双语:中国关键词:抗击新冠肺炎疫情篇(第三批)

摘要

《中国关键词:抗击新冠肺炎疫情篇》第三批25条词条双语版

《中国关键词:抗击新冠肺炎疫情篇》

Key Words to Understand China: The Fight Against COVID-19

 

一、 中央决策

I. Decisions by the Central Leadership

 

1.让党旗在防控疫情斗争第一线高高飘扬

 

在中国,一个党员就是一面旗帜,一个支部就是一座堡垒。2020年1月27日,习近平作出重要指示,让党旗在防控疫情斗争第一线高高飘扬。这一严明号令、有力动员,鼓舞和激励着广大党员干部冲锋在防控疫情斗争第一线,坚决遏制疫情蔓延势头,坚决维护社会大局稳定、守护人民幸福安康。

 

让党旗在防控疫情斗争第一线高高飘扬,各级党委必须统一领导、统一指挥、统一行动。要增强“四个意识”、坚定“四个自信”、做到“两个维护”,把思想和行动统一到习近平重要讲话、重要指示和中央政治局常委会会议精神上来,统一到党中央决策部署上来。要充分发挥好党支部战斗堡垒作用、党员先锋模范作用,全面贯彻坚定信心、同舟共济、科学防治、精准施策的总要求。在防控疫情的严峻斗争中,各级党组织和广大党员干部要把初心写在行动上,把使命落在岗位上,让每个党支部都成为坚强的战斗堡垒,每名党员都成为一面鲜红的旗帜。

 

1. Let the Party Flag Fly High on the Front Line of the Anti-Epidemic War.

 

In China, a Party member is like a flag and a Party branch is like a fortress. On January 27, Xi Jinping instructed letting the Party flag fly high on the front line of the war against the epidemic. Obeying this mobilization order, numerous Party members and officials are inspired to take firm actions on the front line, and resolutely safeguard overall social stability and the well-being of the people.

 

To let the Party flag fly high on the front line of the war, Party committees at all levels must follow the unified leadership and command and take unified action. They need to enhance their consciousness of maintaining political integrity, thinking in big-picture terms, following the leadership core, and keeping in alignment with the central Party leadership, have confidence in the socialist path, theory, system and culture, and resolutely uphold General Secretary Xi Jinping’s core position on the CPC Central Committee and in the whole Party and uphold the authority of the CPC Central Committee and its centralized and unified leadership. They must unify their thinking and action with the guidelines of Xi Jinping’s speeches and directives and the meetings of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, and with the decisions and deployments of the CPC Central Committee.

 

It is necessary to give full play to the role of Party branches and the exemplary vanguard role of Party members, and fully implement the central leadership’s general requirement of “being united to take science-based and targeted measures and fight the epidemic with confidence.”

 

In this grave struggle against the epidemic, Party organizations at all levels and the vast number of Party members and officials must turn their mission of serving the people into firm actions and work diligently on their posts. Only in this way, every Party branch can become a strong fighting fortress and every Party member can become a high-flying Party flag.

 

2.党政领导干部要坚守岗位、靠前指挥、强化担当

 

2020年1月25日,习近平在中共中央政治局常委会专题会议上指出,各级党政领导干部,特别是主要领导干部要坚守岗位、靠前指挥,在防控疫情斗争中经受考验,深入防控疫情第一线,及时发声指导,及时掌握疫情,及时采取行动,做到守土有责、守土尽责。2月10日,习近平在北京市调研指导新冠肺炎疫情防控工作时再次强调,各级党政领导干部要靠前指挥、强化担当。

 

这是动员令,也是宣言书,更是军令状。这场严峻复杂的抗疫战斗,对领导干部而言既是政治素质和全局观念的重大考验,又是宗旨意识和为民情怀的重大考验。作为“关键少数”,各级领导干部应主动担当作为,发挥关键作用,筑起基层防控堡垒。打赢疫情防控的人民战争、总体战、阻击战,绝不容许推诿扯皮,对于作风漂浮、失职渎职者必须追究责任、依法惩处。实践证明,能不能打赢这场仗,能不能做好防控工作,领导干部的治理能力是关键因素,必须具备相应的危机处理能力、资源调度能力、社会管理能力和舆论引导能力。

 

2. Leading Officials Must Stand Fast at Post, Command at the Forefront, and Shoulder Their Responsibilities.

 

Addressing the meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee on January 25, 2020, Xi Jinping demanded Party and government officials at all levels, especially leading ones, stand fast at their posts and command at the forefront. They must stand the test in the fight against the epidemic, go deep into the front line, give guidance in time, closely monitor the situation and promptly take actions. They must perform their due responsibilities and try their best.

