双语:中国关键词:抗击新冠肺炎疫情篇(第二批)

摘要

《中国关键词:抗击新冠肺炎疫情篇》第二批28条词条双语版

《中国关键词:抗击新冠肺炎疫情篇》

Key Words to Understand China: The Fight Against COVID-19

 

一、中央决策

I. Decisions by the Central Leadership

 

1.疫情防控要坚持全国一盘棋

 

在2020年2月3日召开的中共中央政治局常委会会议上,习近平指出,疫情防控要坚持全国一盘棋。

 

坚持全国一盘棋,首先要加强党中央集中统一领导。各级党委和政府必须坚决服从党中央统一指挥、统一协调、统一调度,做到令行禁止。各地区各部门必须增强大局意识和全局观念,坚决服从中央应对疫情工作领导小组及国务院联防联控机制的指挥,采取举措既考虑本地区本领域防控需要,也考虑对重点地区、对全国防控的影响。

 

疫情发生以来,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央统一领导、统一指挥下,各地区各部门各司其职、协调联动,紧急行动、全力奋战。全国各地调派医务人员,迅速集结、驰援武汉;建设者日夜奋战,迅速建成武汉火神山医院;军队高效投送疫情防控物资,抽调医护人员参加医疗救治;企业加班加点,最大限度生产疫情防控物资供全国统一调度。正如世界卫生组织总干事谭德塞所说,“中方行动速度之快、规模之大,世所罕见”。这充分证明,坚持全国一盘棋,调动各方面积极性,集中力量办大事,是中国打赢疫情防控阻击战的有力保证,彰显了中国国家制度和国家治理体系的显著优势。

 

1. Coordinated National Response in Epidemic Prevention and Control

 

At the meeting held on February 3, 2020 by the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Xi Jinping instructed that there should be a coordinated national response in epidemic prevention and control.

 

To ensure a coordinated national response, the centralized and unified leadership of the CPC Central Committee must be strengthened. Party committees and governments at all levels must resolutely follow the unified command, coordination and deployment of the CPC Central Committee, and ensure strict enforcement of orders. All localities and government departments must think in big-picture terms and take a holistic perspective, and resolutely obey the command of the Central Leading Group for COVID-19 Prevention and Control and the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council. When devising epidemic control measures, they should take into account both the needs of their areas and sectors and the potential impacts on key regions and the whole nation.

 

Since the outbreak of the epidemic, under the unified leadership and command of the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at its core, various localities and government departments have performed their duties, coordinated efforts, taken joint actions, and acted promptly with all their strength. A large number of medical workers from all over the country assembled and rushed to the rescue of Wuhan. By working non-stop shifts, thousands of builders raced against the clock and completed the Huoshenshan Hospital in 10 days. The PLA efficiently delivered anti-epidemic materials and dispatched medical personnel to join the rescue. The manufacturers operated at full capacity to maximize the production of materials for national unified distribution.

 

As WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom said, “The speed with which China detected the outbreak, isolated the virus, sequenced the genome, and shared it with WHO and the world are very impressive, and beyond words.”

 

All of these have fully proved that by ensuring a coordinated national response, China can arouse the enthusiasm of all parties and concentrate resources on major initiatives. This forms a strong guarantee for the country to win the war against the novel coronavirus, and also demonstrates great strengths of China’s state institutions and governance system.

 

2确保受赠财物全部及时用于疫情防控

 

疫情发生以来,湖北和武汉等地陆续收到来自国内外的大量捐赠。为了确保这些捐赠财物及时发挥应有作用,2020年2月5日,习近平在主持召开中央全面依法治国委员会第三次会议时指出,受赠财物必须全部及时用于疫情防控。这一要求,是党中央从立法、执法、司法、守法各环节发力,全面提高依法防控、依法治理能力,为疫情防控工作提供有力法治保障的具体体现。

 

相关法律规定是贯彻落实这一原则的遵循和依据。比如,按照法律规定,受赠人应当将接受捐赠财物的情况以及受赠财物的使用、管理情况,采取不同方式真实、完整、及时公开信息;对于接受的救助灾害的捐赠财产,应当及时用于救助活动;慈善组织应当积极开展慈善活动,充分、高效运用慈善财产。此外,法律还规定,受赠方要接受政府和社会的监督,在公益慈善活动中违反法律规定的,应当依法承担法律责任。

