双语:乐玉成在中美关系视频对话上的主旨演讲

摘要

Keynote Speech by Le Yucheng at the Video Dialogue on Sino-US Relations

乐玉成在中美关系视频对话上发表演讲

中美走向合作的大势是挡不住的

The Trend Toward China-US Cooperation Is Unstoppable

 

——乐玉成副部长在外交学会与美国亚洲协会共同举办的中美关系视频对话上的致辞

– Remarks by Vice Foreign Minister Le Yucheng at the Video Dialogue on Sino-US Relations Co-hosted by the Chinese People’s Institute of Foreign Affairs and the Asia Society

 

2020年7月8日

8 July 2020

 

陆克文前总理、王超会长,

尊敬的各位嘉宾,

女士们,先生们,朋友们:

 

Prime Minister Kevin Rudd,

President Wang Chao,

Distinguished guests,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

 

很高兴出席中美关系视频对话。新冠疫情下,面对面交流暂时还是奢望,只能通过视频向各位新老朋友问安。很期待听到大家的真知灼见。

 

I am delighted to join you today for this Dialogue on Sino-US Relations. While the ongoing COVID-19 has made it a luxury to meet in person, it is good to see my friends, both old and new, virtually. I very much look forward to your valuable insights.

 

最近,我参加了不少研讨会,中美关系始终是热门话题。面对百年大变局和世纪大灾疫,面对各种层出不穷的新威胁、新挑战,世界都很期待中美密切合作、积极互动,以化解危机,而现实却是美方越来越突出对华“战略竞争”,宣扬“脱钩”、“新冷战”,从而使危机雪上加霜。中美关系也因此被推向十字路口,面临何去何从的历史性抉择。中美关系下一步怎么走?林肯总统曾经说过,预测未来最好的办法就是创造未来。中美关系的未来肇始于当下的每一个判断和决定,在座的各位都肩负这样的责任和使命。我有几点思考和大家分享。

 

Recently, I have attended quite a number of seminars, all of which have China-US relations as a fixture topic. In the face of the once-in-a-century changes, a pandemic never seen before, and constantly emerging new threats and challenges, the world is looking to China and the United States to provide answers to these crises through close cooperation and active interaction. But in reality, the US is getting more and more obsessed with “strategic competition”, “decoupling” and a “new cold war” with China, worsening the whole situation even further.

 

As a result, the China-US relationship has found itself to stand at a crossroads, with a historic choice about its future hanging in the air. Where will China-US relations be heading? President Abraham Lincoln once said, the best way to predict the future is to create it. The future of China-US relations will be shaped by every assessment and every decision to be made today. It is a responsibility and mission that falls on each and every one of us. In this context, I’d like to share with you some of my observations:

 

一、中美关系回不到过去,但不能因此全盘否定过去。中美关系凝聚了两国领导人包括美民主、共和两党历届政府的智慧与心血,是几代人共同努力奠定的基础,也包含了在座各位的付出与贡献。中美关系为两国人民带来沉甸甸、看得见的好处。过去40多年仅双边贸易就增长250多倍,中国是美国最重要x的出口市场之一,支撑了美国内约260万个就业岗位。累计7.25万家美企在华投资兴业,绝大多数都赚了大钱。更不用说中美关系为应对全球性挑战、促进亚太和世界和平发展所发挥的举足轻重的作用。因此,全面否定过去40年的中美关系,说什么“对华接触政策”失败了,美国吃亏了,这完全不符合事实,也站不住脚。

 

1. While China-US relations cannot return to its past, its achievements in the old days should not be dismissed. China-US relations has come this far because of the wisdom and efforts of the leaders of the two countries as well as the successive US administrations, both Democratic and Republican. The foundation of the relationship is built with generations of hard work, including the dedication and contributions from all of you.

 

This relationship has delivered enormous, tangible benefits to both peoples. The past 40-plus years have witnessed a more than 250-fold increase in bilateral trade. As a major market for US exports, China has supported around 2.6 million American jobs. A total of 72,500 US companies have investments in China, and the overwhelming majority of them have made a fortune. Needless to mention the critical role of China-US relations in tackling global challenges and promoting peace and development in the Asia-Pacific and beyond.

 

All things considered, it couldn’t be farther away from facts to negate the merits of China-US relations in the past four decades, and say the “engagement policy” has failed, and that the US has been ripped off.