 

He reiterated the responsibilities of leading Party and government officials at all levels during an inspection of the epidemic prevention work in Beijing on February 10.

 

This is a mobilization and an order. For leading officials, the severe and complicated battle is a major test of their political quality, their sense of mission and their care of the people. They must take the initiative and play a key role in building up the stronghold at the grassroots level.

 

To win the nation’s war on the epidemic, prevarication and buck-passing must not be allowed, and those with superficial conduct or dereliction of duty shall be called to account and punished according to the law. Practices have proved that the governance capacity of leading officials is a critical factor to win this war and to effective epidemic control. The officials must have strong capabilities in crisis management, resource distribution, social administration and public relations.

 

3.做好疫情防控工作,直接关系人民生命安全和身体健康,直接关系经济社会大局稳定,也事关我国对外开放

 

2020年2月3日,习近平总书记主持召开专题会议并强调,做好疫情防控工作,直接关系人民生命安全和身体健康,直接关系经济社会大局稳定,也事关我国对外开放。

 

疫情防控工作直接关系人民生命财产安全和身体健康。这就要求各级政府全力以赴救治患者,保障医疗防护物资供应,努力提高收治率和治愈率、降低感染率和病死率,这也是防控工作的突出任务。必须统筹做好人员调配,尽量把精兵强将集中起来,把重症病人集中起来,统一进行救治,及时推广各医院救治重症病人的有效做法。

 

疫情防控工作直接关系经济社会大局稳定。这就要求各级党委和政府继续为实现今年经济社会发展目标任务而努力,切实维护正常的经济社会秩序。必须在加强疫情防控的同时,通过落实“菜篮子”市长负责制,积极组织蔬菜等副食品生产,加强物资调配和市场供应等措施,努力保持生产生活平稳有序,确保蔬菜、肉蛋奶、粮食等居民生活必需品供应。

 

疫情防控工作事关我国对外开放。这就要求中国优先保障在全球供应链中有重要影响的龙头企业和关键环节恢复生产供应,维护全球供应链稳定。只有站在全球供应链核心节点上的中国行业企业及时运转、中国机器有序开动,全球供应链才能保持稳定。

 

3. Epidemic Control: Directly Affecting People’s Lives and Health, Overall Economic and Social Stability, and China’s Opening Up

 

At the meeting on February 3, Xi Jinping pointed out that epidemic prevention and control directly affects people’s lives and health, the overall economic and social stability, and China’s opening up to the outside world.

 

As it directly affects people’s lives, property and health, governments at all levels must spare no pains to save patients, and ensure the supply of medical protective equipment, so as to raise the hospital admission rate and the recovery rate, and lower the infection rate and the case fatality rate. All these are very important to epidemic prevention and control. It is necessary to coordinate personnel deployment, concentrate the best medical workers, put together all severe cases for treatment, and rapidly promote the effective practices of various hospitals in curing severe patients.

 

As it directly affects the overall economic and social stability, Party committees and governments at all levels must make efforts to achieve the goals and tasks of this year’s economic and social development, and earnestly maintain normal economic and social order. While combating the epidemic, city mayors need to ensure the “vegetable basket” (non-grain food supply) and actively organize production of vegetables and other non-staple foods, efficiently allocate materials and market supply, strive to maintain stability and order in production and life, and guarantee the supply of vegetables, meat, eggs, milk, grain and other daily necessities for residents.

 

As it directly affects China’s opening up to the outside world, the country need to give priority to the resumption of production and supply by leading enterprises and key links in the global supply chain, in order to maintain stability of the chain. Only when China sets in motion in an orderly manner and Chinese enterprises keep operating smoothly, can the global supply chain remain stable.

