摘要Full Text: The Communist Party of China and Human Rights Protection – A 100-Year Quest



The Communist Party of China and Human Rights Protection – A 100-Year Quest文章源自英文巴士-https://www.en84.com/11619.html



The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China文章源自英文巴士-https://www.en84.com/11619.html



June 2021文章源自英文巴士-https://www.en84.com/11619.html









I. For People’s Liberation and Wellbeing



II. The Principle of Respecting and Protecting Human Rights Embedded in Governance



III. Ensuring the People’s Position as Masters of the Country



IV. Making Comprehensive Progress in Human Rights



V. Protecting the Basic Rights of Citizens in Accordance with the Law



VI. Advancing Human Rights Around the World



VII. Adding Diversity to the Concept of Human Rights










The year 2021 marks the centenary of the Communist Party of China (CPC). Over the past century, the CPC has invested a huge effort in human rights protection, adding significantly to global human rights progress.




A hundred years ago, the CPC came into being – its mission to salvage the country and save the Chinese people at a perilous time of domestic upheaval and foreign aggression. This was an epoch-changing moment. Under the leadership of the CPC, the Chinese people embarked on a new journey towards prosperity, national rejuvenation, and wellbeing.




Over this period of one hundred years, the CPC has united and led the people in toppling the “three mountains” of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism, creating the People’s Republic of China (PRC), and completing the New Democratic Revolution and the Socialist Revolution. The political and institutional foundations were thereby laid down to ensure the rights and freedoms of the people. Through successes and setbacks, China has pioneered reform and opening up, set the goal of socialist modernization, and ushered in a new era of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. The Chinese nation has stood up, become better off, and grown in strength. Now, it is embarking on a new journey to build a modern socialist country in all respects.




For a hundred years, the CPC has always put people first, applying the principle of universality of human rights in the context of the national conditions. It regards the rights to subsistence and development as the primary and basic human rights, and believes that living a life of contentment is the ultimate human right. It promotes the well-rounded development of the individual, and strives to give every person a stronger sense of gain, happiness and security. Its success in pioneering human rights in a socialist country is unique and readily apparent.




For a hundred years, the CPC has committed itself to peaceful development and common progress. China is firm in its international stance – to safeguard world peace and seek progress through cooperation, ensuring human rights with the benefits deriving from development. It has been an active participant in matters of international human rights, providing a Chinese contribution to global human rights governance and progress, and working with other countries to forge a global community of shared future.



I. For People’s Liberation and Wellbeing




1. Human Rights Trampled after the Mid-19th Century




The Chinese nation is a great nation boasting a civilization spanning five millennia. China once led the world in composite national strength over a long period of time. But beginning in the middle and latter half of the Qing Dynasty (1636-1911), and especially after the Opium War in 1840, China plunged into stagnation due to a corrupt, incompetent government and ever-growing Western aggression. It was eventually reduced to a semi-colonial, semi-feudal state where the people were enslaved and suffered immeasurably.




Beginning in 1840, the Western imperialist powers, through war and other aggressive means, forced the Chinese government into hundreds of unequal treaties, regulations and conventions, grabbing territory, demanding reparations and privileges, and engaging in a process of colonization and plunder throughout China. Western invasion and colonization shackled the Chinese people, trampling on their dignity and putting their very lives in jeopardy.




It was a tragedy for the country and the people. Oppressed by imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism, the Chinese people suffered from hunger and poverty and the nation from backwardness and subjugation.




The subsistence crisis raged in all directions. The economy was in a shambles. Low agricultural productivity, land annexation, harsh taxes and levies, natural disasters, and frequent wars turned large numbers of small farmers and peasants into farm laborers for hire or homeless poor. Industry and commerce developed to a certain extent, but was small in scale, low in productivity and unbalanced in structure. Manipulated by foreign and domestic bureaucrat capital, it was impossible to sustain the nation or the people. Under a shattered economy, the people were destitute and struggled to survive. It is estimated that 80 percent of the population was constantly haunted by dire hunger or inadequate food supply, and that tens or even hundreds of thousands of people starved to death every year.




