口译:李克强总理答记者问(2020年)

摘要

Full Text: Premier Li Keqiang Meets the Press

李克强回答中外记者提问

李克强总理出席记者会并回答中外记者提问

Premier Li Keqiang Meets the Press

 

十三届全国人大三次会议28日下午在人民大会堂举行记者会,国务院总理李克强应大会发言人张业遂的邀请出席记者会,并回答中外记者提问。

 

The Third Session of the 13th National People’s Congress held a press conference at the Great Hall of the People on the afternoon of 28 May 2020. Premier Li Keqiang met with Chinese and foreign reporters and answered their questions at the invitation of Spokesperson Mr. Zhang Yesui.

 

记者会开始时,李克强说,首先感谢媒体朋友们在特殊时期克服了特殊困难,对中国两会进行报道。因为疫情原因,我们用视频连线形式开记者会,我想这个距离不会影响我们之间的沟通。时间有限,请大家提问。

 

In his opening remarks, Premier Li Keqiang thanked the journalists for covering China’s NPC and CPPCC Sessions at an unusual time and despite unusual circumstances. He noted that although the containment protocols require that the press conference be held via a video link, such distance would not impede their communication. In the interest of time, he went straight to questions.

 

路透社记者:新冠肺炎疫情对世界各国的经济都造成了严重的影响,不少国家的政府出台了数万亿美元的财政和货币措施,来应对新冠肺炎疫情对经济产生的冲击。今年中国政府工作报告中没有设定GDP增速。根据路透社的测算,政府工作报告中出台的财政措施约占中国2019年国内生产总值的4%,这个规模比一些经济学家的预期要低,今年一季度中国经济首次出现了几十年以来的收缩。未来几个月,中方是否会出台更大规模的刺激措施?从更长远看,中方是否有足够的政策工具来应对全球疫情持续蔓延和不断紧张的中美关系?

 

Reuters: The new coronavirus outbreak has devastated economies around the world. Trillions of dollars in fiscal and monetary measures have been pushed out to deal with the fallout. In this year’s Government Work Report, China did not set a GDP growth target. But it did announce fiscal measures worth about 4% of China’s GDP in 2019 according to our calculations. That’s slightly less than some economists expected after seeing China’s economy contract for the first time in decades in the first quarter. So my question is: can we expect China to deliver more ambitious stimulus in the months to come? Does China have sufficient policy options to deal with a prolonged global pandemic and rising tensions with the United States?

 

李克强:这次新冠肺炎疫情给世界经济造成了严重冲击,可以说是史上罕见。最近不少主要国际组织都预测,今年全球经济增长是负3%,甚至更多。中国经济已经深度融入世界经济,不可能置身事外。所以今年我们没有确定GDP增长的量化指标,这也是实事求是的。但是我们确定了保居民就业、保基本民生、保市场主体等“六保”的目标任务,这和经济增长有直接关系。经济增长不是不重要,我们这样做实际上也是让人民群众对经济增长有更直接的感受,使经济增长有更高的质量。发展是解决中国一切问题的关键和基础。如果统算一下,实现了“六保”,特别是前“三保”,我们就会实现今年中国经济正增长,而且要力争有一定的幅度,推动中国经济稳定前行。

 

Premier Li: The novel coronavirus disease has taken a heavy toll on the global economy in a way rarely seen before. Major international institutions have projected a negative 3 percent global growth or worse this year. As China’s economy has become deeply integrated into the global economy, it is simply impossible for the Chinese economy to stay immune to such impacts. This year we decided not to set a specific growth target. This is a decision informed by the realities on the ground. In the meantime, we have formulated a series of goals and tasks in six key areas which are closely connected with economic development, with a particular focus on protecting employment, people’s basic living needs, and market entities.

 

Not setting a specific GDP growth target does not mean that economic development is not important. Our decision is designed for economic growth to deliver more real gains to our people and promote higher quality development in China. We believe that development still holds the key and is the foundation for resolving all the problems in China today. Putting protections in place in six key areas, especially in the areas of jobs, livelihoods and businesses, will help us achieve positive and solid growth this year to the extent possible, and maintain steady economic development.