 

4.同时间赛跑,与病魔较量

 

2020年2月3日,习近平主持召开专题会议并强调,同时间赛跑、与病魔较量,坚决遏制疫情蔓延势头,坚决打赢疫情防控阻击战。这一要求,彰显了人民利益高于一切的执政理念,传递出分秒必争战胜病魔的坚定信心。

 

时间就是生命,抗击疫情,就是一场与时间的赛跑。在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,党员干部冲锋在前,医护人员日夜奔忙,火神山医院、雷神山医院建设者忘我鏖战,亿万中国人民行动起来,汇聚起一股强大的战斗力量。在防控疫情这场没有硝烟的战争中,每一次微小的胜利,都是争分夺秒奋勇拼搏的结果。

 

疫情是魔鬼,战胜疫情,就是赢得与魔鬼的较量。要拿出强劲的勇气和实力,不能让魔鬼藏匿。要用科研攻关与它较量,在新冠病毒疫苗的研发方面不断取得新进展;用团结奋战与它较量,打响疫情防控的人民战争;用过硬作风与它较量,各级领导干部深入防控一线,雷厉风行解决突出问题,及时为群众排忧解难,有力推动各项防控工作贯彻落实。

 

4. Racing Against the Clock to Fight the Disease

 

While presiding over a meeting on February 3, Xi Jinping called for racing against the clock to fight the disease. He demanded all-out efforts to resolutely curb the spread of the epidemic and win the battle against it. This reflects the ruling idea that takes the interests of the people above all else.

 

Time is crucial for saving lives, and it is vital to race against time to fight the epidemic. Under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at its core, Party members and officials charged forward, medical personnel worked non-stop shifts, constructors were heavily occupied day and night to build the Huoshenshan and Leishenshan hospitals, and hundreds of millions of Chinese people took actions and formed a powerful fighting force. There is no smoke of gunpowder in this war against the epidemic, but every small victory is the result of fighting courageously against the clock.

 

Facing such a devil, we must be very brave and use our full strength against it, and not let it hide anywhere. We need to tackle key problems through scientific research, and develop effective vaccines as early as possible. We need to wage a people’s war and fight with solidarity. Leading officials must go deep into the front line, solve prominent problems, and alleviate people’s sufferings, in an effort to promote epidemic prevention and control.

 

二、政策部署

II. Anti-Epidemic Guidelines and Arrangements

 

1.优先满足一线医护人员和救治病人需要

 

2020年2月3日,习近平主持召开中共中央政治局常委会会议,强调要重点抓好防治力量的区域统筹,坚决把救治资源和防护资源集中到抗击疫情第一线,优先满足一线医护人员和救治病人需要。2月14日,习近平在中共中央全面深化改革委员会第十二次会议讲话中强调,要平战结合、补齐短板,健全优化重大疫情救治体系,建立健全分级、分层、分流的传染病等重大疫情救治机制,支持一线临床技术创新,及时推广有效救治方案。2月23日,习近平在统筹推进新冠肺炎疫情防控和经济社会发展工作部署会议讲话中强调,要发挥好高水平医疗团队作用,把好钢用在刀刃上,在重症救治、病例指导、方案优化等方面更好发挥他们的作用。

 

医务人员是战胜疫情的中坚力量。从医院救治一线到科研攻关前沿,从完善诊疗方案、精心救治患者,到治愈率不断提高、病亡率持续下降,各地不断传来患者治愈出院的好消息。广大医务人员为打赢疫情防控阻击战筑起了生命防线、提供了专业支撑。

 

各级党委和政府积极采取务实、贴心的举措,帮助广大医务人员解决实际困难和问题,免除后顾之忧。措施体现在三个方面:把生活保障做到位,改善工作和休息条件,合理安排医务人员轮休,落实有关待遇,提供良好后勤服务;把安全保障做到位,医疗防护物资优先满足一线医护人员和救治病人需要,加大对暴力伤医违法行为打击力度;把人文关怀做到位,加强心理危机干预和心理疏导,保护好医务人员身心健康。

 

1. Ensuring Priority Access of Frontline Medical Workers and Patients

 

On February 3, at the meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Xi Jinping underscored coordination among epidemic prevention and control forces among different regions, and demanded concentrating treatment and protective resources on the front line and giving priority to the needs of frontline medical workers and patients.

 

On February 14, at the meeting of the Commission for Comprehensive Reform under the CPC Central Committee, Xi emphasized the need to get prepared for both peacetime and epidemic time, improve the areas of weakness, improve the medical treatment system for major epidemics, establish a sound graded, multilevel treatment mechanism for infectious diseases and other major epidemic situations, support innovations of frontline clinical technology, and promptly promote effective treatment plans.

 

On February 23, speaking to the meeting held to coordinate epidemic prevention and control and economic and social development, he called for giving full play to the high-level medical teams where they are most needed: curing severe cases, guiding medical practices, and optimizing treatment plans.