China was also tortured by diseases and hindered by the lack of education among its people. Epidemics such as plague, smallpox and cholera swept across the country and recurred every year, taking a heavy toll on the populace due to the lack of health services. The average life expectancy in old China was only 35 years. When the PRC was founded in 1949, 80 percent of the 540 million population were illiterate, less than 20 percent of school-age children were in elementary schools, and there were only 117,000 students receiving higher education. Commenting on the miseries of the people, Mao Zedong said, “The poverty and lack of freedom among the Chinese people are on a scale seldom found.” With the people struggling for survival, it was impossible to talk about any other rights.




2. National Salvation on the Shoulders of the CPC




With the nation under threat and the people in pain, many people of lofty ideals and insight devoted themselves to the cause of national salvation – leading peasant uprisings, creating initiatives to learn from the West, attempting reformist experiments, and launching a bourgeois revolution. But none of these freed the Chinese from oppression and slavery. The mission of national independence and the liberation of the people fell to the CPC.




In July 1921, the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China announced the founding of the Party, heralding a new stage in the Chinese revolution. It reversed the tragic fate of the Chinese people and laid down the foundations for them to enjoy their basic rights. The first Marxists in China, including Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao and Mao Zedong, already understood the close connection between liberation, independence and the people’s interests. They knew well that only through revolution could the proletariat and the working people establish and maintain their rights, and that only through revolution could China get back on its feet and its people emerge from poverty and humiliation.




The CPC was a party of the proletariat from the very beginning. Through its programs, proposals, and declarations, it made its mission clear and its stance known – to save the nation and secure human rights for its people. The original aspiration and the mission of the Party is to seek happiness for the people of China and rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. It is also the root of its stance on human rights. The CPC, with its people-centered position, has won the support of the Chinese people, making it the spine of the Chinese revolution.




3. Human Rights Protection During the New Democratic Revolution




In the New Democratic Revolution to liberate and free the people and make them masters of the country, the CPC always applied Marxist human rights theory to the Chinese context, pioneering a path of human rights predicated on the universality of human rights and one that is distinctively Chinese.




In the Great Revolution (1924-1927), the CPC took on improving people’s lives and protecting their right to subsistence as key objectives. In the Agrarian Revolutionary War (1927-1937), the CPC-led Chinese Soviet Government promulgated the Land Law, giving the peasants political rights as well as land to till, so that they could make a living. In the full-scale phase of the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression (1937-1945), the Party formulated a series of regulations and measures for human rights protection, and enacted tax and interest reduction policies in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region. In the War of Liberation (1945-1949), the Party emphasized protection of human rights and ensuring basic livelihoods for the people, formulated the Outline of the Land Law of China and carried out land reform among 100 million people in the liberated areas, distributing land among peasants and putting an end to feudal production relations. It organized production campaigns to ensure self-sufficiency, encouraged privately-owned industrial and commercial businesses, and provided social relief, all to ensure the people’s wellbeing.




Making the people masters of the country was a primary goal in ensuring human rights during the New Democratic Revolution. Universal suffrage was implemented in the CPC-led Central Soviet Area and the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region, and the long-oppressed people finally had the right to participate in politics and have their voice heard. During the War Against Japanese Aggression, the base areas established democratic governments with CPC members, progressive non-CPC figures, and centrists each occupying one third of the official posts. These policies and systems greatly encouraged the people to take part in revolution and political administration.




The legitimate rights and interests of women were protected. Following the guidelines of the CPC Central Committee on women’s liberation and marriage reform, and the marriage laws and regulations enacted and applied to all the soviet areas, arranged and mercenary marriage was abolished, and keeping maids or concubines was forbidden. Monogamy was established along with freedom of marriage, and postnuptial property was regarded as community property. For the first time, women gained the freedom of their person and economic equality in marriage. With rising social status, women became more active in revolution and in the workplace.




