双语:中国关键词:抗击新冠肺炎疫情篇(第一批)

摘要

《中国关键词:抗击新冠肺炎疫情篇》第一批24条词条双语版

《中国关键词:抗击新冠肺炎疫情篇》

Key Words to Understand China: The Fight Against COVID-19

 

一、中央决策

I. Decisions by the Central Leadership

 

1.生命重于泰山

 

生命安全和身体健康,是人民群众的基本需求和普遍愿望。中共十八大以来,习近平始终高度重视人民健康安全,在不同场合多次发表关于保障人民健康安全的重要论述。新冠肺炎疫情发生后,以习近平同志为核心的党中央高度重视,迅速做出部署,全面加强对疫情防控的集中统一领导。2020年1月25日,农历正月初一,中共中央政治局常委会召开会议,专门听取新冠肺炎疫情防控工作汇报,习近平主持会议并发表重要讲话,强调“生命重于泰山”。实际上,自疫情发生以来,他已经多次作出重要指示批示,要求各级党委和政府及有关部门把人民群众生命安全和身体健康放在第一位,把疫情防控作为当前最重要的工作来抓,采取切实有效措施,坚决遏制疫情蔓延势头。

 

生命重于泰山,即人民生命高于一切。具体而言,就是要坚持以人为本、生命至上,不惜一切代价抢救生命、救治患者;就是要不遗余力做好各项防控措施,“宁可十防九空,不可失防万一”;就是要坚持其他工作安排都要为人民群众生命安全和身体健康让路,按照党中央决策部署全面动员、全面部署、全面加强防控工作。“生命重于泰山”彰显了人民利益高于一切的重要原则,体现了中国共产党全心全意为人民服务的根本宗旨。

 

1. Saving Lives Is of Paramount Importance.

 

Safety and health are the basic needs of the people. Xi Jinping attaches great importance to these two issues, and has given instructions on ensuring people’s health and safety on different occasions.

 

Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19), the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at its core has made thorough arrangements and strengthened centralized and unified leadership over the prevention and control of the epidemic. On January 25, 2020, the first day of the Chinese Lunar New Year, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee held a meeting and listened to a report on epidemic prevention and control. Xi Jinping presided over the meeting and emphasized that “saving lives is of paramount importance.”

 

He demanded Party committees and governments at all levels to give top priority to people’s safety and health, and take epidemic control a most important work in the immediate future. He required effective measures to be taken to contain the outbreak.

 

“Saving lives is of paramount importance.” – This echoes the CPC’s mission of serving the people whole-heartedly and its principle of taking the interests of the people above everything else. It is the CPC’s pledge to save lives and cure patients at all costs. It will spare no effort and adopt all measures necessary to combat the epidemic. For the current time, other work should make way for the efforts to protect the safety and health of the people. Implementing the decisions by the CPC Central Committee, the whole country will take comprehensive actions in social mobilization, deployment, and prevention and control of the epidemic.

 

2.疫情就是命令,防控就是责任

 

做好疫情防控工作,直接关系人民生命安全和身体健康,直接关系经济社会大局稳定,也事关国家对外开放。

 

在2020年1月25日召开的中共中央政治局常委会专题会议上,习近平听取新冠肺炎疫情防控工作汇报并强调,“疫情就是命令,防控就是责任”。这是疫情防治关键时刻中共中央作出的重要部署,体现了中国共产党人心系人民的责任担当。这一部署要求各级领导干部特别是主要领导干部深入疫情防控第一线,及时发声指导,及时掌握疫情,及时采取行动,做到守土有责、守土尽责。疫情防控是一场不能懈怠的赛跑,要以最快速度救治患者,以最快速度控制疫情,容不得有丝毫犹疑、丝毫侥幸;要做好疫情监测、排查、预警等工作,争分夺秒遏制疫情蔓延势头;要实施最有利最有效的举措,开展最大范围的全民动员,筑起一道道坚固的防线。

 

2. Go Where There Is Epidemic, Fight It till It Perishes.

 

Epidemic prevention and control directly concerns the safety and health of the people, the overall stability of the economy and society, and the country’s opening up to the outside world.

 

After hearing the report on epidemic prevention and control at the meeting held on January 25, 2020, Xi Jinping ordered, “Go where there is epidemic, fight it till it perishes.”

 

This is an important deployment made by the CPC Central Committee at a critical moment. It reflects the Chinese Communists’ care about the people, who always put the people in the first place. It requires leading officials at all levels, especially major ones, to go deep into the front line of epidemic prevention and control, fulfill their responsibilities by giving timely guidance, closely monitoring the situation and taking prompt actions. Epidemic prevention and control is a race against time. Concerted efforts must be taken to treat patients and contain the spread of the virus at the fastest speed, without even the slightest hesitation. All-out efforts are need to carry out epidemic monitoring, screening, and early warning, and to curb the spread of the virus racing against the clock. Enormous efforts must be exerted to implement the most effective measures, mobilize the people to the largest extent, and build a solid line of defense against the epidemic.