 

Medical workers are the backbone force in defeating the epidemic. From saving lives in frontline hospitals to conducting research to tackle key problems, from updating the guidelines on diagnosis and treatment, treating the patients with all possible approaches, to continuously raising the recovery rate and lowering the case fatality rate, heartening reports are pouring in from all over the country as more and more patients are cured and discharged from the hospital. A large number of medical workers have built a line of defense and provided professional support for winning the war.

 

Party committees and governments at all levels have actively taken pragmatic and intimate measures to help medical workers overcome difficulties, solve problems, and eliminate worries: (1) offering them more support in daily life by improving their working and resting conditions, properly arranging off-days in rotation, implementing relevant preferential policies and providing good logistics services; (2) offering them more security assurance by first providing sufficient medical protective materials to frontline medical workers and patients, and punishing illegal acts of hospital violence; and (3) offering them more humanistic care and psychological intervention and counseling, and protecting both their physical and mental health.

 

2.防控力量向社区下沉

 

2020年2月10日,习近平在北京调研指导新冠肺炎疫情防控工作时强调,社区是疫情联防联控的第一线,也是外防输入、内防扩散最有效的防线,把社区这道防线守住,就能有效切断疫情扩散蔓延的渠道,全国都要充分发挥社区在疫情防控中的阻击作用,把防控力量向社区下沉,加强社区各项防控措施的落实,使所有社区成为疫情防控的坚强堡垒。

 

社区是城市管理的神经末梢,是最基本的管理单元,也是力量相对薄弱的地方。疫情发生以来,中国各地充分发挥社区在疫情防控中的阻击作用,把防控力量沉到基层、落到实处。从入户排查到重点人群监控,从疫情发现报告到病患及时收治,广大社区构筑起疫情防控的人民防线;广大党员干部冲上一线,拿出战时状态的精气神和行动力,靠前指挥、冲在一线,在紧张的战斗中提高能力、锤炼作风;社区工作人员用脚步丈量民情民意,及时掌握在材料报表和办公室里察觉不到的情况,通过发现问题、解决问题推动防控工作做实做细,与广大群众一起为夺取疫情防控最终胜利而不懈努力。

 

2. Empowering Communities to Prevent and Control the Spread of the Coronavirus

 

When inspecting Beijing’s COVID-19 prevention on February 10, Xi Jinping stressed that the community is the front line of joint prevention and control, and the most effective line of defense to stop the coronavirus from entering and spreading within a region. We can effectively cut off the route of spread if we hold firm the line of defense at the communities. The communities need play their due role, and they should also be empowered to apply various prevention and control measures, so that every community will become a strong bastion defending against the epidemic.

 

Communities are the nerve endings of urban management. They are also where the administration is relatively weak. Since the outbreak of the epidemic, communities across China have been fully mobilized to conduct door-to-door screening, monitoring of target groups, and detection of suspected cases for timely treatment. A large number of Party members and officials have rushed to the front line and take on resolute actions on a war footing. And this has helped improve their abilities and conduct. Many community workers have visited the families in need to learn about the true situation, which they will never find in report forms and their offices, and in getting the problems solved they have promoted epidemic prevention and control earnestly. And by working with the residents, they build great synergy to win the final victory over the epidemic.

 

3.统筹疫情防控与经济社会秩序恢复

 

2020年2月12日,习近平主持召开中共中央政治局常委会会议,强调要统筹疫情防控与经济社会秩序恢复。会议指出,今年是全面建成小康社会和“十三五”规划收官之年,各级党委和政府要努力把新冠肺炎疫情影响降到最低,保持经济平稳运行和社会和谐稳定,努力实现党中央确定的各项目标任务;要加大宏观政策调节力度,针对疫情带来的影响,研究制定相应政策措施;要更好发挥积极的财政政策作用,加大资金投入,保障好各地疫情防控资金需要;要继续研究出台阶段性、有针对性的减税降费措施,缓解企业经营困难;要保持稳健的货币政策灵活适度,对防疫物资生产企业加大优惠利率信贷支持力度,对受疫情影响较大的地区、行业和企业完善差异化优惠金融服务;要以更大力度实施好就业优先政策,完善支持中小微企业的财税、金融、社保等政策;要在确保做好防疫工作的前提下,分类指导,有序推动央企、国企等各类企业复工复产;要多措并举做好高校毕业生等群体就业工作,确保就业大局稳定。

 

2020年2月23日,习近平在统筹推进新冠肺炎疫情防控和经济社会发展工作部署会议的讲话中强调,各级党委和政府要坚定必胜信念,咬紧牙关,继续毫不放松抓紧抓实抓细各项防控工作;要变压力为动力、善于化危为机,有序恢复生产生活秩序,强化“六稳”举措,加大政策调节力度,把国家发展的巨大潜力和强大动能充分释放出来,努力实现今年经济社会发展目标任务。