Culture, education, and health services flourished in the CPC-led areas. In the Outline of the Constitution of the Chinese Soviet Republic promulgated in the Central Soviet Area, it was stipulated that the working masses enjoyed equal right to education. Schools were built and training sessions organized to help improve people’s educational levels. In the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region the government set up night schools and newspaper reading groups to eliminate illiteracy, opened elementary and middle schools despite the difficult conditions, and founded the Lu Xun School of the Arts, the Yan’an Academy of Natural Sciences, and other institutions of higher education and research.


The Chinese Soviet Republic formed an epidemic prevention and control committee at the central level, and health departments (offices) were set up at the district, county and provincial levels. Hospitals were built for workers and peasants, as well as clinics for the poor and public health centers. The cohort of health workers was strengthened and mass campaigns were rolled out to prevent and control epidemics. All this significantly improved people’s health.




4. Human Rights Protection in the PRC




The founding of the PRC in 1949 ushered in a new era for people’s rights. It put an end to the exploitation, oppression and slavery that had shackled the Chinese nation for a century, and signified the beginning of substantial progress in human rights in a socialist country under the leadership of the CPC.




Since 1949, human rights in China have undergone three stages of development.




Stage 1: Beginning in 1949, the Chinese people committed themselves to socialist revolution and economic development under CPC leadership, establishing the basic systems of socialism, completing the most extensive and profound process of social change in Chinese history, and promulgating the first socialist constitution. All these laid the political and institutional foundation for human rights in China.


From a political perspective, the system of people’s democracy was established and consolidated, with democracy of the people and socialism as the basic principles. With the implementation of the system of people’s congresses, it was guaranteed that all rights of the state belonged to the people.


From an economic perspective, the completion of the land reform triggered a burst of great creativity among the people. Socialist transformation was completed in agriculture, individual craft industries, and capitalist industry and commerce, and the basic socialist system was formed to ensure equal access to economic development and the sharing of economic gains.


From a social perspective, the Marriage Law was promulgated, stipulating the free choice of spouses, the principle of monogamy, equal rights for men and women, and the protection of the lawful rights and interests of women and children. Efforts were made to promote education and health services, and medical and preventive care networks were established at every local level – village, township, county, city and province. Labor insurance was created and social relief was provided. The government stood firmly against ethnic oppression and discrimination, upheld equality among all ethnic groups, and introduced regional ethnic autonomy. In developing the legal framework, important laws were formulated and promulgated in line with the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China to protect citizens’ basic rights.




Stage 2: Beginning in 1978, when reform and opening up was introduced, the CPC led the Chinese people on a path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, unleashing an immense wave of social development and productivity. Thanks to tremendous progress in human rights the people enjoyed better protection of their rights to subsistence and development and other basic rights. Reform and opening up is a great revolution on the part of the Chinese people under CPC leadership. The Party pursues development as its top priority in governance and as the key to solving the problems of China; it strives to promote social productivity and improve human rights protection through development. During this stage the people enjoyed better lives and grew more active economically and socially. Under CPC leadership, China upheld the rule of law in all areas, and included in the Constitution as an important principle of national governance respect for and protection of human rights. Human rights progress was included in national development strategies and plans, the mechanisms for ensuring human rights in the context of China’s realities were improved, and the system for ensuring human rights with Chinese characteristics began to take shape.




Stage 3: Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era. China has completed the mission of eradicating absolute poverty as scheduled under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Xi Jinping at the core. Decisive success has been achieved in the final stage of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and human rights protection has been brought to new heights. Upholding people-centered development, the CPC is grounding its efforts in the new development stage, applying the new development philosophy, and creating a new framework of development. Focusing on high-quality development, it endeavors to meet the fundamental goal of satisfying the people’s growing desire for a better life. Implementing the Five-sphere Integrated Plan and the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy, the Party has made sure that the people enjoy a greater sense of gain, happiness and security. As the Belt and Road Initiative builds momentum, the concept of a global community of shared future has been widely recognized.