 

2. All Donations to Be Used for Epidemic Control Without Delay

 

Since the outbreak of the epidemic, Wuhan and other places in Hubei have received a large number of donations from around the world. At a meeting of the Commission for Comprehensive Law-based Governance of the CPC Central Committee on February 5, Xi Jinping pointed out that the donated property must all be used without delay for epidemic control to fulfill the wishes of the kind donors. This reflects the CPC Central Committee’s efforts in enhancing legislation, law enforcement, judicial justice, and observation of the law to provide a strong legal guarantee for epidemic prevention and control.

 

According to the Chinese law, the donee shall promptly make public the true information about all the donations received and the use and management of the donated property, and distribute the property for disaster relief without delay; and the charities shall use the donation to fund charity activities, fully and efficiently. The law also stipulates that the donee shall be subject to government and public scrutiny, and the law violators in charity activities shall be held accountable.

 

3.武汉胜则湖北胜,湖北胜则全国胜

 

湖北和武汉是疫情防控的重中之重,是打赢疫情防控阻击战的决胜之地。2020年2月10日,习近平在视频连线武汉市重症患者收治医院时指出,武汉胜则湖北胜,湖北胜则全国胜。

 

疫情发生以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央始终牵挂湖北和武汉的抗疫工作。习近平两次主持召开中央政治局常委会会议,对疫情防控工作进行专题研究,强调湖北省要把疫情防控工作作为当前的头等大事,并对湖北和武汉做好疫情防控工作作出部署安排。党中央派中央指导组到武汉,全面加强疫情防控第一线工作的指导,同湖北人民和武汉人民并肩作战。全国共有40000多名医务人员驰援湖北,其中驰援武汉的就有35000多名。实践证明,稳住了湖北和武汉的疫情,也就稳住了全国大局。

 

3. If Wuhan Wins, Hubei Wins. If Hubei Wins, the Whole Country Wins.

 

Wuhan and Hubei are the top priorities in China’s epidemic prevention and control, and the main battlefield of the war against the virus. On February 10, in a video call with a hospital in Wuhan which treats severe cases, Xi Jinping pointed out, “If Wuhan wins, Hubei wins. If Hubei wins, the whole country wins.”

 

Since the outbreak of the epidemic, the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at its core has been concerned about the anti-epidemic work in Hubei and Wuhan. Xi has chaired more than one meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee to study and discuss epidemic prevention and control. He emphasized that Hubei must put epidemic prevention and control at the top of the agenda. He also made deployments for Hubei and Wuhan in their combat of the virus.

 

The CPC Central Committee has sent the Central Guiding Team to Wuhan to comprehensively strengthen guidance on the front line, and to fight side by side with the people of Wuhan and other parts of Hubei province. More than 40,000 medical workers from all over the country came to assist Hubei, about 35,000 of whom worked in Wuhan. Practices have proved that the situation of the whole country will become stabilized if the epidemic in Wuhan and Hubei is put under control.

 

二、政策部署

II. Anti-Epidemic Guidelines and Arrangements

 

1.集中患者、集中专家、集中资源、集中救治

 

2020年1月25日,中共中央政治局常委会专题会议强调,要按照“集中患者、集中专家、集中资源、集中救治”的原则,将重症病例集中到综合力量强的定点医疗机构进行救治,同时及时收治所有确诊病人。

 

集中患者、集中救治,是防控疫情扩散和对确诊患者有效治疗的重要手段。集中患者既可以同步进行医学观察和治疗,方便资源调配,尽早治疗,避免轻症拖成重症,还可以防止正常人群的交叉感染。湖北响应中央要求,对“四类人员”集中收治,精准掌握确诊患者数、疑似患者数、发热门诊有症状患者数、密切接触人员中有症状患者数,以及各医院、隔离点、方舱可用床位数、已用床位数、剩余床位数等,确保动态数据准确无误。

 

集中专家、集中资源,是应对疫情的重要措施。中央通过从全国调集医疗资源支援武汉重症患者医疗救治,整建制接管新的重症患者收治病区等措施手段,以及在此基础上建立院士巡诊、多学科综合治疗、整体护理等一系列制度,确保重症患者科学救治。

 

1. Treating the Infected in Dedicated Facilities by Senior Medical Professionals from All Over the Country and with All Necessary Resources

 

The meeting held on January 25 by the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee laid down a guiding principle of “treating the infected in dedicated facilities by senior medical professionals from all over the country and with all necessary resources.” Severe cases must be gathered into designated medical institutions with strong treatment capabilities, and all confirmed cases must be received by hospitals without delay.