 

统筹推进疫情防控和经济社会发展工作,关键是抓好中央决策部署的贯彻落实。疫情严重或高风险地区继续集中精力抓好疫情防控工作,中风险地区依据防控形势有序复工复产,低风险地区把防控策略调整到外防输入上来,全面恢复生产生活秩序。

 

3. Coordinating Epidemic Prevention and Control and Restoration of Economic and Social Order

 

While presiding over a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee on February 12, Xi Jinping called for coordinating epidemic prevention and control and restoration of economic and social order. As China will complete building a moderately prosperous society in all aspects and conclude its 13th Five-year Plan in 2020, Party committees and governments at all levels must strive to minimize the impacts of the COVID-19 epidemic, maintain smooth economic operation and social stability, and fulfill the goals and tasks set by the CPC Central Committee. They need to do the following work:

 

* strengthening macro policy regulation and formulating policies and measures to address epidemic impacts;

 

* better leveraging a proactive fiscal policy and increasing budgetary input to ensure the funding for epidemic prevention and control in various localities;

 

* introducing phased and targeted measures of tax cuts and fee reductions to alleviate the operational difficulties of enterprises;

 

* maintaining a prudent and flexible monetary policy, providing more credit aid with preferential interest rates to enterprises producing anti-epidemic materials, and improving differentiated preferential financial services for the areas, industries and enterprises hard-hit by the epidemic;

 

* making greater efforts to implement the employment priority policy, and improving the fiscal, taxation, financial and social insurance policies that support small and medium-sized enterprises;

 

* giving classified guidance for the resumption of work and production of central and state-owned enterprises and other businesses in an orderly manner on the premise of ensuring all epidemic prevention work is done well; and

 

* taking multiple measures to promote the employment of college graduates and other groups, and ensure overall stability of employment.

 

On February 23, at the meeting held to make overall arrangements in advancing prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic and getting the economy and society back to normal, Xi Jinping emphasized that Party committees and governments at all levels must have confidence in victory, bite the bullet, and continue to implement prevention and control measures without the slightest slackening. They need to turn pressure into power and turn adversity into opportunities, and restore production and livelihood of the people in an orderly manner. They should work to maintain stability in employment, financial operations, foreign trade, foreign investment, domestic investment, and expectations, strengthen policy regulation, fully release the great potential and strong momentum of the whole nation, and strive to achieve the goals and tasks set for this year’s economic and social development.

 

To coordinate the endeavors, the key lies in implementing the decisions and deployments made by the CPC Central Committee. The regions hit hard by the epidemic or regions with high risk of infection should continue to concentrate on epidemic prevention and control; the medium-risk regions should resume work and production in an orderly manner; and the low-risk regions should shift their focus to guard against imported cases from outside, and fully restore local production and livelihood of the people.

 

4.武汉保卫战

 

2020年2月11日,习近平通过视频连线听取中央指导组、湖北指挥部汇报时作出部署,要求坚决打赢武汉保卫战、湖北保卫战。

 

武汉胜则湖北胜,湖北胜则全国胜。一段时间内,疫情防控处于胶着对垒状态,湖北和武汉疫情形势仍然十分严峻。打赢武汉保卫战,首先要清醒认识武汉疫情的特殊性,武汉是疫情初发地,不仅早发多发,而且比市外省外更为长久、更为严重;其次要清醒认识武汉疫情的不确定性,与输入地相比,武汉感染者底数没有完全摸清,蔓延扩散的规模也没有较为精准的估计预测;再次要清醒认识武汉防控工作的薄弱点,疫情防控还存在确诊难、收治难、隔离难、保障难等薄弱环节;此外,舆情应对较为被动、网络舆情引导不到位、辟谣不及时,这些都影响了社会舆论环境。

 

4. The War to Defend Wuhan Against the Coronavirus

 

On February 11, in a video call with the Central Guiding Team and Hubei’s Epidemic Prevention and Control Headquarter, Xi Jinping ordered to resolutely defend Wuhan and Hubei and win the war against the coronavirus.