 

3.把疫情防控工作作为当前最重要的工作来抓

 

新冠肺炎疫情是新中国成立以来在国内发生的传播速度最快、感染范围最广、防控难度最大的一次重大突发公共卫生事件。

 

在2020年1月25日召开的中共中央政治局常委会专题会议上,习近平听取新冠肺炎疫情防控工作汇报并强调,“把疫情防控工作作为当前最重要的工作来抓”。这是在当前疫情防控非常时期的明确定位,为坚决打赢这场没有硝烟的战役标定了清晰坐标。

 

把疫情防控工作作为当前最重要的工作来抓,是因为人命关天,人民至上,必须把人民群众生命安全和身体健康放在第一位,做到抢救生命不惜财物、守护健康不畏繁难、防控疫情不避艰辛;是因为当前疫情传播呈扩散态势,必须坚持“宁可十防九空,不可失防万一”,只有把问题想得严重一些,把风险想得大一些,把措施定得更周密一些,才能跑赢疫情传播速度,赢得打赢疫情防控阻击战的主动权,有力有效遏制疫情蔓延势头。

 

疫情发生以来,习近平时刻关注着疫情防控工作,不断作出重要指示批示。中共中央印发《关于加强党的领导、为打赢疫情防控阻击战提供坚强政治保证的通知》。中央应对疫情工作领导小组及时研究部署工作,前方指导组也积极开展工作。国务院应对新冠肺炎疫情联防联控机制加强统筹协调,及时协调解决防控工作中遇到的紧迫问题。各级党委和政府积极作为,同时间赛跑,与病魔较量,形成了抗击疫情的强大合力。

 

3. Epidemic Prevention and Control: Top of Current Agenda

 

The novel coronavirus epidemic is a major public health emergency with the fastest spread and the widest range of infections, and has been the most difficult to prevent and control in China since the founding of the People’s Republic in 1949.

 

At the meeting held on January 25, 2020, Xi Jinping emphasized that epidemic prevention and control must be put at the top of current agenda. This underscored the work in this emergency period and set clear coordinates for resolutely winning the war without smoke.

 

Putting epidemic prevention and control at the top of current agenda – This is because people’s lives are of supreme importance, and people’s health and safety are the top priority. China will save people’s lives at any cost, safeguard their health despite any difficulties, and prevent and control the epidemic without shying away from any hardships. As the epidemic spreads, China will do everything possible to combat it. Only by taking the problem more seriously and implementing more thoughtful measures, can the country outrun the epidemic, gain the initiative to win the war, and effectively curb its spread.

 

Since the outbreak of the epidemic, Xi Jinping has paid close attention to and made important instructions on virus prevention and control. The CPC Central Committee has issued a circular on strengthening Party leadership and providing strong political support for the battle. The Central Leading Group for COVID-19 Prevention and Control has made timely study and arrangements for relevant work, and the Central Guiding Team dispatched to Hubei province has actively carried out their work. The Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council was developed for overall planning and inter-agency coordination, which has promptly solved many pressing issues in epidemic prevention and control. In the meantime, Party committees and governments at all levels have taken active steps to outrun the epidemic. A strong joint force to battle the epidemic has been formed.

 

4坚定信心、同舟共济、科学防治、精准施策

 

在2020年1月25日召开的中共中央政治局常委会专题会议上,习近平指出,要坚定信心、同舟共济、科学防治、精准施策,打赢疫情防控阻击战。这是中共中央审时度势、综合研判,对新冠肺炎疫情防控工作提出的总要求。

 

坚定信心,就是面对新冠肺炎疫情加快蔓延的严重形势,相信我们有底气、有能力打赢这场疫情防控阻击战。同舟共济,就是加强党中央集中统一领导,各级党委和政府深刻认识做好新冠肺炎疫情防控工作的重要性和紧迫性,坚定不移地把党中央各项决策部署落到实处。科学防治,就是相信科学、依靠科学,联合国内外各方面专家开展科研攻关,强化科研与临床合作,尽快研制出快速简易的确诊方式,抓紧研发疫苗和有效药物,做到准确识变、科学应变、主动求变,把牢疫情防控的要害处、关键点。精准施策,就是针对不同区域情况,完善差异化防控策略,在坚决打好湖北保卫战、武汉保卫战的同时,全力做好北京疫情防控工作,落实非疫情防控重点地区分区分级精准防控策略。

 

4. United to Take Science-Based and Targeted Measures and Fight the Epidemic with Confidence

 

At the meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee on January 25, 2020, Xi Jinping called on the whole nation to be united, take science-based and targeted measures against the epidemic, and have confidence in conquering the virus. This is a general requirement by the CPC Central Committee for COVID-19 prevention and control based on a thorough analysis of the situation.