 

你刚才说到有反映我们出台的政策规模低于预期,但是我也听到很多方面反映,认为我们出台的规模性政策还是有力度的。应对这场冲击,我们既要把握力度,还要把握时机。在新冠肺炎疫情蔓延的时候,我们也出台了一些政策,但是当时复工复产还在推进中,复业复市受阻,一些政策不可能完全落地,很多人都待在家里。在这个过程中,我们也积累了经验。正是根据前期的经验和对当前形势的判断,我们在政府工作报告中推出的规模性政策举措,应该说是有力度的。

 

In your questions, you said our measures are seen by some as below expectations. What I heard from many quarters is that our measures are forceful. For any response to work, we must get both the timing and intensity right. When COVID-19 was still raging, some policies were introduced. But with the economy barely reopened, the situation then made it difficult for these polices to get truly delivered on the ground, as most of the people still had to stay indoors. This has been a process of gaining experience. Based on the experience in the past weeks and months and our assessment of the current situation, we have decided on new policy steps of a sizable scale as set out in the Government Work Report, and we believe these measures are forceful.

 

过去我们说不搞“大水漫灌”,现在还是这样,但是特殊时期要有特殊政策,我们叫作“放水养鱼”。没有足够的水,鱼是活不了的。但是如果泛滥了,就会形成泡沫,就会有人从中套利,鱼也养不成,还会有人浑水摸鱼。所以我们采取的措施要有针对性,也就是说要摸准脉、下准药。钱从哪里来、用到哪里去,都要走新路。

 

We have repeatedly said that we will not flood China’s economy with liquidity. We didn’t do it in the past; we will not do it now. But the current unusual time requires extraordinary measures. Just as water is important to fish farming, sufficient liquidity is important to economic development. But too much water will induce froth in the fishpond, whereby some people may attempt to muddy the waters and fish for arbitrage. We must ensure that measures taken are well-focused, the prescription is precise and the medicines for getting out of the hardship effective. New approaches must be employed as to where the money comes from and how it is spent.

 

这次规模性政策筹措的资金分两大块:一块是新增财政赤字和发行抗疫特别国债,共两万亿元。还有另外更大的一块,就是减免社保费,有的国家叫工薪税,并动用失业保险结存,推动国有商业银行让利、自然垄断性企业降价以降低企业的经营成本。这一块加起来大概是前一块的两倍。我们是要将这些资金用于保就业、保民生和保市场主体,支撑居民的收入。这些资金和我们现在全部居民收入40多万亿元的总盘子相比,比例达两位数。

 

The financing raised through policies of a sizable scale can be grouped into mainly two categories. The first covers the increase of fiscal deficits and issuance of government bonds for COVID-19 control. Together it amounts to 2 trillion RMB yuan. The other category, which is roughly twice as big, covers payment relief for enterprises of their contributions to social security schemes, also known as payroll tax in some other countries, and taps into the balance of the unemployment insurance fund, interest concessions made by state-owned commercial banks, and price reductions in natural monopoly industries to lower enterprises’ operating costs. This money will be primarily used to support jobs, people’s basic living needs and businesses, and sustain household income. It accounts for a double-digit share in the more than 40 trillion RMB yuan of total household income in China.

 

更重要的是钱往哪里去?我们这次为企业纾困和激发市场活力的规模性政策,主要是用来稳就业、保民生,使居民有消费能力,这有利于促消费、拉动市场,可以说是一条市场化改革的路子。

 

What’s more important is how the money is spent. Our measures of a sizable scale are designed to provide vital relief to businesses and revitalize the market. With a particular focus on supporting jobs and people’s livelihoods, our people will have money to spend and consumption will drive market vitality. This is in keeping with market-oriented reform.

 

钱是可以生钱的,用之于民的钱可以创造新的财富,涵养税源,使财政可持续。我们一定要稳住当前的经济,稳定前行,但也要避免起重脚,扬起尘土迷了后人的路。如果经济方面或其他方面再出现大的变化,我们还留有政策空间,不管是财政、金融、社保都有政策储备,可以及时出台新的政策,而且不会犹豫。保持中国经济稳定运行至关重要。

 

Money well-spent can create new money. Money invested in the people will generate new wealth, help us protect and preserve the tax base and make public finance more sustainable. We will do our utmost to keep China’s economic growth stable and make steady progress. In other words, we will not kick up dirt and leave a trail of dust that will block the sight of those who follow. We have also reserved policy space on the fiscal, financial, social security and other fronts. And we are in a strong position to quickly introduce new measures without any hesitation should the evolving situation calls for it. It is essential that we keep China’s economic growth on a steady course.