 

If Wuhan wins, Hubei wins. If Hubei wins, the whole country wins. For quite a long time to come, epidemic prevention and control will remain a stalemate, and the epidemic situation in Wuhan and Hubei is very grim. To defeat the virus and protect Wuhan, people must first have a clear understanding of the particularity of the epidemic in the city. Wuhan is where the outbreak first occurred and the city has reported the most cases of infection, and the epidemic is predicted to last longer here and cause more serious damages to Wuhan than other places. Second, people need to have a clear understanding of the uncertainty of the epidemic in Wuhan, as the city has no actual number of its infected people, and the scale of spread is not predictable. Third, they need to have a clear understanding of the weakness in Wuhan’s epidemic prevention and control, as there are still difficulties in definite diagnosis, hospital admission, isolation and daily life support. Besides, there are problems such as passive response to public concerns, indolence in managing social media sentiment, and sluggishness in refuting rumors, all of which have affected the social opinion environment.

 

5.湖北保卫战

 

2020年2月11日,习近平通过视频连线听取中央指导组、湖北指挥部汇报时作出部署,要求坚决打赢武汉保卫战、湖北保卫战。

 

疫情防控,湖北和武汉是重中之重;打赢疫情防控阻击战,湖北和武汉是决胜之地。武汉胜则湖北胜,湖北胜则全国胜。要打赢湖北保卫战,疫情防控这张大网中绝不允许存在任何一个盲点和漏洞。湖北省新冠肺炎疫情防控指挥部多次要求,落实全面排查,狠抓源头防控,充实收治力量,锚定“清零”目标。全省迅速作出响应,各地不断充实力量,下沉街道、社区、农村,全面排查患者人数、医院床位数等,尽最大努力加快疑似患者的检测、隔离以及确诊患者的收治、诊疗工作。

 

稳住了湖北和武汉疫情,就稳住了全国大局。为了更好完成对口支援任务,各省份精细筹备、精准施策、强化保障,一批批医务人员和物资集结到一线,全力支持湖北各地市加强病人救治、疫情防控工作;数十家单位紧密配合,各地建设力量迅速汇聚,短时间内建好武汉火神山、雷神山医院;军队保证医疗物资和人员有效投送,抽组大量医护人员奔赴疫情防控最前线。力量向湖北集结,资源向湖北倾斜,凝聚起众志成城抗击疫情的强大力量。

 

5. The War to Defend Hubei Against the Coronavirus

 

On February 11, in a video call with the Central Guiding Team and Hubei’s Epidemic Prevention and Control Headquarter, Xi Jinping ordered to resolutely defend Wuhan and Hubei and win the war against the coronavirus.

 

Wuhan and Hubei are the top priorities for epidemic prevention and control, and they are the decisive places to win the war against the coronavirus. If Wuhan wins, Hubei wins. If Hubei wins, the whole country wins. To secure a victory, no blind spot or loophole shall be allowed in the large network of epidemic prevention and control.

 

Hubei’s Epidemic Prevention and Control Headquarters has reiterated the importance of conducting thorough screening to stop the epidemic at its source, and expanding the admission capacity to achieve the goal of “zero infection.” The whole province quickly responded, dispatching a large number of workers to the communities and villages to check the number of patients and hospital beds, and trying the utmost to accelerate detection and isolation of suspected cases and admission and treatment of confirmed cases.

 

The situation of the whole country will become stabilized if the epidemic in Wuhan and Hubei is put under control. To better render paired-up assistance, various provinces have made meticulous preparations, worked out precise policies, sent medical workers and materials to support every single city of Hubei province. Thanks to close cooperation of dozens of units and combined efforts of construction forces from across the country, the two hospitals – Huoshenshan and Leishenshan – were built in a very short time. The military also ensured effective delivery of medical supplies and personnel and dispatched a large number of medical workers to the forefront. Together they formed a great force in support of Hubei fighting the epidemic.

 

三、具体措施

III. Effective Measures

 

1.成立国务院联防联控工作机制科研攻关组

 

人类同疫病较量最有力的武器就是科学技术,战胜大灾大疫离不开科学发展和技术创新。习近平在考察科研攻关工作时指出,防控新冠肺炎疫情斗争有两条战线,一条是疫情防控第一线,另一条就是科研和物资生产,两条战线要相互配合、并肩作战。

 

2020年1月20日,按照中共中央国务院决策部署,科技部、国家卫生健康委、发展改革委、教育部、财政部、农业农村部、海关总署、国家林草局、中国科学院、国家药监局、国家中医药局、中央军委后勤保障部等部门和单位迅速响应,成立国务院联防联控工作机制科研攻关组(简称“科研攻关组”),并成立以钟南山院士为组长、14位专家组成的科研攻关专家组,组织动员全国优势科研力量开展攻关。