 

Having confidence implies that the Chinese nation has the strength and ability to contain the spread of the virus and win the battle in the end. Working in great unity, the whole country follows the centralized and unified leadership of the CPC Central Committee, and Party committees and governments at all levels fully understand the importance and urgency of epidemic prevention and control, and implement the decisions and arrangements made by the CPC Central Committee in real earnest. Defeating the epidemic requires a strong scientific underpinning. In its science-based response to the outbreak, China has engaged both Chinese and foreign experts in relevant fields to carry out scientific research on COVID-19 prevention and control, enhance cooperation between scientific research and clinical trials, and race against time to explore rapid and simple ways of diagnosis and develop vaccines and effective drugs. Taking targeted measures means to adopt varied prevention and control policies according to different regional conditions. While endeavoring to protect Hubei province and its capital city Wuhan, all-out efforts are also made to fight the epidemic in Beijing. The areas that are not key places for virus prevention and control will adopt region-specific targeted approaches based on an assessment of local risks.

 

5.坚决打赢疫情防控的人民战争、总体战、阻击战

 

2020年2月10日,习近平在北京市调研时指出,坚决打赢疫情防控的人民战争、总体战、阻击战。此后他又在多个场合强调了这一原则。

 

疫情防控是一场人民战争。做好疫情防控工作直接关系到人民身体健康,关系到人民生活水平和质量,必须紧紧依靠人民群众坚决打赢疫情防控狙击战。这就要求各级党委和政府牢记“人民利益高于一切”,把人民群众生命安全和身体健康放在第一位,把疫情防控工作作为当前最重要的工作来抓,将宗旨意识转化为战“疫”行动,切实增强人民群众的安全感。面对疫情,各级党委和政府要“凝聚人民力量”,在发挥好战斗堡垒和先锋模范作用的同时,广泛动员群众、组织群众、凝聚群众。

 

疫情防控是一场总体战。这就要求各级党委和政府坚持全国一盘棋,统一指挥、统一协调、统一调度,掌握疫情防范知识和技能,做好疫情防范工作,增强战胜疫情的信心和决心;坚持上下同心,众志成城,全面落实联防联控措施,构筑起联防联控的严密防线,汇聚起抗击疫情的强大合力;坚持防控不只是医药卫生问题,而是全方位的工作,要让各项工作都为打赢疫情防控阻击战提供支持。

疫情防控是一场阻击战。此次疫情来势汹汹、传染性强、传播速度快,这就要求广大党员干部时刻保持“赶考”心态、激发奋斗状态,以信仰守护初心,用担当诠释使命,把更多的时间和精力投入到疫情防控第一线,汇聚起人人奋发、个个争先的磅礴力量,战胜抗击疫情道路上的各种艰难险阻,向党和人民交出更加精彩的新答卷。

 

5. A Nation’s War on the Epidemic

 

During an inspection in Beijing on February 10, 2020, Xi Jinping encouraged the people to be determined to fight and win the battle against the epidemic by mobilizing all resources to control the spread of the virus. He has reiterated this resolution on different occasions.

 

Epidemic prevention and control is a war that involves every one of the nation. The epidemic directly endangers the people’s health and their living standards. The government must closely rely on the people to fight and win the battle against the epidemic. Party committees and governments at all levels must “take the interests of the people above everything else,” give top priority to people’s safety and health, and put epidemic prevention and control at the top of current agenda. They must bear in mind the fundamental purpose of the Party, spare no effort to combat the epidemic, and enhance the people’s sense of security. In the face of the epidemic, Party committees and governments at all levels should “pool the strength of the people” and extensively mobilize, organize, and rally the people while playing the role of exemplary vanguard.

 

Epidemic prevention and control is a war that calls for all-out efforts. Party committees and governments at all levels must act in a coordinated national response and follow unified command, coordination and dispatch. They need to acquire relevant knowledge and skills of epidemic prevention, have greater confidence and be more resolved to defeat the epidemic. They must unite as one like a fortress, fully implement the joint prevention and control measures, put up an effective defense, and build a strong synergy against the virus. They must know that epidemic prevention and control is not an issue merely about medicine and health, but a task that demands all-out efforts, and all work must provide support for winning the war against the epidemic.

 

Epidemic prevention and control is a war to stop the epidemic from spreading. Facing the menacing, highly contagious and fast-spreading epidemic, all Party members and officials must get prepared for this unprecedented test. They must keep up the spirit, stay true to the mission of the Chinese Communists, and bravely shoulder the responsibility. They must devote more time and energy to the front line of epidemic prevention and control, pool the strength of every citizen, strive to overcome all kinds of difficulties and obstacles, and hand over a perfect answer sheet to the Party and the people.

 

二、政策部署

II. Anti-Epidemic Guidelines and Arrangements

 

1.成立中央应对疫情工作领导小组

 

2020年1月25日,中共中央政治局常委会召开专题会议,决定成立中央应对新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情工作领导小组(以下简称中央应对疫情工作领导小组)。

 

中央应对疫情工作领导小组是中共中央根据全国防控新冠肺炎疫情的紧迫需要成立的决策指挥机构,在中共中央政治局常委会领导下开展工作,旨在加强对全国疫情防控的统一领导、统一指挥。中共中央政治局常委、国务院总理李克强任领导小组组长,中共中央政治局常委王沪宁任副组长。

 