 

我们坚信,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,经过全国人民的共同努力,一定会战胜当前的困难,实现全年目标任务,全面建成小康社会。中国经济保持稳定、稳住基本盘,本身就是对世界的贡献,会为世界经济恢复增长、实现发展作出积极贡献。

 

I am confident that under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core and with joint efforts of people across the nation, we will be able to prevail over the current difficulties, fulfill our tasks and goals for the whole year, and complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Keeping China’s economic growth and fundamentals stable will be a contribution to the whole world. And China will remain a positive force driving global economic recovery and growth.

 

彭博社记者:新冠肺炎疫情仍然是未解之谜,科学家认为找到该问题的答案有助于预防未来大流行病的发生。有人呼吁就源头问题开展国际审议。中方对调查持何立场?您认为这样的调查应该达到什么目的?应该避免什么问题?

 

Bloomberg News: The origins of COVID-19 are still a mystery. Scientists think if we can find out where it came from, we could prevent future pandemics. There have been calls for an international independent inquiry into the origins. What is China’s stance on how such an inquiry should be carried out? What should such an inquiry do and what should it not do?

 

李克强:中国和许多国家都主张对病毒进行溯源。前不久召开的世卫大会通过了有关决议,中国也参与了。因为科学溯源可以更好地防控疫情,也是为了世界各国人民的生命健康。

 

Premier Li: China and many countries believe that it is important to get a clear idea about the sources of the coronavirus. At the recently held World Health Assembly, a resolution was adopted, and China is one of the co-sponsors of this resolution. We believe that getting clear about the sources of the virus on the basis of science will help us better carry out containment of COVID-19, and also contribute to protecting life and health of people around the world.

 

这次疫情突如其来,对人类来说是个全新的传染病,到现在可以说还是未知大于已知。病毒是没有国界的,它是全世界、全人类的敌人。各国都在进行防控,在探索中前进,目前还没有完整的经验。我们要控制住疫情的发展,加快疫苗、有效药物、检测试剂研发突破,这将是人类战胜这个病毒的强有力武器。中国和许多国家都在进行投入,我们也愿意开展国际合作。这些产品是全球公共产品,我们愿意共享,最终让人类能够共同战胜病毒这个敌人。

 

The novel coronavirus disease has caught all countries by surprise. It is a completely new disease to humankind. So far, I’m afraid there is still more to the virus that we do not yet know. Viruses respect no borders, and they are the common enemy of the whole world and entire humanity. Nowadays, all countries are still working hard to contain the spread of the virus, and we are gaining experience along the way. We must work together to keep the virus in check. Research efforts need to be intensified for breakthroughs in vaccines, effective medicines and testing reagents, as they will be powerful weapons to help us succeed in checking the virus. China and many other countries are making investments into R&D of these products, and we are open to international cooperation. The deliverables of the R&D will be global public goods that we are ready to share with others. They will help the entire humankind in defeating the virus.

 

中国人民经过艰苦卓绝努力,现在有效控制了疫情,同时积极参与国际合作,公开透明负责任地及时向国际社会通报有关信息。但现在疫情还在全球流行,在中国也未结束,还有散发病例,不少科学家都强调,还是要保持警惕,防止反弹。我们将继续坚持实事求是、公开透明的原则,一旦发现疫情,坚决予以管控,不允许有任何隐瞒,而且要进行科学防治。

 

With painstaking efforts, the Chinese people have successfully brought the spread of the virus under control. And China has taken an active part in international cooperation against the virus. We have all along acted with openness, transparency and a sense of responsibility. We have shared information in a timely way with the rest of the international community. The virus is still spreading around the world. And in China it has not come to a complete end yet; there are still sporadic cases. Scientists have cautioned us to stay on high alert to prevent a resurgence of infections. We must continue to adopt a factual, science-based, open and transparent approach in dealing with COVID-19. Any infection, once detected, must be promptly handled, and no cover-up will ever be allowed.