 

Gathering the patients for medical treatment is an important means to prevent the spread of the epidemic and to provide effective treatment to confirmed cases. With the infected people being received in dedicated facilities, medical observation and treatment can be carried out at the same time, which can highly facilitate the allocation of resources. Also, patients can get treatment as early as possible, thus reducing the possibility of deterioration. Plus, gathering the patients together can prevent cross-infection among healthy people.

 

Following this guiding principle made by the CPC Central Committee, Hubei has gathered the four groups of people: confirmed cases, suspected cases, febrile patients and close contacts. This has made it possible to accurately learn of the number of confirmed cases, suspected cases, symptomatic cases in fever clinics, and symptomatic cases in close contacts. It is also possible to get accurate information about the number of beds available, occupied or vacant in relevant hospitals, isolation centers and temporary treatment centers.

 

Assembling medical experts and concentrating all necessary resources are important measures to deal with the epidemic. Medical materials from all over the country have been collected to help Wuhan treat severe cases, and new medical institutions in the city that are designated to receive severe patients have been taken over wholly by appointed medical teams. On this basis, an array of working mechanisms such as academician visits, multidisciplinary comprehensive treatment and holistic nursing have been established, ensuring that severe cases can receive science-based treatment.

 

2.着力做好重点地区疫情防控工作

 

中共中央政治局常务委员会2020年2月3日召开会议,习近平主持会议并强调,要着力做好重点地区疫情防控工作。只有集中力量把重点地区的疫情控制住了,才能从根本上尽快扭转全国疫情蔓延局面。要重点抓好防治力量的区域统筹,坚决把救治资源和防护资源集中到抗击疫情第一线,优先满足一线医护人员和救治病人需要。

 

湖北省特别是武汉市等重点地区的疫情防控,是全国疫情防控的重中之重。稳住了湖北疫情,就稳定了全国大局。着力做好重点地区的疫情防控工作,既是广大湖北人民特别是病患和家属的迫切期望,也是防控疫情蔓延扩散的必然要求。

 

会议指出,湖北省特别是武汉市要进一步完善和加强防控,严格落实早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗措施,加强疫情监测,集中救治患者,对所有密切接触人员采取居家医学观察,完善和强化防止疫情向外扩散的措施。各地区要压实地方党委和政府责任,强化社区防控网格化管理,采取更加周密精准、更加管用有效的措施,防止疫情蔓延。做好重点地区疫情防控工作,医治患者是化解存量,防控蔓延是防止增量,这是做好重点地区疫情防控的一套组合拳。

 

2. Key Regions: Focus of Epidemic Control

 

On February 3, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee held a meeting to study and discuss the issue of epidemic control. Xi Jinping chaired the meeting and underscored key regions as the focus of epidemic control. Only by concentrating efforts to control the epidemic in key regions can China fundamentally curb the spread of the virus across the country as soon as possible. It is highly necessary to coordinate regional resources, concentrate treatment and protective resources to the front line, and ensure the needs of frontline medical personnel and the patients as a matter of priority.

 

Hubei province, especially Wuhan and other key regions, are the top priorities of the nationwide war against the novel coronavirus. The situation of the whole country will become stabilized if the epidemic in Wuhan and Hubei is put under control. Making greater efforts to control the epidemic in key regions echoes the urgent wishes of the people in Hubei, especially patients and their families. It is also a must to contain the virus.

 

The meeting pointed out that Hubei province, especially the city of Wuhan, should further improve and tighten their control, strictly implement the principle of “early detection, early reporting, early isolation and early treatment,” strengthen epidemic monitoring, gather the patients for medical treatment, require all close contacts to stay at home for medical observation, and apply effective measures to prevent the spread of the epidemic.