1月26日,李克强主持召开中央应对疫情工作领导小组首次会议。会议指出,当前正处于疫情防控关键期,各级党委政府要把思想和行动统一到习近平总书记重要讲话和中共中央政治局常委会会议精神上来,把疫情防控作为当前最重要的工作来抓,采取更果断、更有力有序、更科学周密的举措,有效遏制疫情蔓延。会议强调,要进一步加强湖北省和武汉市疫情防控,中央向湖北派出指导组,推动加强防控一线工作,同时调配全国资源,优先保障湖北省和武汉市急需的医护力量和医疗物资,确保生活必需品供应。

 

2月22日,中央应对疫情工作领导小组印发《关于全面落实进一步保护关心爱护医务人员若干措施的通知》,就进一步保护关心爱护医务人员提出十方面举措。截至2月24日,中央应对疫情工作领导小组先后召开11次会议研究部署疫情防控工作。

 

1. The Central Leading Group for COVID-19 Prevention and Control

 

At its meeting on January 25, 2020, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee decided to form a Leading Group of the CPC Central Committee for COVID-19 Prevention and Control (“Central Leading Group for COVID-19 Prevention and Control” for short).

 

The Central Leading Group for COVID-19 Prevention and Control is the decision-making and command body set up by the CPC Central Committee in response to the urgent need for epidemic combat across the country. It works under the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, and exercises unified leadership and command over epidemic prevention and control. Li Keqiang, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and premier of the State Council, heads the group, and Wang Huning, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, serves as deputy head.

 

On January 26, Li Keqiang presided over the first meeting of the Central Leading Group for COVID-19 Prevention and Control. The meeting concluded that as epidemic prevention and control is currently in a critical stage, Party committees and governments at all levels must unify their thinking and actions by following the guiding principles of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s instructions and the meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau. They must put epidemic prevention and control at the top of their current agenda, and take more decisive, more powerful and orderly, more scientific and thorough measures to effectively curb the spread of the virus.

 

To further tighten epidemic prevention and control in Hubei province and Wuhan city, the meeting decided to dispatch a Central Guiding Team there to promote the frontline work. It also decided to allocate resources nationwide to first meet the urgent need for medical workers and medical supplies in Hubei and Wuhan and to ensure the supply of daily necessities for the citizens there as the whole country is battling the virus.

 

On February 22, the Central Leading Group for COVID-19 Prevention and Control issued a document on protection and care for medical workers, putting forward 10 measures in detail. By February 24, the Central Leading Group for COVID-19 Prevention and Control had held 11 meetings to study and deploy epidemic prevention and control work.

 

2.向湖北等疫情严重地区派出指导组

 

武汉和湖北是新冠肺炎疫情防控的重中之重,也是打赢疫情防控阻击战的主战场。2020年1月25日,中共中央政治局常委会召开专题会议,决定向湖北等疫情严重地区派出指导组,推动有关地方全面加强防控一线工作。

 

中央赴湖北指导组主要有三项职责:一是指导督导湖北、武汉落实中央决策部署;二是指导湖北、武汉抗击疫情,增强防控力量;三是督查一些不作为、乱作为、不担当的问题,依法依纪要求有关方面做出整改,做出调查处理。

 

1月27日,中共中央政治局委员、国务院副总理孙春兰率中央指导组抵达湖北省武汉市,全面加强一线疫情防控,重点开展五方面工作:一是加强源头防控,作出交通隔离、延长假期等工作部署,切断疫情的传播途径和传播渠道;二是千方百计调配资源,保障医护力量和医用物资,增加收治床位供给,确保居民生活必需品供应;三是全力救治患者,部署建立方舱医院、开展拉网式排查,分类分级分层开展救治,抓好确诊、疑似、发热和密切接触者四类人群管理,推进中医药参与疫情防控;四是组织开展流行病学调查,对传染源、传播途径和传播机理等进行追踪研究,及时研判疫情走势;五是明确和落实好辖区、行业部门、单位和个人“四方”责任。

 

中央指导组同湖北人民和武汉人民并肩作战,自始至终抓住疫情防控、救治患者、保障医用物资三条主线,扭住武汉和湖北其他市州两个重点,在疫情防控斗争的第一线发挥了关键作用。

 

2. The Central Guiding Team Dispatched to Hubei Province and Other Severely-Hit Regions

 

Wuhan city and Hubei province are the top priorities of epidemic prevention and control, and the main battlefields of the war against the virus. On January 25, 2020, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee decided to dispatch a Central Guiding Team to Hubei province and other regions severely hit by the epidemic, aiming to comprehensively strengthen epidemic prevention and control on the front line.

 

The Central Guiding Team has three major duties: (1) to guide and supervise Hubei province and Wuhan city to implement the arrangements made by the central leadership; (2) to guide Hubei and Wuhan in the battle against the epidemic and increase prevention and control forces; and (3) to investigate negative, wrong and irresponsible actions, supervise local rectification, and deal with those problems in accordance with laws and discipline.