 

现在很多人都说疫情可能短期不会结束,还会延续一段时间。实际上国际社会已经面临双重挑战、要做两张答卷:一方面要控制住疫情;一方面要恢复经济社会发展,恢复正常秩序。这两者是有矛盾的,如果只是做一个方面的事就不一样了。我们现在需要在矛盾中平衡、探索中前行,尤其需要国际合作。无论是抗击疫情,还是发展经济,都需要我们同舟共济,使人类能够越过这场巨浪的冲击。

 

Many people say that COVID-19 will not come to a stop any time soon and we may have to live with it for quite some time to come. All countries now are confronted with dual challenges. It’s like doing double exams. We have to contain the spread of the virus, and at the same time do our best to get life and work back to normal. I’m afraid there is a certain level of trade-off between these two goals. Things would be quite different if we had only one task. So we will have to do our utmost to strike a delicate balance and continue to explore our way forward. In this process, international cooperation is vitally important. Whether it’s fighting the virus or growing the economy, we must come together in a sense of partnership to eventually fight back the onslaught of the epidemic.

 

中央广播电视总台央视记者:您在政府工作报告中阐述了今年中国经济政策。政府会采取哪些措施保证这些资金真正地惠及企业、避免空转,能让普通老百姓切切实实地感受到?

 

CCTV: In the Government Work Report, this year’s economic polices have been spelled out. What will the government do to ensure that all these funds will be truly delivered to benefit companies, instead of just circulating within the financial sector, and bring real gains to the general public?

 

李克强:这是一次前所未有的冲击,我们不可能轻车走熟路,只能是大车行难路。所以我们在政策上要注重创新。我刚才讲了,我们推出的规模性政策叫作纾困和激发市场活力,注重的是稳就业、保民生,主要不是依赖上基建项目。因为现在中国经济结构发生很大变化,消费在经济增长中起主要拉动作用,而且中小微企业在吸纳就业中占90%以上。我们这次所采取的规模性政策,用了70%左右的资金直接或比较直接地去支撑居民收入,这样做可以促进消费、带动市场。而且因为疫情,我们面临一个很大的难题,就是疫情防控措施会抑制消费。我们按这样的方向推动政策实施,也是市场化的改革。

 

Premier Li: In coping with the current round of unprecedented shocks, we don’t have ready experience to draw from. It’s not something we can manage with ease, and we will have to blaze a trail with hard efforts. We must be creative in crafting and delivering our policies. As I said just now, our policies, which are of a sizable scale, are designed to provide vital relief to businesses and revitalize the market, with particular focus on stabilizing employment and ensuring people’s livelihood. They are not focused on large infrastructure projects. This is because big changes have taken place in China’s economic structure, where consumption is now the primary engine driving growth, and micro, small and medium-sized companies now provide over 90 percent of all jobs in China. So under the sizable-scale policies introduced this time, some 70 percent of the funds will be used to support the increase in people’s income through direct or relatively direct means in order to spur consumption and energize the market. One big challenge we have confronted in coping with COVID-19 is that containment efforts have had a dampening effect on consumption. Hence, measures in this direction are also part of our market-oriented reform.

 

其次,我们强调政策资金要直达基层、直达企业、直达民生。新增的赤字和抗疫特别国债资金全部转给地方,省里也只是“过路财神”,要直达基层。可能有人会问,那基层就能把这笔钱用好吗?我们要采取一个特殊的转移支付机制,这些钱要全部落到企业特别是中小微企业,落到社保、低保、失业、养老和特困人员身上。要建立实名制,这些都是有账可查的,决不允许做假账,也决不允许偷梁换柱。我们会瞪大眼睛盯着,也欢迎社会监督。我们采取措施的最终效果要让市场主体和人民群众认可。中央政府这次带头过紧日子,我们把中央部门的非急需非刚性支出压缩了一半以上,调出资金用于基层、企业和民生。各级政府都要过紧日子,决不允许搞形式主义,干那些大手大脚花钱的事。

 

Second, the funds made available will all be used to support primary-level governments and businesses, and ensure people’s livelihood. The increase of budget deficits and funds raised from the issuance of government bonds for COVID-19 control will all be channeled to primary-level governments. Even provincial governments will be just passers-by to these funds. Some people may ask whether primary-level governments can ensure all the funds will be put to best use. In this respect, a special transfer payment mechanism will be established to see that companies, especially smaller firms, will truly benefit from these funds, and people who live on social security schemes, subsistence allowance, unemployment benefits, old-age support and those living in difficulties will be able to benefit. Real-name records will be established, and no cooking of books or embezzlement will ever be allowed. We will keep our eyes wide open and welcome public supervision. Eventually, the delivery of these measures will have to be recognized by businesses and our people.