 

二、中美竞争不应是“零和游戏”,所谓为打压中国不惜付出“成比例代价”的思维很危险。美方嘴上一直讲市场精神、公平竞争,但行动上却是“武大郎开店——不容大个儿”,不允许别人比自己更优秀、更有竞争力。中国在自身快速发展的同时,对世界的贡献有目共睹,连续多年对世界经济增长贡献率超过30%,对全球减贫贡献率超过70%。中国不输出难民,更没有输出战争。然而这样一个名副其实的“优等生”,美国不仅不认可,还不遗余力地打压遏制,声称要“将中国打回40年前的原形”,这是多么阴暗的心理!包括对华为这样优秀的中国民营企业,美方不是想着用更好的产品把华为比下去,而是借口“国家安全”不择手段把竞争者打下去。甚至在人文交流领域美方也越来越歇斯底里,监控学者,驱赶记者,抓捕留学生,关闭孔子学院。许多中国学者和留学生反映,现在去美国成了一件很冒险的事,过美国海关要被FBI搜身、盘问,甚至可能因莫须有的罪名被抓被扣,感觉很恐怖。连美国自己的教授,仅仅因为同中方有过正常的学术交流,就被解聘甚至被捕入狱。这让人怀疑麦卡锡主义是不是又回来了?!中美关系攸关两国和人类的前途命运,不能被麦卡锡这样的极端分子所绑架,不能让他们把中美关系带进死胡同。

 

2. Competition between China and the US shouldn’t be a “zero-sum game”. It is dangerous for the US to leverage so-called “proportional costs” to attack China. In rhetoric, the US is talking about market spirit and fair competition. In action, it just moves in the opposite direction – it does not allow anyone to be better or more competitive than itself.

 

With its rapid development, China has offered so much to the world: contributing to over 30% of global economic growth for years in running, and over 70% to global poverty reduction. Never ever has China exported refugees or wars.

 

For such a country that has done nothing but good deeds, the US has chosen to turn a blind eye and go after it by all means, and even threatened to plunge China all the way back to what it was like forty years ago. What malevolent intention! When faced with competition from prominent, private Chinese companies such as Huawei, instead of winning fair and square with better products, the US has stopped at nothing to bring Huawei down, using “national security” as an excuse.

 

Even in such areas as people-to-people and cultural exchanges, the US is getting more and more hysteric. It has chosen to put scholars under surveillance, expel journalists, arrest students, and shut down Confucius Institutes. Many Chinese scholars and students say that going to the US is a very risky adventure – you could be searched at the customs, interrogated, and even arbitrarily detained by the FBI. It is quite nerve-wracking. Even some US professors lost their jobs and were arrested for nothing but normal academic exchanges with China.

 

All this makes people wonder: is McCarthyism back in the US?! The China-US relationship is so vital for the future of China, the United States, and the world. It must not be hijacked by McCarthyism fanatics, or be dragged into a cul-de-sac.

 

三、美国真正的敌人不是中国,而是看不见的病毒和越来越多的非传统安全挑战。进入新世纪发生的多次全球性危机,给美国和世界造成重大损失,但根源都不是传统的大国对抗或地缘政治冲突,而是恐怖主义、金融风险、各种病毒等。面对百年大灾疫,人们最需要的是N95口罩,而不是F-35战斗机。我们对美国内已有超过13万人死于新冠疫情深感痛心。但中国同样是病毒的受害者,也同样为抗疫付出了巨大的牺牲和代价,美方向中国“甩锅”推责是不公平的,也是不道德的,解决不了任何问题。病毒无国界,疫情面前无赢家。大敌当前,美国不能错把战友当对手,以邻为壑,相互消耗,而应同中国和世界各国一道合作抗疫,共克时艰。

 

3. The real enemy of the US is not China. It is the invisible virus and growing non-traditional security threats. Twenty years into this century, the world has seen multiple global crises, with wide and far-reaching impacts on the US and others. None of them were caused by traditional great power confrontation or geopolitical conflicts, but terrorism, financial risks, viruses, etc.

 

In the face of an epidemic unseen in a century, what most countries need most at this point is N95 masks, not F-35 fighters. It breaks our heart that over 130,000 Americans lost their lives to COVID-19. In the face of this raging virus, China is also a victim, and is fighting it with enormous sacrifices and at great cost. Scapegoating China by the US is unfair and morally wrong, and it doesn’t solve any problem.