 

Led by Sun Chunlan, member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and vice premier of the State Council, the Central Guiding Team arrived in Wuhan on January 27. Empowered to comprehensively strengthen frontline epidemic prevention and control, the Central Guiding Team mainly carries out work in five aspects: (1) to strengthen prevention and control at the source, make arrangements such as traffic restraint and extension of Spring Festival break, in order to interrupt epidemic transmission; (2) to do everything possible to deploy resources to satisfy the need for medical workers and medical supplies, increase hospital beds, and ensure the supply of daily necessities for the local residents; (3) to coordinate the efforts in treating and curing patients, building temporary treatment centers, thorough infection screening, classified and multi-level treatment for patients, and management of the four groups of people who are confirmed patients, suspected cases, febrile and close contacts, and promote the use of traditional Chinese medicine in disease treatment; (4) to organize the conducting of epidemiological investigations, tracking and studying of the source of infection and the route and mechanism of transmission, and timely analysis of the epidemic trend; and (5) to clarify the duties for administrative divisions, industry sectors, units, and individuals and ensure their full performance.

 

The Central Guiding Team has worked alongside with the people in Wuhan and other places of Hubei province, and focused their work on epidemic prevention and control, treating and curing patients, and ensuring medical supplies, thus playing a key role on the front line of the battle.

 

3.分区分级做好疫情防控工作

 

2020年1月25日,中共中央政治局常委会专题会议对科学防治、精准施策作出部署,要求分类指导各地做好疫情防控工作。2月17日,国务院应对新冠肺炎疫情联防联控机制印发《关于科学防治精准施策分区分级做好新冠肺炎疫情防控工作的指导意见》。《意见》指出,各地各有关部门要贯彻中央关于突出重点、统筹兼顾,分类指导、分区施策的要求,依据《中华人民共和国传染病防治法》《突发公共卫生事件应急条例》等法律法规,分区分级精准防控,统筹疫情防控与经济社会秩序恢复。

 

分区分级做好疫情防控工作,就是立足地区特点和疫情形势因应施策。各地要制定差异化的县域防控和恢复经济社会秩序的措施,即以县(市、区、旗)为单位,依据人口、发病情况综合研判,科学划分疫情风险等级,明确分级分类的防控策略;划小管控单元,辖区内的城乡社区、机关、企事业单位、社会组织和个人均应按要求落实相关防控措施。湖北省和武汉市要采取更严格、更有针对性、更加管用有效的措施,内防扩散、外防输出,把疫情扩散遏制住;要切实保障各种物资供应,确保人民群众正常基本生活。北京市要全力做好疫情防控工作,坚决抓好外防输入、内防扩散两大环节,尽最大可能切断传染源,尽最大可能控制疫情波及范围,确保首都安全。其他地区要加强组织领导,坚持依法防控,做好分区分级差异化防控,落实防控要求和救治要求,有序恢复生产生活秩序。

 

3. Region-Specific and Multi-Level Approaches to Epidemic Prevention and Control

 

In addition to science-based and targeted measures against the virus, the meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee on January 25, 2020 also required sector-specific guidance on epidemic prevention and control.

 

On February 17, the inter-agency task force under the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council issued a package of guidelines on taking science-based, targeted, region-specific, and multi-level measures for epidemic prevention and control. According to the guidelines, all provincial governments and central departments must enforce the central leadership’s requirements by focusing on key issues, strengthening coordination, giving sector-specific guidance, and applying different policies for different areas. They are required to take region-specific, multi-level targeted approaches to epidemic prevention and control in accordance with the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases and the Regulations on the Urgent Handling of Public Health Emergencies, and coordinate epidemic prevention and control and restoration of economic and social order.

 

Region-specific and multi-level approaches are meant to suit the specific features and epidemic situations of different regions. In line with the guidelines, differentiated policies will be adopted for epidemic control and restoration of economic and social order in different places. Counties and other county-level administrative regions (cities, districts and banners) need to conduct a comprehensive analysis of local population and epidemic severity, make science-based classification of the virus risk, and take appropriate prevention and control strategies accordingly. They should divide their management and control grids into smaller pieces, and urban and rural communities, government bodies, enterprises and institutions, social organizations and individuals within their jurisdiction must follow relevant rules for virus prevention and control.

 

Hubei province and Wuhan city are required to take more stringent, more targeted, and more effective measures to curb the spread of the epidemic within their jurisdictions and beyond, and ensure the supply of all kinds of materials and basic necessities for the local people. Beijing, capital of China, must make every effort to fight the epidemic, resolutely guard against imported cases and spread of the virus within the city, and cut off the source of infection to ensure the city’s safety. Other areas should strengthen organization and leadership, abide by relative laws and regulations, carry out differentiated epidemic control, implement relative requirements on epidemic prevention and treatment of patients, and restore the order of production and life in an orderly manner.

