苏和增长增添动力。

     

    President Xi has pointed out that, as the world enters a period of turmoil and change, a backlash is occurring against economic globalization. He has argued that changes in the global political and economic environment have intensified the trend of de-globalization, as some countries have engaged in unilateralism and protectionism, thus significantly weakening the traditional international flow. China’s new development dynamic, President Xi has stressed, is not a closed loop, but rather made up of open and mutually reinforcing domestic and international flows. China does not seek to develop only itself or to engage in zero-sum games, nor will it pursue development behind closed doors; rather, it aims to foster, over time, a new development dynamic that is focused on domestic flows while facilitating positive interplay between domestic and international flows. This will create more space for China’s economic development and add impetus to global economic recovery and growth.

     

    当前世界经济形势发生深刻变化。国际环境日趋复杂,不稳定性不确定性明显增加。全球贸易投资增长低迷,国际金融危机前,全球贸易增速是经济增速的2倍,危机后则与经济增速大体持平。国际组织预测今年全球贸易下降30%左右,明年仅反弹7.2%;全球直接投资下降40%,明年继续下降5%—10%。民粹主义加剧,贸易保护主义升温,由传统行业向新兴产业、高技术产业扩展。国际投资限制加强。

     

    The world economic landscape is going through profound changes.

     

    The international environment is increasingly complex, marked by a significant increase in instability and uncertainty. Global trade and investment growth is sluggish. Before the international financial crisis, global trade grew twice as fast as the global economy, but since then, growth in global trade and economy has roughly been on the same level. International organizations estimate that global trade would fall by about 30% in 2020, and will rebound by only 7.2% in 2021. Global direct investment would fall by 40%, with a further fall of 5% to 10% predicted for 2021. As populism and trade protectionism intensify, they are spreading from traditional industries to emerging and high-tech industries. Restrictions on international investment have been tightened.

     

    我国开放发展条件发生新变化。传统优势减弱,新优势正在培育。近年来,我国劳动人口逐步减少,成本优势弱化,部分重要资源短缺,2019年铁矿砂、原油、大豆的对外依存度分别为80%、72%和86%,研发、技术、标准、品牌、营销等新优势有待提升,高质量发展的任务紧迫。超大规模市场优势显现。我国经济总量居世界第二,人均GDP超过1万美元,拥有14亿人口、4亿多中等收入群体,还有全球最完整、规模最大的工业体系和完善的配套能力,是全球最有潜力的大市场,国际吸引力持续增强。

     

    The conditions of China’s development are changing.

     

    China’s traditional advantages are being diminished while new ones are still in the process of being cultivated. In recent years, China’s working population has gradually decreased, its cost advantages have been weakened, and some important resources have been in short supply. In 2019, China imported 80%, 72%, and 86% of its iron ore, crude oil, and soybeans, respectively. New advantages in areas like R&D, technology, standards, branding, and marketing still need to be further improved. The task of achieving high-quality development is indeed urgent. Yet, the advantages of China’s vast market are obvious. China’s economy is the second largest in the world. It has a per capita GDP of over US$10,000, a population of 1.4 billion, and a middle-income group of more than 400 million people. It possesses the world’s most complete and largest industrial system with a full set of supporting capabilities. China is the world’s most promising large market and its international attractiveness continues to grow.

     

    面对国内外环境的重大变化,把握我国进入新发展阶段的新特征,我们坚持新发展理念,坚持高质量发展,提出加快构建新发展格局。我们要实施扩大内需战略,全面扩大对外开放,促进国内国际双循环良性互动。

     

    In the face of major changes in the domestic and international environments, as well as the arrival of a new stage of economic development, China will follow a new development philosophy, promote high-quality development, and accelerate the creation of a new development pattern. China will continue to implement the strategy of expanding domestic demand, it will open wider to the world on all fronts, and it will promote positive interplay between domestic and international flows.

     

    ——建设全球共享的统一大市场。以高水平开放促深层次改革,完善城乡流通网络,大力发展城市、农村、服务消费,促进内外贸一体化,举办进博会积极扩大进口。2019年,我国社会消费品零售总额达41万亿元,稳居世界第二;进口2.1万亿美元,预计未来10年进口22万亿美元,第三届进博会成交726.2亿美元,在疫情下扩大了国际需求。未来,我们将全面促进消费,完善现代商贸流通体系,扩大高质量商品和服务进口,让中国市场成为世界的市场、共享的市场、大家的市场。

     

    Building a large unified market accessible to the world. China has promoted far-reaching reform with high-standard opening up. It has improved urban and rural circulation networks, developed consumption, including spending on services, in urban and rural areas, promoted the integration of domestic and foreign trade, and expanded imports through its hosting of the China International Import Expo. In 2019, China’s total retail sales of consumer goods reached 41 trillion yuan, second in the world. Imports reached US$2.1 trillion, and are expected to grow to US$22 trillion over the next decade. The Third China International Import Expo generated deals worth US$72.62 billion, helping to expand international demand despite the Covid-19 epidemic. Going forward, China will promote consumer spending in all domains, modernize trade flows, and expand imports of high-quality goods and services. We will make the Chinese market a market for the whole world to share in.