II. The Principle of Respecting and Protecting Human Rights Embedded in Governance




1. In the Constitution as a Guiding Principle




As the fundamental law of a country, the Constitution is a written guarantee of the rights of citizens. Under the leadership of the CPC, China has established a Chinese socialist legal system with the Constitution at the core, thus laying a solid legal foundation for ensuring human rights.




In September 1954, the First Session of the First National People’s Congress (NPC) adopted the Constitution of the PRC, which declared that all power in the country belongs to the people. It provided a wide range of rights and freedom that citizens enjoy in political, economic, social, cultural, personal and other respects. In December 1982, the Fifth Session of the Fifth NPC adopted the current Constitution of the PRC, in which “The Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens” was moved forward and made second only to Chapter I, “General Principles”. This adjustment highlighted the importance of citizens’ rights. Meanwhile, this Constitution also expanded the range of rights under protection. Later, the NPC adopted five amendments to the Constitution in 1988, 1993, 1999, 2004 and 2018, to better protect human rights. These involved the basic economic system, distribution system, protection of citizens’ private property, and the social security system.




The amendment adopted at the Second Session of the 10th NPC, held in March 2004, added the line “The state respects and safeguards human rights” into the Constitution. Since then, respecting and protecting human rights has been a basic principle of the system of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics and a binding rule of conduct and a legal obligation of all state organs, armed forces, political parties, social organizations, enterprises and public institutions. No laws, regulations, rules and normative documents can be in conflict with the principle, and accountability must be enforced on all acts that violate it.




The CPC leads the people in fully and strictly enforcing the Constitution and takes the lead in fulfilling the constitutional responsibility of respecting and protecting human rights. This has been achieved through improving laws, regulations and institutional systems and developing various undertakings of the state. China has established mechanisms best suited to its political systems and national conditions for enforcing the Constitution and the oversight thereof. It has set up the NPC Constitution and Law Committee to carry out constitutional review, so as to better uphold the authority of the Constitution and ensure that the provisions of the Constitution are observed.




2. In State Governance as a Philosophy




Serving the people wholeheartedly is the fundamental purpose of the CPC. The Party adheres to a people-centered philosophy of development, exercises power for the people, and ensures that development is for the people and by the people and that its benefits are shared by the people. It embodies the principle of respecting and protecting human rights in its governance and self-improvement.




At the 15th CPC National Congress held in 1997, the report to the congress included for the first time the following expression: “ensuring that the people enjoy extensive rights and freedom endowed by law, and respecting and guaranteeing human rights”. The 16th CPC National Congress held in 2002 reiterated that “human rights are respected and guaranteed”, and included the following words in the goals of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects: “The political, economic and cultural rights and interests of the people will be respected and guaranteed in real earnest” and “promoting the all-round development of people”. The report to the 17th CPC National Congress held in 2007 read that “We must respect and guarantee human rights, and ensure the equal right to participation and development for all members of society in accordance with the law”, and “It [the CPC] respects and safeguards human rights” was formally added into the CPC Constitution.




Since the 18th CPC National Congress held in 2012, to further reform on all fronts and accelerate the modernization of China’s governance system and capacity, the CPC has attached greater importance to improving the systems and mechanisms for respecting and protecting human rights. At the 18th CPC National Congress, the principle that “human rights should be fully respected and protected” was included in the report to the congress and listed as one of the key strategic goals of building a moderately prosperous society and furthering reform and opening up in an all- round way. In 2014, the Fourth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee adopted the Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Advancing the Rule of Law. The resolution emphasized the need to “provide stronger judicial protection of human rights” and to “strengthen awareness throughout the whole of society about the need to respect and safeguard human rights”. It stipulated ways to ensure that citizens’ rights are protected by the law: enhancing judicial protection of human rights and legislation in key areas, protecting citizens’ rights in accordance with the law, establishing a legal system featuring equal rights, equal opportunities and fair rules for all, ensuring the inviolability of citizens’ rights including personal rights, property rights and basic political rights, and making sure that citizens enjoy rights in economic, cultural, social and all other respects. The Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee in 2015 made it clear that “human rights should be fully protected” is a major goal of promoting the rule of law during the entire 13th Five-year Plan period.