 

The meeting required that local Party committees and governments must fully take on their responsibilities, strengthen community grid management, and take more thorough, more targeted and more effective measures to contain the outbreak.

 

Treating the patients on the one hand and blocking the virus from spreading on the other hand – these two together contribute to effective containment of the epidemic.

 

3.全力以赴救治患者,保障医疗防护物资供应

 

中共中央政治局常委会2020年2月3日召开会议强调,要全力以赴救治患者,保障医疗防护物资供应,努力提高收治率和治愈率、降低感染率和病死率。

 

全力以赴救治患者,是防控工作的突出任务。会议强调,集中收治医院要尽快建成投入使用,继续根据需要从全国调派医务人员支援武汉,同时保护好医务人员身心健康。要统筹做好人员调配,尽量把精兵强将集中起来、把重症病人集中起来,统一进行救治,及时推广各医院救治重症病人的有效做法。

 

2月1日,国务院总理李克强赴疫情防控国家重点医疗物资保障调度平台考察时强调,全力保障重点医疗防护物资生产供应,加快医疗防控物资生产、增加供应保障能力,是降低疫情感染患者死亡率、提高治愈率和做好防控工作的必要条件。增加供应就是增强抗击疫情的战斗力,要充分挖掘潜在产能,在保证质量的基础上争分夺秒增加生产,还要创造条件扩大产能。要完善不同场所、不同人群科学使用医疗防控物资的标准,医护工作者战斗在抗击疫情第一线舍己救人,自身也需要防护,重点医疗防控物资首先要保证他们的需要。国务院联防联控机制要加强重点医疗防控物资全国统一调度,各职能部门要齐心协力,对湖北省特别是武汉市等疫情防控重点地区,医疗防控物资要优先保障。

 

3. Ensuring Medical Supplies and Treating Patients at All Cost

 

The Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee emphasized at its meeting on February 3 that the supply of all kinds of medical protective materials must be ensured and no effort shall be spared to treat the patients. It also demanded raising the admission rate and the recovery rate, and lowering the infection rate and the case fatality rate.

 

Sparing no effort to treat the patients is a prominent task of epidemic control. The central leadership decided at the meeting that more hospitals for collective treatment would be built and put into use as early as possible, and more medical workers from other parts of the country be dispatched to meet Wuhan’s need. They also urged protecting the physical and psychological health of medical workers. They required coordination in the deployment of personnel to concentrate the competent medical workers and gather all severe cases for treatment, and timely promotion of the effective practices of various hospitals in curing severe patients.

 

When inspecting the national distribution center for major anti-epidemic medical supplies, Premier Li Keqiang called for greater efforts to ensure the production and supply of key medical protective equipment, speed up the manufacturing of anti-epidemic medical supplies, and enhance supply capacity. He said that these efforts together would provide necessary conditions for lowering the mortality rate, raising the recovery rate, and implementing solid prevention and control measures. To increase supply is to enhance fighting capacity against the epidemic, therefore it is a must to fully tap the production potential, to race against the clock to increase output while ensuring quality, and to take possible measures to expand supply.

 

The premier emphasized improving the standards for appropriate use of anti-epidemic medical supplies in different places and for different groups of people. He said that medical workers fighting at the front line also need protection and they should have priority access to key medical protective equipment.

 

He required the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council to improve unified distribution of major anti-epidemic medical supplies across the country. All functional departments should make concerted efforts to ensure the supply of medical resources to Hubei province, especially Wuhan and other key regions hit hard by the epidemic.