     

    ——打造对外开放新高地。把构建新发展格局同实施国家区域协调发展战略、建设自贸试验区等衔接起来,鼓励自贸试验区大胆试、大胆闯、自主改,加快推进海南自贸港建设。目前已设立21个自贸试验区,复制推广了260项制度创新成果。海南自贸港建设总体方案出台,推动商品、服务、资金、人员、信息等自由流动。未来,我们要推动自贸试验区、自贸港高质量发展,打造新发展格局的重要战略支点。

     

    Attaining new standards in opening up. China will align its efforts to create a new development dynamic with the implementation of its coordinated regional development strategy and the development of pilot free trade zones. It will encourage pilot free trade zones to boldly carry out trials, make breakthroughs, and drive change. The development of Hainan’s free trade port will also be accelerated. To date, 21 pilot free trade zones have been established, and 260 proven innovation outcomes have been replicated and applied elsewhere. The general plan for the development of the Hainan free trade port has been launched; it will promote the free flow of goods, services, capital, people, and information. In the coming period, China will push for high-quality development of pilot free trade zones and ports, developing them as important strategic nodes for the country’s new development.

     

    ——推动规则等制度型开放。积极同国际经贸规则对接,增强透明度,强化产权保护,鼓励竞争、反对垄断,营商环境持续优化。完善外资管理体制,全面实施准入前国民待遇加负面清单管理制度,出台外商投资法,营商环境国际排名从2017年的78位提升至第31位。开放领域和布局不断扩大,在世贸组织定义的160个服务部门中,我国开放了120多个;深入推进开放领域放管服改革,深化内陆和沿边开放。未来,我们将更加注重规则、规制、管理、标准等制度型开放,形成更高水平开放型经济新体制。

     

    Promoting more open rules and institutions. Working to ensure alignment with international economic and trade rules, China has enhanced transparency, strengthened the protection of property rights, encouraged competition, and opposed monopoly practices to achieve a sustained improvement to its business environment. It has improved the management system for foreign investment, fully instituted a pre-entry national treatment plus negative list management system, and enacted the Foreign Investment Law. China’s business environment has moved up to 31st place in the international rankings from 78th in 2017. The areas open to foreign investment have been consistently expanded to cover 120 of the 160 service sectors defined by the WTO. China has furthered reforms to streamline administration, delegate power, improve regulation, and upgrade services in the areas open to foreign investment in both inland and border regions. In the future, more attention will be paid to rules, regulations, management, standards and other forms of institutional openness, as China works to create a new and improved open economic system.

     

    四、把握经济全球化的风险防范,在开放中构筑安全保障

    1. Guarding against the risks of economic globalization and establishing safeguards in the process of opening up

     

    习近平总书记指出,经济全球化是一把“双刃剑”,当世界经济处于下行期的时候,发达国家和发展中国家都会感受到压力和冲击;我们今天开放发展的大环境总体上比以往任何时候都更为有利,同时面临的矛盾、风险、博弈也前所未有;越开放越要重视安全,越要统筹好发展和安全,炼就金刚不坏之身;发展是安全的基础,是安全的保障;发展就是最大安全,也是解决安全问题的“总钥匙”;不断扩大对外开放、提高对外开放水平,以开放促改革、促发展,是我国发展不断取得新成就的重要法宝。

     

    President Xi has argued that economic globalization is a double-edged sword; in global economic downturns, all countries, developed and developing alike, will experience pressure. He has said that our open development environment is creating more benefits than ever, but the associated problems, risks, and trials are also unprecedented. The more open we are, he has pointed out, the more attention we must pay to security, properly managing both development and security so that we can make ourselves impervious to risks. President Xi has further pointed out that development and security mutually reinforce each other on a fundamental level, that development provides the greatest guarantee of security and the “master key” for solving security issues, and that we must continually open up, improve the quality of opening up, and leverage greater openness to promote reform and development – this is an important vehicle that will continually yield fresh success in China’s development.

     

    经济全球化既提供了发展机遇,也可能带来安全隐患。经济全球化在做大“蛋糕”的同时,分好“蛋糕”的问题日渐突出。各国国情、制度和发展阶段不同,面临的安全形势也不一样。发达国家在经济全球化过程中获益的同时,由于国内政策调整不到位,出现了产业空心化、就业不足、贫富差距扩大等问题。发展中国家对外开放成就显著,但发展实力和风险应对能力不足,容易受到外部风险冲击。经济风险的全球化,需要全球加强合作与共同应对。世界各国经济相互依存,“你中有我,我中有你”,经济安全也成为全球性问题,任何国家都不能独善其身。加强国际合作,在开放中谋求自身安全,扩大共同安全,成为各国的现实选择。

     

    Economic globalization creates both development opportunities and security risks.