In 2017, the report to the 19th CPC National Congress stated: “the principal contradiction facing Chinese society in the new era is that between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people’s ever-growing needs for a better life. We must therefore continue commitment to our people-centered philosophy of development, and work to promote well-rounded human development and common prosperity for everyone.”


The report drew a blueprint for future progress in China’s human rights: From 2020 to 2035, on the basis of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, the rights of the people to participate and to develop as equals will be adequately protected; from 2035 to the middle of the 21st century, building on having achieved basic modernization, we will develop China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful; common prosperity for everyone will be largely achieved; the Chinese people will enjoy happier, safer, and healthier lives; we will strengthen legal protection for human rights to ensure that the people enjoy extensive rights and freedoms as prescribed by law.


In 2019, the Fourth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee pointed out that improving the wellbeing of the people and promoting well-rounded human development are essential to the Party’s commitment to serving the public good and exercising power in the interests of the people. In 2020, the proposal of the CPC Central Committee on formulating the 14th Five-Year Plan for economic and social development and the long-range objectives through the year 2035 was adopted at the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee. The proposal set higher goals for China’s development, which include promoting well-rounded human development and all-round social advancement and promoting comprehensive progress in human rights.




3. In National Development Plans for Its Realization




From 1953 to 2021, China has formulated 14 plans for national economic and social development, providing for the country’s development in economic, social, cultural, environmental and other respects.




In accordance with the proposal adopted at the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee, the Fourth Session of the 13th NPC held in March 2021 deliberated and adopted the Outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for National Economic and Social Development and the Long-Range Objectives Through the Year 2035 of the PRC. The outline set forth specific objectives, tasks, policies and measures for China’s development in economic, political, cultural, social, ecological and other fields in the next five years and 15 years. In the outline, it was emphasized that we must pursue people-centered development, adopt a new vision for development, and ensure the principal status of the people; we must move steadily toward common prosperity, safeguard the fundamental interests of the people, and unleash their enthusiasm, initiative and creativity; we must promote social equity and justice, improve the wellbeing of the people, and realize the people’s aspiration for a better life. This approach to development embodies the principle of respecting and protecting human rights.




Protecting people’s economic, social and cultural rights, especially their rights to employment, basic living, social security, health, education, culture, environment, property and other services, is essential to the rights of all to life and development. The state makes constant progress in protecting citizens’ basic rights by formulating outlines and plans for the development of various undertakings. In the past 10 years alone, the Chinese government formulated dozens of policy documents concerning people’s rights to subsistence and development in many fields. These include the Outline of Development-Driven Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas (2011-2020), the Outline of Healthy China 2030, the Outline of National Medium- and Long-Term Program for Education Reform and Development (2010-2020), the Outline of the Development of Human Resources and Social Security Undertakings During the 13th Five-Year Plan Period, the Outline of China’s Environmental Protection, the Program for Developing Ethnic Minority Areas and Ethnic Groups with Small Populations During the 13th Five-Year Plan Period, the Program for the Development of Women in China (2011-2020), the Program for the Development of Children in China (2011-2020), the Plan for the Development of China’s Old-Age Programs and Elderly-Care System, the Outline for the Development of People with Disabilities During the 13th Five-Year Plan Period, and the Rural Revitalization Strategic Plan (2018-2022). China also worked out a series of institutions and measures to protect citizens’ civil and political rights, particularly citizens’ personal rights, their rights to fair trial, freedom of religion, the rights to be informed, to be engaged and to be heard, and the right to oversee.




China actively responds to the initiatives of the international community. Since 2009, it has worked out three national human rights action plans, which is quite unusual among countries of the world. Currently, the work has begun to produce the fourth – the National Human Rights Action Plan (2021-2025). China has integrated its national human rights action plans with its national development plans.



  • 版权声明 本文源自 国新办sisu04 整理 发表于 2021年6月24日 23:11:56