 

4.加大科研攻关力度

 

中共中央政治局常委会2020年2月3日召开会议强调,要加大科研攻关力度,战胜疫病离不开科技支撑。会议指出,要科学论证病毒来源,尽快查明传染源和传播途径,密切跟踪病毒变异情况,及时研究防控策略和措施。要调动高校、科研院所、企业等各方面积极性,组织动员全国科研工作者参与疫情防控方面的科研攻关,推动相关数据和病例资料的开放共享,加快病毒溯源、传播力、传播机理等研究,及时完善防控策略和措施。要加强有效药品和疫苗研发,注重科研攻关与临床、防控实践相结合。要鼓励专家学者增强担当精神、职业责任,在科学研究的前提下多拿出专业意见和建议。

 

加大科研攻关,直接关系人民身体健康和生命安全。打赢疫情防控攻坚战,加大科研攻关是重要制高点。从解码病毒到疫苗研发,从查明传染源头到切断传播途径,所有工作的开展,都需要秉承科学论证的“方法论”。疫情防控是总体战,加大科研攻关,就是为战胜疫病注入关键性力量。

 

4. Reinforcing Scientific R&D Against COVID-19

 

The Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee at its meeting on February 3 underscored the support of science and technology for defeating the epidemic, and urged reinforcing scientific research in this regard. The meeting highlighted the need to find the origin of the virus, identify the infection source and transmission route as soon as possible, closely track the variation of the virus, and develop prevention and control strategies and measures without delay.

 

Universities, scientific research institutes and enterprises shall be mobilized, and researchers across the country be organized to join anti-virus research. It is also necessary to promote the sharing of relevant data and medical records, speed up research on the traceability, transmission and transmission mechanism of the virus, and make timely improvements to prevention and control strategies and measures. More efforts are needed to strengthen the development of effective drugs and vaccines, and interaction between scientific research, clinical trials and prevention control practices. Experts and scholars should take on more responsibilities, and come up with more professional proposals and solutions based on scientific research.

 

Science has a direct bearing on the health and safety of the people, and scientists play a key role in the campaign against the virus. From decoding the coronavirus to vaccine development, from identifying the infection source to cutting off the transmission route, all work must be conducted following scientific methodologies, so as to provide a strong force to win the war against COVID-19.

 

5.切实维护正常经济社会秩序

 

中共中央政治局常委会2020年2月3日召开会议强调,要切实维护正常经济社会秩序。

 

物资供应充足,市场秩序井然,是确保宏观经济稳定运行的基础。会议指出,要在做好疫情防控的同时,保持生产生活平稳有序,避免因确诊病例增多、生活物资供应紧张等引发群众恐慌,带来次生“灾害”。要确保主副食品生产、流通、供应,确保蔬菜、肉蛋奶、粮食等居民生活必需品供应。要落实“菜篮子”市长负责制,积极组织蔬菜等副食品生产,加强物资调配和市场供应,采取措施保证运送生活必需品的车辆顺利通行。要做好煤电油气重点供应,保障居民用能需求。要加强心理干预和疏导,有针对性地做好人文关怀。

 

会议指出,要妥善处理疫情防控中出现的各类矛盾和问题,加强社会治安工作,依法严厉打击利用疫情哄抬物价、囤积居奇、趁火打劫等扰乱社会秩序的违法犯罪行为,严厉打击制售假劣药品、医疗器械、医用卫生材料等违法犯罪行为,坚决依法打击各类违法犯罪,维护社会稳定和国家安全。

 

5. Maintaining Normal Economic and Social Order

 

Maintaining normal economic and social order was stressed by the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee at its meeting on February 3.

 

Adequate supplies and market order ensures stable operation of the macro-economy. The meeting pointed out that as the nation is fighting the epidemic, it is necessary to maintain social stability and orderly production, so as to avoid public panic and “secondary disasters” caused by the increase of confirmed cases and the shortage of daily necessities.

 

It is necessary to ensure the production, distribution and supply of staple and non-staple food, and the supply of vegetables, meat, eggs, milk, grain and other daily necessities for residents. City mayors must earnestly fulfill their responsibility of guaranteeing the people’s “vegetable basket” (non-grain food supply), actively organize the production of vegetables and other non-staple food, coordinate the allocation of materials and market supply, and take measures to ensure smooth passage of vehicles transporting daily necessities. Supply of coal, electricity, oil and gas must be maintained to satisfy the energy demand of residents. Psychological intervention and counseling and humanistic care will be provided to those in need.

 

The meeting also required efforts to properly handle all kinds of difficulties and problems in epidemic control, and maintain law and order. To safeguard social stability and national security, severe punishment will be meted out in accordance with the law on criminal and other illegal offenses such as price gouging, hoarding, speculation and other acts that disturb social order during the outbreak, as well as production and sale of fake and shoddy medicines, medical devices and medical sanitary materials.