 

4.及时准确、公开透明发布疫情信息

 

2020年1月25日,中共中央政治局常委会专题会议强调,要及时准确、公开透明发布疫情信息,回应境内外关切;要及时向世界卫生组织、有关国家和地区组织以及港澳台地区通报疫情信息,加强合作、全力应对,共同维护地区和全球卫生安全。2月3日,习近平在中共中央政治局常委会会议上发表讲话,要求多层次、高密度发布权威信息,正视存在的问题,回应群众的关切,增强及时性、针对性、专业性。2月23日,习近平在统筹推进新冠肺炎疫情防控和经济社会发展工作部署会议上发表讲话,要求完善疫情信息发布,依法做到公开、透明、及时、准确。

 

按照中央统一部署和要求,国务院新闻办公室1月26日起不定期就新冠病毒肺炎疫情联防联控工作有关情况举行发布会;2月15日首次将发布会现场前移至抗疫最前沿——湖北武汉。1月27日起,国家卫生健康委每天上午举行新闻发布会。2月3日起,国务院应对新冠肺炎疫情联防联控机制新闻发布会每日举行。与此同时,湖北省及部分疫情比较重的地方每天也都举行新闻发布会。上述发布会及时通报疫情情况、防控举措、抗“疫”效果,主动回应社会关切、压缩谣言空间,进一步提高了新闻舆论工作的针对性和有效性。

 

4. Prompt Release of Accurate Epidemic Information

 

The Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee demanded at its meeting on January 25, 2020 prompt release of accurate information on the epidemic and timely response to concerns at home and aboard. It also required providing timely updates of the epidemic with the World Health Organization (WHO), relevant countries and regional organizations, Hong Kong SAR, Macao SAR and Taiwan province, and enhancing cooperation in an all-out response to the epidemic, in order to jointly safeguard regional and global health safety.

 

Speaking to a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau on February 3, Xi Jinping required frequent release of authoritative information by relevant agencies at different levels, addressing existing problems squarely, and responding to public concerns in a timely and specialist manner with a clear aim. At another meeting held on February 23 to promote nationwide epidemic control and economic and social development, he urged improving the release of epidemic information, which shall be made in an open, transparent, timely and accurate manner in accordance with the law.

 

Following the arrangements and requirements by the central leadership, the State Council Information Office has since January 26 held press conferences at irregular intervals on the joint efforts in virus prevention and control. On February 15, it for the first time moved its pressroom to Wuhan, the forefront of epidemic prevention and control. Starting from January 27, the National Health Commission (NHC) has held press conferences every morning. Starting from February 3, the inter-agency task force under the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council has held press conferences daily. Hubei province and other regions severely hit by the epidemic also hold press conferences every day.

 

By releasing latest information about the epidemic, prevention and control measures and effects, these press conferences have taken the initiative in responding to public concerns and quashing rumors, thus have further improved the effectiveness of information disclosure.

 

三、具体措施

III. Effective Measures

 

1.早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗

 

“早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗”是中央对防控新冠肺炎疫情提出的明确要求,也是中国科学防治新冠肺炎的一项重要措施。2020年 1月20日,国家卫生健康委高级别专家组研判指出,在疫情上升期,早发现、早隔离是最有效的防控手段,要尽可能减少传播。1月25日中共中央政治局常委会召开专题会议,要求做好疫情监测、排查、预警等工作,切实做到早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗。

 

随着疫情防控进入关键阶段,国务院应对新冠肺炎疫情联防联控机制印发《关于进一步强化责任落实 做好防治工作的通知》,对防控措施作出具体要求:及早发现和隔离病毒感染者,有效阻断疫情扩散蔓延;前移疫情防控关口,加强社区网格化管理,将各项防控措施抓早抓小、落细落实;进一步提高检测能力,优化确诊程序、缩短确诊时间,实行边诊边治。2月23日,习近平在统筹推进新冠肺炎疫情防控和经济社会发展工作部署会议上发表重要讲话,明确早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗的防控要求,强调要坚决遏制疫情扩散输出,对确诊患者应收尽收,对疑似患者应检尽检,对密切接触者应隔尽隔,落实“四早”要求,找到管好每一个风险环节,决不能留下任何死角和空白。

 

随着“早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗”措施逐渐显效,疫情蔓延势头得到初步遏制,防控工作取得阶段性成效。

 

1. Early Detection, Reporting, Isolation and Treatment

 

“Early detection, reporting, isolation and treatment” is a definite principle put forward by the central leadership for epidemic prevention and control, and it is also an important measure taken by the country to fight the virus.

On January 20, 2020, the High-level Expert Group of the NHC pointed out that against the rapid escalation of the virus, early detection and early isolation are the most effective means to block it and keep transmission to a minimum. The Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee on January 25 demanded monitoring, screening and early warning be conducted to ensure early detection, reporting, isolation and treatment.

 

As epidemic prevention and control entered a critical stage, the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council on February 7 issued a document on the responsibilities of different parties during epidemic prevention and control. The document emphasized the urgency of early detection and early isolation of infected people to effectively prevent the transmission of the virus. For this end, it is necessary to deploy preventive methods at an early stage and perform meticulous community grid management. It is also necessary to further improve the testing capability, optimize the diagnostic process, shorten diagnosis time, and carry out diagnosis and treatment simultaneously.

 

At the national meeting for coordinating China’s epidemic control and economic and social development, held on February 23, Xi Jinping reiterated the principle of early detection, reporting, isolation and treatment. He urged more efforts to resolutely curb the spread of the epidemic, hospitalize all confirmed patients, conduct thorough tests of all suspected patients, and isolate all those close contacts. He demanded tracking and managing every potential risk without leaving any dead corners.