 

The Central Government will lead by example in living on a tight budget. We will cut over 50 percent of outlays on non-essential, non-obligatory expenditures at the central government level, and the money saved will be mainly used to support primary-level governments, enterprises and people’s basic living needs. Governments at all levels must tighten their belts and reject pointless formalities and spending splurges.

 

刚才我比较多地讲了扩大消费,但并不是说不要投资,我们还要扩大有效投资。这次新增地方政府专项债券1.6万亿元,再加上一些国债,有2万亿元的规模,这在规模性政策当中占到百分之二三十。我们投资的重点是“两新一重”,就是新型基础设施、新型城镇化和涉及国计民生的重大项目,而且要用改革的办法,用这些资金来撬动社会资金的投入。项目要有效益、有回报,要经过科学论证、按规律办事、不留后遗症。

 

Just now, I talked more about boosting consumption. That doesn’t mean investment is not important. We will also expand effective investment. There will be an increase of 1.6 trillion RMB yuan of special local government bonds this year, and some treasury bonds as well, with the total amount topping 2 trillion RMB yuan. They account for between 20 and 30 percent of the funds made available under the sizable-scale policies we introduced this year. The focus of the funds will be on new infrastructures and new-type urbanization and key projects for national development. We will rely on reforms in undertaking these programs and mobilize private sector investment. And the projects supported must generate good returns, and be well-calibrated and delivered according to economic laws to avoid undesirable results.

 

中国时报记者:今年两会因为疫情延到5月举行,这个时间点刚好跟“5·20”非常接近。在民进党继续执政的情况下,未来大陆对台政策的总体考量是什么?未来将如何继续推进两岸关系发展?

 

China Times: Because of COVID-19, the Two Sessions this year have been postponed to May, which is quite close to the date of 20 May. As the DPP continues to govern in Taiwan, what is the overall consideration of the mainland concerning its policy toward Taiwan? And what will the mainland do to promote relations across the Taiwan Strait?

 

李克强:我在政府工作报告中已经说了,我们对台的大政方针是一贯的,也是世人共知的。要坚持一个中国原则、坚持“九二共识”、坚决反对“台独”。在这个政治基础上,我们愿同台湾各党派、团体和人士就两岸关系和民族未来对话协商,推动两岸和平发展,我们愿以最大诚意,尽最大努力促进祖国和平统一。台湾问题是中国的内政,我们从来都反对外来干涉。中华民族有智慧、有能力解决好自己的事。

 

Premier Li: As I said in the Government Work Report, our principles and policies toward Taiwan have been consistent and well-known to the international community. We will stay committed to the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus. We will continue to firmly oppose “Taiwan independence”. Based on this political foundation, we are ready to have dialogue and consultation with any party, group or personage in Taiwan regarding cross-Strait relations and the future of the Chinese nation, and promote peaceful growth of cross-Strait relations. We will continue to show maximum sincerity and do our very utmost to promote peaceful reunification of China. The Taiwan question is China’s internal affair. And we have all along opposed external interference. The Chinese nation has the wisdom and the ability to handle its own affairs.

 

我们视台湾同胞为手足,血浓于水,始终高度重视台湾同胞的福祉。就像这次疫情发生后,大家共同努力,没有台湾同胞在大陆因感染新冠肺炎失去生命。面对疫情,我们祈福两岸同胞都平安健康。

 

We view our fellow compatriots in Taiwan as brothers and sisters. Blood is thicker than water. We will continue to pay high attention to their well-being. Thanks to our joint efforts, there has been no loss of life to COVID-19 among Taiwan compatriots working and living on the mainland. In the face of the epidemic, we wish people on both sides of the Taiwan Strait safety and good health.

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口译最后更新:2020-6-6
  • 版权声明 本文源自 新华网 整理 发表于 2020年5月28日22:03:35