 

三、具体措施

III. Effective Measures

 

1.国务院联防联控工作机制

 

习近平多次作出重要指示,要求加强联防联控工作,筑牢群防群治的严密防线。2020年1月20日,结合新冠肺炎疫情防控形势,针对春节期间人群流动大的特点,国家卫生健康委召开会议强调,全国卫生系统要健全联防联控工作机制,完善多部门联防联控疫情预案,强化对地方工作的指导和支持。1月21日,中国政府将新冠肺炎疫情防控上升到国家层面,启动国务院应对新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情联防联控机制(简称“国务院联防联控机制”)。

 

联防联控工作机制是中国政府为防控新冠肺炎疫情作出的一项制度性安排,以疫情防控为中心,打破部门职责的界限,实现疫情防范应对工作的立体化、全覆盖和高效协同。国务院联防联控机制由国卫生健康委牵头,成员单位共32个部门,下设疫情防控、医疗救治、科研攻关、宣传、外事、后勤保障、前方工作等工作组,分别由相关部委负责同志任组长,明确职责,分工协作,形成防控疫情的有效合力。截至2月28日,国务院联防联控机制多次召开新闻发布会,累计印发了30余项通知、技术指引和工作方案文件,介绍疫情防控、物资保障、科研攻关、复工复产等相关工作最新进展,解读政策措施,回应各方关切。

 

在党中央国务院决策部署下,各省市相继构建联防联控、群防群控体系,依法、科学、有序开展疫情防控工作。

 

1. The Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council

 

Xi Jinping has reiterated the importance of society-wide efforts in epidemic prevention and control, and of building a strict line of defense by mobilizing the public.

 

On January 20, facing the outbreak of the epidemic and considering the large mobility of people during the upcoming Spring Festival break, the NHC proposed setting up a joint anti-epidemic prevention and control mechanism within the national health system, improving inter-agency preparation and coordination, and providing guidance and support to relevant local work.

 

On January 21, the Chinese government upgraded the joint mechanism to the national level and launched the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council in Response to the Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (“Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council” for short).

 

The Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council is an institutional arrangement made by the Chinese government. Focusing on the mission of epidemic prevention and control, the mechanism breaks down the boundaries of different government departments and agencies and has achieved inter-agency coordination with high efficiency. With the NHC as the coordinator, a total of 32 central government departments cooperate under the mechanism, with internal work teams set up covering epidemic prevention and control, medical treatment, scientific research, publicity, foreign affairs, logistics support, and work at the front line. These work teams are each headed by a leading official of a relevant ministry or commission with clear duties and division of labor. They form strong synergy against the epidemic through close collaboration.

 

In addition to holding press conferences, the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council had issued more than 30 notices, technical guidelines and work plans by February 28, briefing the public about the latest progress in epidemic prevention and control, material supplies, scientific research and resumption of work and production, interpreting policies and measures, and responding to public concerns.

 

Following the decisions and deployment of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, all provinces and cities have established joint prevention and control mechanisms and mechanisms for society-wide efforts against the virus, and taken law-abiding, science-based and orderly measures to fight the epidemic.

 

2.武汉“封城”

 

2020年1月22日,党中央果断要求湖北省对人员外流实施全面严格管控。1月23日,湖北省新冠肺炎疫情防控指挥部指挥长会议通告,1月23日10时起,武汉全市城市公交、地铁、轮渡、长途客运暂停运营;无特殊原因,市民不要离开武汉,机场、火车站离汉通道暂时关闭。为遏制疫情发展,1月25日,武汉市进一步阻断武昌、汉口、汉阳“武汉三镇”之间的公共交通,从1月26日0时起,除经许可的保供运输车、免费交通车、公务用车外,武汉中心城区区域实行机动车禁行管理。

 

这些“封城”措施,是有效阻断疫情传播、遏制疫情蔓延的必要之举。但“封城”并不意味着“孤城”或“围城”。为确保基本生活不受影响,武汉市新冠肺炎防控指挥部及时通告物资储备和供应情况,呼吁市民不用恐慌,不必囤积;开通24小时电话接收社会各界爱心捐赠,做好物资接收调配工作;紧急征集6000台出租车分配给各社区,为辖区居民出行提供免费服务,解决居家出行不便等问题。