 

科研攻关组围绕“可溯、可诊、可治、可防”的防控需求,主要开展四方面工作:一是确定科研主攻方向,即临床救治和药物、疫苗研发、检测技术和产品、病毒病原学和流行病学、动物模型构建等五大主攻方向;二是快速部署应急任务,启动科技攻关应急专项,组织跨学科、跨领域的科研团队,联合地方省市、动员社会和企业力量开展科技攻关和应急研发;三是与医疗救治组建立协同机制,加快阶段性研究成果在临床救治方面的快速应用;四是加强规范管理和服务,通过印发政策文件、出台指导意见等措施,确保科研攻关工作合法合规推进。

 

截至2月底,在中央决策部署下,全国科技界团结协作、争分夺秒,先后启动了四批共20个应急攻关项目,各主攻方向均取得阶段性进展,为打赢疫情防控的人民战争、总体战、阻击战提供强大科技支撑。

 

1. The Scientific Research and Innovation Team Under the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council

 

Science and technology offers humanity the most powerful weapon to control disease, and scientific development and technological innovation are indispensable in curing diseases and fighting epidemics.

 

When inspecting relevant scientific R&D programs, Xi Jinping pointed out that there are two battle lines in the war against the coronavirus: epidemic prevention and control, and scientific research and equipment production. He urged the workers on these two battle lines to cooperate and fight side by side.

 

Following the decision and deployment made by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, the scientific research and innovation team under the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council (“Scientific Research and Innovation Team” for short) was established on January 20, including members from the Ministry of Science and Technology, the NHC, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, the General Administration of Customs, the National Forestry and Grassland Administration, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the National Medical Products Administration, the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the Logistics Support Department of the Central Military Commission and other government departments and agencies. China’s COVID-19 Expert Team, headed by Academician Zhong Nanshan and composed of 14 experts, was also established to organize and lead scientific research faculties across the country to tackle key problems.

 

In line with the principle of “tracing the infection source, diagnosing the disease, curing the patients, and blocking the virus,” the Scientific Research and Innovation Team has mainly carried out work in four aspects: (1) to determine five major directions of scientific research – clinical treatment, drugs and vaccine research and development, detection technology and products, viral etiology and epidemiology, and animal model construction; (2) to deploy emergency tasks without delay, including launching emergency projects for tackling key scientific and technological problems, organizing cross-disciplinary and cross-domain research teams, carrying out scientific research and  emergency R&D by collaborating with provincial and municipal government departments and enterprises; (3) to establish a cooperation mechanism with the medical treatment team to accelerate the application of phased research results in clinical treatment; and (4) to enhance procedure-based management and services, and ensure that scientific research follows the law and relevant regulations.

 

By the end of February, scientists and researchers across the country had worked together against the clock and started 20 emergency projects in four batches, and phased progress had been made in all major scientific research directions, providing strong support to the nation’s war on the epidemic.

 

2.应收尽收、应治尽治

 

控制源头、切断传播途径,是传染病防控的治本之策。新冠肺炎疫情发生后,习近平多次作出重要指示,要求坚决做到应收尽收,全力做好救治工作,切实提高收治率和治愈率、降低感染率和病亡率。各省市相继出台措施,围绕筛查、转运、收治和治疗四个环节全面加强收治工作。

 

2020年1月26日,武汉市要求所有医院发热门诊24小时接诊,其中确诊和高度疑似新冠肺炎的患者,医院必须“应收尽收”,统一收治。2月17日,湖北省武汉市等疫情重点地区开展集中拉网式大排查,对“四类人员”进行清底摸排。各地根据防控救治需要,通过优化畅通收治转诊通道、改造扩容定点医院、增加医疗机构床位、优化诊疗方案等有效措施提高收治能力,取得积极效果。有关部门和机构开设线上求助通道,征集各地遇到就医困难的患者信息,助力应收尽收、应治尽治。

 

坚决做到应收尽收、应治尽治,是彻底战胜疫情的关键之举,也是落实“集中患者、集中专家、集中资源、集中救治”要求的重要原则,为推动疫情防控形势加速向好提供了坚实保障。

 

2. Admitting All Suspected and Confirmed Cases for Treatment

 

Controlling the source and cutting off the route of transmission are the fundamental measures for the prevention and control of infectious diseases. After the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, Xi Jinping has given instructions on many occasions, demanding all-out efforts to admit all suspected and confirmed cases for treatment,  raise the hospital admission rate and the recovery rate, and lower the infection rate and the case fatality rate. Successively, various provinces and cities have adopted measures to comprehensively strengthen patients screening, transferring, hospital admission and treatment.