 

With the efforts made in “early detection, reporting, isolation and treatment,” the spread of the epidemic has been initially curbed, and phased effects have been achieved in the prevention and control of the epidemic.

 

2.火神山医院

 

隔离和收治是新冠肺炎疫情防控工作的重点任务。为确保疑似和确诊病例“应收尽收、应治尽治”,2020年1月23日,武汉市决定参照2003年抗击非典期间北京小汤山医院模式,在武汉市蔡甸区知音湖附近建设一座专门医院,集中收治新冠肺炎患者,命名“火神山医院”。当日施工筹备工作启动后,设计人员在五小时内完成场地平整设计图,60小时内交付全部设计施工图。7000多名建设者们驰援武汉、齐心协力、日夜奋战,先后完成了通信基建、土地平整、测绘定位、病房搭设和电力施工等任务,仅用10天建成了这座收治患者的“安全岛”。2日2日,火神山医院正式交付解放军支援湖北医疗队管理使用。火神山医院总建筑面积近3.4万平方米,设置床位1000张,开设重症病区、普通病区,设置感染控制、检验、特诊、放射诊断等辅助科室。

 

2月3日,经中央军委主席习近平批准,军队抽组1400名医护人员承担火神山医院医疗救治任务。这些医护人员中有不少人曾参加小汤山医院抗击非典任务,援助塞拉利昂、利比里亚抗击埃博拉疫情,具有丰富的传染病救治经验。2月4日,国家医疗保障局宣布将火神山医院纳入医保定点医院,执行公立医院收费标准,火神山医院正式接诊新冠肺炎确诊患者。2月13日,火神山医院首批治愈患者出院。

 

火神山医院的建设展现了稳中有急、静中有争的“中国速度”。医院建设期间,工地现场开设24小时直播,数千万中外网络用户以“云监工”形式为一线建设者点赞加油。

 

2. Huoshenshan Hospital

 

Isolation and admission of patients are the key tasks in epidemic prevention and control. To ensure that all suspected and confirmed cases could be received and treated, Wuhan decided on January 23, 2020 to build an emergency hospital near Zhiyin Lake in Caidian District, following the practice of Beijing when the capital built the Xiaotangshan Hospital during its fight against SARS in 2003. Named “Huoshenshan” (“Fire God Mountain”), the new hospital was designed to treat patients suffering from novel coronavirus pneumonia.

 

After the decision was made and preparatory work was launched, the designers completed the site plans within five hours and delivered all design and construction drawings within 60 hours. More than 7,000 construction workers rushed to assist Wuhan. By working around the clock in three shifts and completing the tasks of communications infrastructure, land leveling, surveying and mapping, ward installation, and power construction, they were able to complete the construction in merely 10 days. On February 2, Huoshenshan Hospital was officially delivered to the medical units of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) that came earlier to assist Wuhan.

 

With a total floor space of 34,000 square meters, Huoshenshan Hospital has 1,000 beds for intensive care units and general wards. It has supportive departments covering infection control, clinical laboratory, special treatment, and radiodiagnosis.

 

On February 3, with the approval of Xi Jinping, chairman of the Central Military Commission, 1,400 PLA medical personnel were deployed to staff the new Huoshenshan Hospital. Many of them have worked at Xiaotangshan Hospital in the fight against SARS, assisted Sierra Leone and Liberia in the fight against Ebola, and have rich experience in the treatment of infectious diseases.

 

On February 4, the National Healthcare Security Administration announced to include Huoshenshan Hospital as one designated hospital of medical insurance, and the new hospital would adopt the charging standards of public hospitals. On the same day, Huoshenshan Hospital began to receive confirmed patients. On February 13, the hospital discharged the first group of cured patients.

 

The construction of Huoshenshan Hospital shows the “Chinese speed” at a time of urgency. During the construction of the hospital, a 24-hour live broadcast was streamed on the construction site. Every day, tens of millions of Chinese and foreign netizens voluntarily acted as “cloud supervisors” to root for the builders on the front line.

 

3雷神山医院

 

2020年1月25日,火神山医院建设刚刚展开,武汉市决定在武汉市江夏区黄家湖附近再建设一所专门医院,集中收治各医院发热门诊和住院确诊的新冠病毒肺炎患者,定名“雷神山医院”。

 

面对疫情,设计者和建设者们分秒必争。1月26日,医院设计总体方案完成;1月27日,开始大规模施工;1月28日,完成通信基站基础设施新建及改造任务;1月29日,完成电力配套工程建设,开始供电运行。建设高峰期,逾万名建设者、近1500台机械设备昼夜不停施工。经过10余天施工建设,雷神山医院于2月8日交付使用,由武汉大学中南医院正式接管,当晚开始收治首批患者。医院建设面积近8万平方米,分为医疗隔离区、医护生活区和综合后勤区三个部分,共设1600张床位。2月18日,这所医院首例治愈患者出院。

 

与火神山医院一样,雷神山医院也是中国抗击新冠肺炎疫情的重大工程。在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,各建设单位党组织团结带领干部职工,坚定不移落实中央决策部署,众志成城、全力以赴,筑就了普通劳动者的奋斗奇迹,彰显了集中力量办大事的社会主义制度优势,为打赢疫情防控阻击战提供了重要保障。

 

3. Leishenshan Hospital

 

On January 25, 2020, as the construction of Huoshenshan Hospital had just begun, Wuhan decided to build another emergency hospital near Huangjia Lake, Jiangxia District. The new hospital, named “Leishenshan” (“Thunder God Mountain”) was designed to treat patients of novel coronavirus pneumonia diagnosed in fever clinics or transferred from other hospitals.