 

武汉是中国中西部地区的中心城市,是全国重要交通枢纽。“封城”对武汉影响巨大。然而面对疫情,武汉、湖北和中国果断采取了有力措施和行动,做出了巨大努力和牺牲,为全球疫情防控赢得了宝贵时间。

 

2. Wuhan in Lockdown

 

On January 22, 2020, the CPC Central Committee decisively demanded Hubei province implement comprehensive and strict control over personnel outflow.

 

On January 23, a meeting held by the Epidemic Prevention and Control Headquarter of Wuhan announced that from 10:00 a.m. on January 23, 2020, the city’s urban bus, subway, ferry and long-distance passenger transportation would be suspended, the departure channels of airport and railway stations be temporarily closed, and the citizens should not leave Wuhan without special reason.

 

To contain the epidemic from further spreading, Wuhan blocked public transportation between Wuchang, Hankou and Hanyang on January 25. From 00:00 on January 26, all non-essential vehicles were banned in downtown Wuhan except for vehicles with permits that are used to guarantee material supply, provide free transportation, and serve public affairs.

 

These lockdown measures are highly necessary to effectively block the virus and curb the epidemic from spreading. But a lockdown does not mean putting Wuhan out on a limb or leaving it desperately alone. To ensure the citizens’ basic life not be affected much, the Epidemic Prevention and Control Headquarter of Wuhan has made prompt briefings on the city’s material reserves and supplies, and reminded the public that there is no need for panic or hoarding. A 24-hour hotline was opened to receive donations from all walks of life, and solid measures have been taken to receive and deploy the donated properties. A total of 6,000 taxis have been urgently mobilized to serve communities and provide free services for those in need.

 

Wuhan is a key city in central China and an important transportation hub of the country. The lockdown has yielded a great impact on the city. However, in the face of the epidemic, Wuhan, Hubei and China have resolutely taken effective measures and actions, and by making great efforts and sacrifices, they have bought valuable time for the whole world to fight against the epidemic.

 

3.外防输入、内防扩散

 

新冠肺炎疫情发生时恰逢中国春节返乡高峰,控制新增、防止扩散是疫情防控工作的关键所在。以习近平同志为核心的党中央多次要求各省市采取针对性措施,做到外防输入、内防扩散。这是针对非疫情防控重点地区、人口流动大省大市的一项差异化防控策略。

 

社区是疫情联防联控的第一线,也是外防输入、内防扩散最有效的防线。通过把好入口关,强化网格化管理,守好社区防控,筑牢安全防线,可以有效切断传染源,控制新增输入性病例,防止疫情扩散蔓延。

 

疫情防控期间,中共中央国务院还发出了减少人员流动、协同抗击疫情的号召,通过及时延长春节假期,提前部署延迟开学、灵活复工、错峰出行,并在健康监测、人员管理等方面采取严格措施,坚决抓好外防输入、内防扩散两大环节。

 

3. Preventing the Coronavirus from Entering and Spreading Within a Region

 

The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic coincides with the home return peak during China’s Spring Festival break. Controlling the number of infections and preventing the spread of the virus is the key to epidemic control. The CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at its core has repeatedly urged all provinces and municipalities to take targeted measures and prevent the coronavirus from entering and spreading within the regions under their jurisdiction. This is a differentiated strategy for the regions that are not vital for epidemic prevention and control as well as for the provinces and municipalities with mass transient populations.

 

The community is the front line of joint prevention and control, and also the most effective line of defense against imported cases and spread from within. By deploying tight check at the entrance and strict grid management, the community can build strong defense and effectively cut off the infection source.

 

The CPC Central Committee and the State Council also called on the public to refrain from traveling and thus contribute to the epidemic fight. For this end, flexible measures have been adopted in advance such as extending the Spring Festival holiday, postponing the reopening of schools, flexible resumption of work, and staggering the time of return trips of workers. Meanwhile, strict health monitoring and personnel management has been taken to firmly prevent the spread of the virus within a certain region while guarding against imported cases.