 

On January 26, 2020, Wuhan demanded that fever clinics of all hospitals must operate round the clock to admit all confirmed and highly suspected cases, and put them together for treatment. On February 17, Wuhan and other regions in Hubei that were severely hit by the epidemic launched massive dragnet screening of potential virus carriers to get accurate information about the four groups of people (confirmed cases, suspected cases, febrile patients and close contacts).

 

Various localities have taken effective measures to raise the hospital admission and treatment capability, such as optimizing patient transfer channel, rebuilding and expanding designated hospitals, increasing beds in medical institutions, and improving diagnosis and treatment plans. Effective results have been accomplished. Relevant government departments and institutions have opened online channels to collect information from patients who have difficulties in seeking medical assistance, and help them get into hospitals for treatment as soon as possible.

Admitting all suspected and confirmed cases to hospital is key to thoroughly defeating the epidemic. It echoes the guiding principle of “treating the infected in dedicated facilities by senior medical professionals from all over the country and with all necessary resources,” and has provided a solid guarantee for creating positive effects in epidemic prevention and control.

 

3.中西医并用

 

在2020年1月25日召开的中共中央政治局常委会专题会议上,习近平强调,要不断完善诊疗方案,坚持中西医结合。

 

中医和西医是在不同社会文化背景下发展起来的两种医学体系,在应对疾病方面各有所长:西医强于病毒鉴定、相关药物和疫苗研制、危重患者生命支持等,而中医则在调控机体、辩证施治、增强对疫病的抵抗力等方面拥有丰富独到的经验。“中西医并用”疗法曾在2003年抗击非典期间取得良好效果。

 

在新冠肺炎疫情防控中,国家卫生健康委和国家中医药管理局于2月21日联合发布《关于在新冠肺炎等传染病防治工作中建立健全中西医协作机制的通知》,要求各地建立健全中西医协作机制,强化中西医联合会诊制度,促进中医药深度介入诊疗的全过程。国家中医药管理局及时派出专家前往武汉指导中医辨证治疗,并总结临床救治经验,将优化调整后的中医治疗方案纳入国家卫健委印发的诊疗方案。各地也积极组织中医药精锐力量驰援武汉。截至2月21日,国家中医药管理局和28个省(区、市)630多家中医医院共派出近3200名医务人员支援湖北,全国中医药参与救治的确诊病例已经超过6万例,占比达85%,中西医结合治疗效果明显。

 

中西医优势互补、相互促进,共同维护和增进民众健康,这已经成为中国特色医药卫生和健康事业的重要特征和优势。

 

3. Combined Use of TCM and Western Medicine

 

Xi Jinping proposed constant improvement of the diagnosis and treatment plans and combined use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine at the meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee held on January 25, 2020.

 

Traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine are two kinds of medical systems developed under different social and cultural backgrounds, and each has its own advantages in dealing with diseases. Western medicine is better in virus identification, development of relevant drugs and vaccines, and providing life support for critically ill patients. Traditional Chinese medicine has rich and unique experiences in regulating the human body, dialectical therapy, and enhancing resistance to epidemics and diseases. The practice of “combined use of TCM and Western medicine” had achieved good effects during China’s fight against SARS in 2003.

 

The NHC and the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (NATCM) jointly issued a notice on February 21, requiring all localities to establish a cooperation mechanism of TCM and Western medicine, apply joint consultation by doctors practicing TCM and Western medicine, and promote in-depth intervention of TCM in the whole process of diagnosis and treatment.

 

The NATCM has dispatched a group of experts to Wuhan to guide TCM treatment based on syndrome differentiation. The experts also summed up the clinical experience and incorporated the optimized TCM treatment plan into the guidelines on diagnosis and treatment released by the NHC. Various localities have also organized elite TCM forces to assist Wuhan.

 

By February 21, the NATCM and more than 630 TCM hospitals in 28 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) had sent nearly 3,200 medical staff to support Hubei. More than 60,000 or 85% of the confirmed cases had been treated by TCM nationwide, showing obvious therapeutic effects of combined use of TCM and Western medicine.

 

By drawing strength from each other and putting them into combined use, TCM and Western medicine are able to jointly maintain public health. It is also one major feature and prominent strength of China’s medical and health system.

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