 

In the face of the epidemic, the designers and builders counted against the clock. On January 26, the overall design plan of the hospital was completed; on January 27, large-scale construction began; on January 28, the construction and renovation of communication base station infrastructure saw completion; and on January 29, power supporting engineering was completed and began to supply electricity to the hospital. At the peak period of construction, more than 10,000 builders and nearly 1,500 sets of machinery and equipment fought together, night and day.

 

After more than 10 days of construction, Leishenshan Hospital was put into use on February 8, officially taken over by Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, and the first group of patients were admitted that night.

 

The hospital covers an area of nearly 80,000 square meters and is divided into three parts: isolation area for the patients, living area for the medical staff, and logistics area, with a total of 1,600 beds. On February 18, the first cured patients in Leishenshan Hospital were discharged.

 

Like Huoshenshan Hospital, Leishenshan Hospital was also a major project for China to fight the novel coronavirus epidemic. Under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at its core, the Party organizations of all construction units had unswervingly implemented the decisions and deployments made by the CPC Central Committee. Ordinary workers united as one, spared no effort, and created a miracle. Construction of the hospital has demonstrated the institutional advantage of the system of socialism, that is, by concentrating efforts on major initiatives, a vital guarantee was formed for winning the war against the epidemic.

 

4.方舱医院

 

方舱医院是以医疗方舱为载体,综合集成医疗与医技保障功能的现代化机动医疗系统,由医疗功能单元、病房单元和技术保障单元等部分构成,主要承担重大灾害救援、应急支援保障、巡回医疗服务等任务。方舱医院具有机动性好、展开部署快、环境适应性强等特点,能够适应突发的应急医学救援任务,受到各国普遍重视。

 

20世纪90年代起,中国开始自行设计研制方舱医院系统。经不断改造升级,第二代方舱医院先后在汶川、玉树抗震救灾中执行医疗救援任务。2020年2月,随着新冠肺炎疫情发展,武汉市将一批体育馆、会展中心、培训中心、工业园区厂房、职业高中等场地改造建成方舱医院,用于收治隔离轻症患者和观察病例。这些特殊的“急救医院”功能齐备,可以开展紧急救治、外科处置、临床检验等多项任务,同时配备心理医生团队,为患者提供心理支持和疏导。2月16日,国家发展改革委安排中央预算内投资2.3亿元,支持武汉市方舱医院完善设施及增添必要的医疗设备,以增强收治能力。截至2月22日,武汉市已投入运行16家方舱医院,开放病床超过12,000张。

 

建立和实施方舱医院是保障病患隔离、分流病患诊治、扩大收治容量、控制疫情发展的一项有效措施,在国家公共卫生应急保障中发挥重要作用。

 

4. Temporary Treatment Centers

 

Temporary treatment center, better known as “mobile cabin hospital” in China, is a modern mobile medical system that takes medical cabin as the carrier and integrates the functions of medical treatment and clinical technology. Composed of medical treatment units, ward units and technical support units, temporary treatment centers are mainly used in major disaster rescue, emergency support, itinerant medical services, and other tasks. With such features as good mobility, fast deployment and strong environmental adaptability, these improvised hospitals are capable of undertaking medical rescue tasks at emergencies and therefore are valued by many countries.

 

China began to design and develop its own temporary treatment center system in the 1990s. The second-generation temporary treatment centers successively carried out medical rescue tasks in earthquake relief in Wenchuan and Yushu.

 

In February 2020, facing the spread of COVID-19, Wuhan transformed several gymnasiums, convention and exhibition centers, training centers, industrial park factories, vocational high schools and other venues into temporary treatment centers to isolate mild cases and cases under observation. These emergency hospitals have complete functions and can carry out emergency treatment, surgical treatment, clinical tests and other tasks. They also have a team of psychologists to provide psychological support and counseling for patients.

 

On February 16, the National Development and Reform Commission arranged 230 million yuan (32.81 million dollars) in the central budget to support the temporary treatment centers in Wuhan to improve their facilities and add necessary medical equipment to enhance their treatment capacities. By February 22, 16 temporary treatment centers had been put into operation in Wuhan, offering more than 12,000 beds.

 

Establishing temporary treatment centers is an effective measure to ensure patient isolation, decrease patient density, expand treatment capacity and control the spread of the epidemic. Temporary treatment centers have played an important role in providing emergency support for the national public health system. 

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