 

4.“一人一方案”“一人一团队”

 

2020年1月20日,武汉市新冠肺炎疫情防控指挥部工作会议提出,全力做好患者救治工作,对重症患者“一人一方案”“一人一团队”,确保轻症患者尽快治愈出院。

 

采取“一人一方案”“一人一团队”措施,就是调集一切资源,以最强的技术力量、最佳的护理服务,为患者精准提供医护团队和诊疗方案,开展及时、高效、有针对性的治疗,提高治愈率。全国各地在救治工作中纷纷采用了这一模式。

 

在疫情形势依然严峻复杂,防控处在最吃劲的关键阶段,采取“一人一方案”“一人一团队”措施是落实“集中患者、集中专家、集中资源、集中救治”要求的具体体现,也是行之有效的救治工作经验。

 

4. A Dedicated Team and a Personalized Treatment Plan for Each Patient

 

On January 20, the Epidemic Prevention and Control Headquarter of Wuhan decided to exert all-out efforts in the treatment of patients. For severe cases, the practice of “a dedicated team and a personalized treatment plan for each patient” will be applied, and mild cases will be cured and discharged as early as possible.

 

In adopting such a practice, it is highly necessary to mobilize all resources to provide patients customized medical teams and targeted diagnosis and treatment schemes with the strongest technical force and the best nursing service, and carry out timely, efficient and targeted treatment to raise the recovery rate. This practice has been widely adopted in the treatment of patients across the country.

 

While the epidemic situation is still grim and complex, and prevention and control work is in the most critical stage, this practice complies with the principle of “treating the infected in dedicated facilities by senior medical professionals from all over the country and with all necessary resources.” It has been proved effective in treating the patients.

 

5.集中拉网式大排查

 

2020年2月17日至19日, 武汉市展开集中拉网式大排查, 对各区各街道辖区居民进行筛查甄别,坚持“不落一户、不漏一人”。这是坚持人民生命至上、遵循应收尽收原则的具体举措。

 

集中拉网式大排查以社区为基础,彻底排查清“四类人员”(即确诊患者、疑似患者、无法排除感染可能的发热患者、确诊患者的密切接触者),推动落实“五个百分之百”工作目标(即确诊患者百分之百应收尽收、疑似患者百分之百核酸检测、发热病人百分之百进行检测、密切接触者百分之百隔离、小区村庄百分之百实行24小时封闭管理)。

 

这次大排查运用人工智能技术,大大提高了工作效率,在3天时间内完成3300多个社区、村湾近1000万人口的清底排查。在此基础上,通过大数据平台整合归并医院、疾控中心、医保、公安、民政、通信运营商等相关单位的信息数据,对“四类人员”有针对性地开展核酸检测、流行病调查,精准快速地锁定密切接触者,并在第一时间实施隔离,形成了对传染源的有效锁定和有效阻断。

 

5. Massive Dragnet Screening of Potential Virus Carriers

 

From February 17 to 19, Wuhan launched a massive dragnet screening of potential virus carriers among its residents in every community, “leaving no one unscreened.” This follows the belief that “saving lives is of paramount importance,” and the principle of getting all confirmed cases hospitalized for treatment.

 

This large-scale screening was conducted in search of the four groups of people (i.e. confirmed cases, suspected cases, febrile patients who cannot rule out the possibility of infection, and close contacts), in order to ensure 100 percent of admission for confirmed cases, 100 percent of nucleic acid tests for suspected cases, 100 percent of diagnosis for febrile patients, 100 percent of isolation for close contacts, and 100 percent of 24-hour close-off management of communities and villages.

 

By the use of AI technology, the investigation was conducted with great efficiency, and reached approximately 10 million people in more than 3,300 communities and villages within three days. Based on the big data platform, the information collected was integrated with the records kept in the hospitals, disease control centers, medical insurance agencies, public security and civil affairs authorities, telecommunication carriers and other relevant units. Targeted nucleic acid tests and epidemiological studies were carried out on the four groups of people, which helped to accurately and rapidly find close contacts and isolate them without delay, therefore effectively identifying and blocking the infection source.

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