 

Virus respects no borders, or favors anyone. It is a common enemy for all. The US should not treat a partner as an adversary, nor should it take a beggar-thy-neighbor approach, because doing so will only wear each other out. What the US should do is to work with China and the rest of the world to fight COVID-19 and come through it together.

 

四、中美“脱钩”不切实际,对谁都没有好处。全球化是我们这个时代的现实,各国间的相互联系已深入到了“毛细血管”,不管你喜欢不喜欢,恐怕难以逆转。疫情期间,中美人流虽断,物流却逆势增加。4月份双边贸易额增至412亿美元,中国再次成为美最大贸易伙伴,5月更是增至465亿美元。美国企业仍然最青睐中国大市场。中国美国商会近期调查显示,84%美企不愿撤离中国,38%企业将保持或增加对华投资。今年以来,埃克森美孚、霍尼韦尔、特斯拉、沃尔玛等美国公司都在扩大对华投资与合作。下一步,中美在信息通讯、人工智能、线上教育、远程医疗等领域将有更多合作机会。这样互利共赢的合作为什么要人为中断、脱钩呢?日前,160家美国企业向美国会提交联名信,要求取消对中国加征的关税。信中说,2019年美民众为此多支付了500亿美元的关税,每个家庭平均多花费1277美元。中美贸易战使美上市公司市值缩水1.7万亿美元。“脱钩”的后果由此可见一斑。在这里我想重申,中国将坚定不移扩大对外开放,中国对外合作的大门将向包括美国在内的各国敞开。

 

4. Decoupling is impractical and benefits no one. In today’s world, globalization is the order of life. Countries are inter-connected in every aspect as deeply as possible. Like it or not, the tide cannot be reversed.

 

Although the flow of people between China and the US has paused due to COVID-19, the flow of goods has bucked the trend and continued to grow. In April, bilateral trade rose to US$41.2 billion, again making China the largest trading partner of the US. And the figure continued to grow in May to US$46.5 billion.

 

US businesses are still most interested in the huge market of China. A recent survey by the American Chamber of Commerce in China (AmCham China) suggests that 84% of US companies operating in China don’t want to leave, and 38% of them plan to maintain or increase their investment. Since the beginning of this year, ExxonMobil, Honeywell, Tesla, Walmart and other US companies have been expanding their investment and operation in China.

 

Going forward, there are many more opportunities for China-US cooperation in ICT, artificial intelligence, online education and telemedicine. Why would anyone want to cut off the cooperation that has been benefiting both sides? And why would they want to promote the so-called decoupling?

 

Recently, 160 US companies sent a co-signed letter to Congress urging the lifting of tariffs on China. The tariffs, they say, cost Americans US$50 billion more in duties in 2019 and raised average household expenditure by US$1,277. The trade war has wiped out US$1.7 trillion of the market value of listed American firms. This is just one simple example of the consequences of decoupling.

 

So I’d like to stress again that China will remain firmly committed to opening up wider to the outside world, and the door to cooperation will remain open to all countries, including the US.

 

五、中美谁也改变不了谁,不要将中美关系意识形态化。中国共产党作为中国执政党,是历史和人民的选择,受到14亿人民的坚定拥护和支持。任何割裂中国共产党和中国人民血肉联系的企图都是徒劳的。过去几十年,正是中国共产党领导中国实现了经济快速发展和社会长期稳定这“两个奇迹”,也正是中国共产党奉行的中国外交和对美政策成功推动中美合作取得如此巨大、令人难以置信的成就。中国共产党有什么错呢?美方高官为何要对中国共产党咬牙切齿、恶语相向?另外,我一直不明白,美方发展国家关系为什么总想改变对方?为什么要将自身的意识形态强加于人?为什么要阻挡一个国家走已被实践证明是成功的发展道路?当年中美《上海公报》明确写着“中美社会制度有着本质的区别”,但这并没有影响我们建立和发展两国关系。48年后的今天,这种区别仍然不应成为中美深化合作、迈向未来的障碍。中方一贯奉行不干涉内政原则,无意干涉美国大选。倒是美国有些人千方百计地把中国扯进美国选战,一个劲地打中国牌,让中国成为万能的“替罪羊”,然后又反过来指责中国干涉美内政、影响美大选。这对中国很不公平。

 

5. Neither China nor the US can mold the other in one’s own image, and China-US relations should not be driven by ideologies.