     

    As the economic globalization “pie” has become bigger, the issue of properly sharing the pie out has come to the forefront. The conditions, systems, and development stages of countries differ, as do their development contexts. While developing countries have reaped benefits during economic globalization, ineffective policy adjustments have resulted in the hollowing out of their industries, inadequate employment, and a growing gap between rich and poor. The success that developing countries have had in opening up is self-evident, but their lack of development strength and inadequate capacity to respond to risks makes them susceptible to external shocks. The globalization of economic risks demands stronger cooperation and a collective response. The economies of all countries are interdependent, and economic security is a global issue from which no country can seal itself off. Stronger international cooperation to achieve individual and collective security during the process of opening up is a practical choice for all countries.

     

    我国在参与经济全球化过程中增强了实力、获得了安全,同时面临新的挑战。40多年来,我们处理好独立自主与扩大开放的关系,一方面在扩大开放过程中增强了综合国力,显著提升了安全维护能力;另一方面把握好开放的力度和节奏,注重风险防范。当前,我国已由“经贸小国”发展为“经贸大国”,正在迈向“经贸强国”,参与经济全球化程度不断加深,与世界的相互影响显著增大。同时,国际上单边主义、保护主义抬头,我国的外部风险也在增多,需要我们妥善加以应对。

     

    While participating in economic globalization, China has grown stronger and more secure but also faced new challenges.

     

    In a period of more than 40 years, China has managed to maintain independence while expanding opening up. It has increased its composite national strength and gained a stronger capacity to maintain security on one side, while properly managing the intensity and pace of opening up on the other, keeping a close focus on guarding against risk. Having developed from a small to a large trading nation, China is now in the process of becoming a trader of quality and quantity. As it plays a deepening role in economic globalization, its impact on the world, and the world’s impact on China, will increase notably. At the same time, as unilateralism and protectionism rise, China will face more external risks that need to be addressed in the right way.

     

    ——统筹好开放与安全。既要打开窗户,也要装好纱窗,更好维护经济安全。在新发展阶段,国内发展必须在经济全球化背景下来谋划,充分利用两个市场两种资源,以全面扩大开放促进市场化改革,促进高质量发展,以更强的产业竞争力、更强的经济实力、更强的综合国力来保障经济安全,以更加安全的经济体制参与更高水平的经济全球化。顺应大国经济发展规律,切实把扩大内需作为经济发展的根本立足点,加快构建新发展格局,统筹好开放与改革发展,找到开放与安全的黄金结合点。

     

    Promoting development and security. As China opens its window wider to the world, it must establish safeguards to ensure economic security. In the new stage of development, economic globalization must serve as the backdrop for domestic development planning. We must leverage international and domestic markets and resources, promote market reform and high-quality development with greater opening up on all fronts, ensure economic security with stronger competitiveness in industry, a stronger economy, and greater composite national strength, and achieve greater economic security as we take part in a higher level of economic globalization. Following the laws underlying the development of major economies, China will proceed with the fundamental task of expanding domestic demand, accelerate the creation of a new development dynamic, and pursue opening up, reform, and development in a coordinated way to strike an optimal balance between openness and security.

     

    ——有效防范化解风险。要坚持底线思维,在商签自贸协定等对外谈判中,坚决守住底线和红线,坚决贯彻党中央决策部署,稳住外贸外资基本盘,稳住全球产业链供应链,防范“一带一路”相关风险,把风险防范落到实处。把握好扩大开放的力度、进度和深度,积极应对传统和非传统安全风险,更好维护国家经济安全。

     

    Guarding against and mitigating risks effectively. We will keep in mind worst-case scenarios, and hold fast to redlines in free trade negotiations. We will resolutely implement the decisions and plans of the CPC Central Committee, ensure general stability in foreign trade, work to keep global industry chains and supply chains stable, and guard against risks with regard to the Belt and Road Initiative with practical steps. We will properly manage the intensity, progress, and level of opening up. We will actively respond to both traditional and non-traditional security threats and better protect national economic security.

     

    ——提升参与和引领经济全球化能力。提升规则制定能力,多边、区域与双边并举,积极参与新一轮规则制定,有效反对保护主义,有效维护自由贸易和多边主义。提升安全维护能力,运用国际通行规则,健全产业安全机制,完善经济安全风险预警,健全外资安全审查、产业损害预警、贸易救济等机制,维护我国发展利益。提升人才保障能力,积极培育经济、法律、管理、谈判等方面的国际化人才,增加我国在国际组织的代表性,改善引进国际化人才的环境,营造于我有利的国际环境,维护和延长我国战略机遇期。

     

    Enhancing China’s ability to participate and lead in economic globalization. We will improve China’s ability to participate in setting rules for multilateral, regional, and bilateral ties. We will play an active role in the new round of rulemaking, taking a firm stance against protectionism while standing up for free trade and multilateralism. We will improve our capacity to ensure security through the use of international norms and rules, enhance industrial security mechanisms and early warnings for economic security risks, and enhance reviews of foreign investment projects, early warnings for industrial injury, and trade remedies. We will improve our capacity to develop international economic, legal, management, and negotiation talent, work to increase China’s representation in international organizations, foster a more attractive domestic environment for international talent, and strive to create an international environment that is favorable for China, so as to protect our country’s period of strategic opportunity.

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    • 版权声明 本文源自 求是, 整理 发表于 2021年3月17日14:48:28