 

The CPC is China’s governing party. This is the choice of history and the people, a choice firmly supported by the 1.4 billion Chinese people. No attempt to sever the close ties between the CPC and the Chinese people will ever succeed. During the past several decades, it is under CPC’s leadership that China has achieved rapid economic growth and enduring social stability, something often referred to as the “twin miracles”. It is the foreign policy and US policy pursued by the CPC that have led to the tremendous and incredible success in China-US cooperation. What, if I may ask, has the CPC done wrong in all this? Why are some senior US officials so hostile toward the CPC and so vicious in their verbal attacks?

 

I also find it hard to understand: why does the US always seek to change the other country in state-to-state relations? Why does it try to impose its own ideology on others? What is the point of stopping a country from pursuing its development path that has proved successful? “There are essential differences between China and the United States in their social systems.” Those are the exact words in the Shanghai Joint Communiqué. These differences did not prevent the two countries from establishing and growing bilateral ties 48 years ago. Today, they certainly should not be an obstacle to China-US cooperation and a future-oriented relationship.

 

China has all along followed the principle of non-interference in others’ internal affairs. We have no intention to meddle with US elections. Yet some in the US are resorting to all possible means to drag China into US election politics. They play the “China card”. They use China as a handy scapegoat for every problem they have. And then they accuse China of meddling with US internal affairs and swaying its elections. That is so unfair for China.

 

六、搞反华小圈子是分裂地球村,与时代潮流格格不入。多边主义、全球化是大势所趋,全球合作是人心所向。各国利益相互交融,试图排除中国、搞“平行体系”,人为分割两个市场、两个产业链,是开历史倒车。针对中国搞小集团、逼迫他国选边站队,更不得人心,许多国家对此很反感。中国广交朋友,广结善缘,致力于促进互联互通,共建“一带一路”,同所有国家平等相待,友好合作,不可能被孤立,中国14亿人的大市场也不可能被排斥。在一个日益网络化、数字化的世界拉圈子、搞分裂,是多么的可笑,注定不可能成功。

 

6. Forming an anti-China bloc is to divide the global village. It runs completely counter to the trend of the times. We live in a globalized world, which calls for multilateralism and global cooperation. In a world where national interests are interconnected, any attempt to exclude China, create “parallel systems”, or break the world into two markets and industrial chains is to turn back the wheel of history. To build a bloc against China and force other countries to take sides will not win hearts and minds. Many countries resent being put in such a position.

 

China pursues friendship with all countries around the world. We hope to boost connectivity through the Belt and Road Initiative. We put ourselves on an equal footing with all countries, and we are committed to developing friendship and cooperation. China will not be isolated. It is impossible to exclude a market of 1.4 billion people. The attempt to form blocs and split the world in this increasingly networked and digital age is just preposterous. It is doomed to fail.

 

七、正确看待中国的国际角色与作用。任何不戴有色眼镜的人都能看见,中国是当今世界乱局的稳定力量,不断为大变局注入确定性,为全球治理输送正能量。面对疫情肆虐,中国展开了史上规模最大的全球紧急人道行动,向150个国家和4个国际组织提供了援助,并通过视频交流、派医疗专家组等方式同世界分享抗疫经验。中国承诺在两年内提供20亿美元抗疫国际援助,将新冠疫苗作为全球公共产品,同二十国集团成员国一道落实缓债倡议,加大对非洲国家抗疫支持力度。中方向世界提供的口罩超过700亿只,美国平均每人得到60多只中国口罩。中国对世界各国的援助与支持没有夹杂任何私利,也没有附加任何条件,决不是要扩大地缘政治影响,去当头争“老大”,而是力图在国内取得抗疫成功的同时,为其他国家和国际社会应对危机提供更多公共产品,尽一份作为大国的责任和担当。

 

7. It is important to have correct perceptions of the international role of China. Anyone without bias can see that China is a force for stability in a volatile world. It brings certainty to a rapidly-changing world and positive energy to global governance.

 

In the wake of COVID-19, China has launched the largest global emergency humanitarian operation in history. It has provided assistance to 150 countries and four international organizations, and shared containment experience with the world through video conferencing and sending medical expert teams. China has pledged to provide US$2 billion over two years to help with global COVID-19 response, and make its COVID-19 vaccine research and development a global public good. China will work with other G20 members to implement the Debt Service Suspension Initiative and give Africa greater support in containing the virus. China has provided over 70 billion masks to the world, including more than 60 masks on average for every American.

 

China’s assistance and support to other countries serves no selfish interests, and has no strings attached. China is by no means seeking geopolitical influence or predominance. What we hope to do, given our success in containing the virus inside China, is to provide more public goods to the international community in a time of crisis and step up to our responsibility as a major country.

 

八、要通过对话合作管控分歧,照顾彼此核心利益和关切。我注意到,前不久在夏威夷举行的中美高层内部对话受到两国和世界舆论广泛关注。这说明中美作为两个负有特殊国际责任的大国,越是关系困难,矛盾多发,越要保持对话,增进互信。隔空喊话、麦克风外交解决不了问题,而且还会把小问题炒成大危机。中美原有的沟通对话机制不能弃之不用,我们还要创造新的对话方式和渠道。能合作的尽量合作,一时不能合作的也要尽量管控,建立各种预警、应急、磋商机制,确保中美关系不失控不脱轨。

 

8. China and the US must manage differences through dialogue and cooperation, and seek to accommodate each other’s core interests and concerns. I noticed that the recent China-US high-level internal dialogue in Hawaii has received a lot of attention in our respective countries and the world. This means that between China and the US, two major countries with special global responsibilities, the more difficulties and tensions there are, the more imperative it is to talk to each other and build trust. Megaphone diplomacy does not solve problems, and may even turn a small issue into a crisis. The existing communication and dialogue mechanisms should not be abandoned. New ways and channels of dialogue are also needed. We should cooperate wherever and whenever possible, and manage, to the best of our ability, differences that persist. There also need to be mechanisms in place for early warning, emergency response and consultations if problems occur to ensure that the relationship does not derail or spin out of control.

 

台湾、香港、涉疆、涉藏等问题事关中国主权安全,中方绝不容许任何外来干涉,我们坚决反对美国在香港国安立法问题上对中国无端指责并实施所谓制裁。我在此想强调,制订国家安全立法是一国主权行为,是国际通行做法。美国国家安全立法有20部之多,而且还在不断强化,为什么中方就不能做呢。而且我们立法聚焦打击的是极少数严重危害国家安全的犯罪分子。此举不会影响香港的高度自治,不会影响香港居民的权利和自由,也不会影响外国投资者在香港的正当权益。我坚信,有了国安法的香港只会更稳定、更繁荣、更有吸引力。香港的未来一定会更美好!

 

Issues related to Taiwan, Hong Kong, Xinjiang and Tibet touch on China’s sovereignty and security. There is no room for foreign interference on those issues. We firmly oppose the groundless US accusations and so-called sanctions against China for our legislation safeguarding national security in Hong Kong.

 

Clearly, national security legislation is a way of exercising sovereignty. It is a common international practice. The US has as many as 20 national security laws. Its legal system on national security is being constantly strengthened. Why can’t China do the same?

 

The legislation is designed to hold accountable a very small number of criminals who put national security in serious jeopardy. It does not affect Hong Kong’s high degree of autonomy, the rights and freedoms of Hong Kong residents, or the legitimate rights and interests of foreign investors in Hong Kong. I am fully confident that the national security law will only bring about a more stable, prosperous and attractive Hong Kong. Hong Kong is poised to embrace a better future.

 

关于中美关系的未来,我是一个乐观派,尽管现在乌云密布,但天塌不下来,太阳总是要出来的,中美走向合作的大势是挡不住的。中方愿始终本着不冲突不对抗、相互尊重、合作共赢的精神,与美方共同建设一个协调、合作、稳定的中美关系。我也坚信,中美两国人民有足够的理性和智慧,找到不同社会制度、不同文化背景的两个大国,在这个星球和平共存、互利共赢的相处之道。

 

I am optimistic about the future of China-US relations. Although the relationship is overcast by dark clouds, the sky will not fall, and the sun will eventually shine again. Likewise, nothing can stop the general trend of China-US cooperation forever.

 

China remains committed to the principle of no-conflict and no-confrontation, mutual respect and win-win cooperation. China stands ready to work with the US to advance China-US relations based on coordination, cooperation and stability. I believe that the two peoples have the will and wisdom to find the way for the two major countries with different social systems and cultural backgrounds to live together on this planet in peace and to cooperate with each other for win-win results.

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  • 版权声明 本文源自 外交部 整理 发表于 2020年7月8日21:08:19