双语:2019年美国侵犯人权报告

摘要

Full Text: The Record of Human Rights Violations in the United States in 2019

国新办3月13日发表《2019年美国侵犯人权报告》

2019年美国侵犯人权报告

The Record of Human Rights Violations in the United States in 2019

 

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

 

2020年3月

March 2020

 

目录

Contents

 

序言

Foreword

 

一、公民权利和政治权利有名无实

I. Civil and Political Rights in Name Only

 

二、经济和社会权利缺乏基本保障

II. Absence of Basic Guarantee of Social and Economic Rights

 

三、少数族裔饱受欺凌排斥

III. Ethnic Minorities Suffer from Bullying and Exclusion

 

四、妇女面临严重歧视与暴力

IV. Severe Discrimination and Violence Against Women

 

五、弱势群体处境艰难

V. Vulnerable Groups Living in Difficulties

 

六、移民遭受非人道对待

VI. Migrants Suffer Inhumane Treatment

 

七、肆意践踏他国人权

VII. The United States Wantonly Trampled on Human Rights in Other Countries

 

序言

Foreword

 

美国国务卿蓬佩奥2019年4月15日在演讲时说:“我们撒谎,我们欺骗,我们偷窃……这才是美国不断探索进取的荣耀。”

 

“We lied, we cheated, we stole...It reminds you of the glory of the American experiment,” said U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo in a speech on April 15, 2019.

 

美国政客的言论彻底暴露了其在人权问题上奉行双重标准、以人权维护霸权的虚伪面目。

 

The remarks of U.S. politicians have completely exposed their hypocrisy of adopting double standards on human rights issues and using them to maintain hegemony.

 

美国号称人权立国,以世界人权卫士自居,以自身对人权的狭隘理解为框架,以称霸全球的核心利益为标尺,每年根据捕风捉影、道听途说的材料拼凑出年度国别人权报告,对不符合其战略利益的国家和地区的人权状况肆意歪曲贬低,却对自身持续性、系统化、大规模侵犯人权的斑斑劣迹置若罔闻、熟视无睹。

 

The United States claims to be founded on human rights, touting itself as a world human rights defender. Following a framework of its own narrow understanding of human rights and using its core interests of pursuing global hegemony as a yardstick, the United States released annual reports on other countries’ human rights every year by piecing together innuendoes and hearsay. These reports wantonly distorted and belittled human rights situation in countries and regions that did not conform to U.S. strategic interests, but turned a deaf ear and a blind eye to the persistent, systematic and large-scale human rights violations in the United States.

 

本报告所依据的资料,来源于各类公开发布的数据、报道及研究成果。报告中的事实证明,近年来,特别是2019年以来,美国的人权状况乏善可陈,呈日益恶化之势。

 

This report is based on a variety of published data, reports and research findings. The facts detailed in the report prove that in recent years, especially since 2019, the human rights situation in the United States has been poor and deteriorating.

 

——美国是世界上枪支暴力最严重的国家。2019年共发生415起大规模枪击事件,平均每天超过一起;共有39052人死于与枪支有关的暴力事件,每15分钟就有一人被枪杀。《今日美国报》评论称,“美国或已步入大规模枪击时代”。

 

– The United States is a country with the worst gun violence in the world. The number of mass killings in the United States hit a record high of 415 in 2019, with more than one happening for every day of the year. In total 39,052 people died from gun related violence in the United States in 2019. A person is killed with a gun in the United States every 15 minutes. “This seems to be the age of mass shootings,” commented USA Today.

 

——选举沦为富人的金钱游戏。2018年中期选举支出高达57亿美元,成为有史以来最昂贵的国会选举;10个最大的个人捐助者向超级政治行动委员会注资4.36亿美元。2020年总统选举筹资竞赛日趋狂热,所有参选人已筹集超过10.8亿美元竞选资金。

 

– Elections have become money games for the rich. Spending in the 2018 elections for Congress topped 5.7 billion U.S. dollars, making the battle for control of the House and Senate the most expensive midterm ever. In 2018, the 10 largest individual donors funneled more than 436 million U.S. dollars to Super PACs (political action committees) in the midterm elections. The race to raise money for the 2020 presidential election is heating up. Candidates have raised more than 1.08 billion U.S. dollars for the election.

 

——美国在西方国家中贫富分化最为严重。2018年基尼系数攀升至0.485,贫富差距创50年来新高。最富有的10%家庭占有美国全部家庭净资产的近75%。1989年至2018年,最底层50%的家庭财富净增长基本为零。

 

– The United States has the most serious polarization between the rich and poor among developed countries. The Gini Index grew to 0.485 in 2018, the highest level in 50 years. The wealthiest 10 percent of U.S. households control nearly 75 percent of household net worth. The bottom 50 percent saw essentially zero net gains in wealth from 1989 to 2018.

 

——美国是目前唯一有数百万人处于饥饿状态的发达国家。人口普查局2018年的统计数据显示,美国有3970万贫困人口。每晚至少有50万美国人无家可归。有6500万人因医疗费用过高而放弃治疗。

 

– The United States is currently the only developed country where millions of people are hungry. There were 39.7 million people living in poverty in the United States, according to U.S. Census Bureau figures released in 2018. On a single night in the previous year, more than half a million Americans lacked permanent shelter. There were 65 million adults who chose not to seek treatment for a medical issue because of the cost.

 

——美国种族仇恨犯罪震惊世界。美国白人至上主义回潮,国内近年来发生的恐怖活动大多与白人至上主义暴力有关。埃尔帕索沃尔玛超市枪击案致22人死亡,白人枪手的行凶动机是对拉美裔的种族仇恨。评论认为,“美国一直处在白人至上恐怖主义的危机之中”。

 

– Racial hate crimes in the United States have shocked the world. White supremacy in the United States has shown a resurgence trend. The majority of domestic terror related arrests were linked to white supremacist violence. A white man opened fire and killed 22 people at a Walmart superstore in El Paso, Texas. His motive was hatred toward Hispanics. “The United States has always been in the midst of a white nationalist terrorist crisis,” said a comment.

 

——警察枪杀和残暴虐待非洲裔案件频发。非洲裔成年人被监禁的概率是白人成年人的5.9倍。联合国特别报告员指出,这种大规模的监禁是奴隶制及种族隔离所产生的余孽。

 

– Shootings and brutal abuse of African Americans by policemen are frequent. African American adults are 5.9 times more likely to be incarcerated than white adults. An UN Special Rapporteur called such racial disparities a vestige of slavery and racial segregation.

 

——就业和财富的种族差距惊人。在过去的40年里,非洲裔工人的失业率一直是白人的两倍。白人家庭的平均财富几乎是非洲裔家庭的10倍。以目前的趋势,非洲裔家庭积累的财富需要200多年才能达到白人家庭现在的水平。

 

– The racial gap in employment and wealth is striking. Over the past 40 years, workers of African descent have consistently endured an unemployment rate approximately twice that of their white counterparts. The typical wealth for a white household is nearly 10 times that for African Americans. If current trends continue, it could take more than 200 years for the average family of African descent to accumulate the same amount of wealth as its white counterparts.

 

——宗教不宽容持续恶化。皮尤研究中心的调查显示,82%的受访者认为穆斯林在美国面临歧视,64%的受访者认为犹太人在美国面临歧视。2018年,极端主义者制造了249起反犹事件。联合国报告认为,美国存在异常暴力化的反犹太主义。

 

– Religious intolerance continues to deteriorate. Pew Research Center surveys showed that about 82 percent of respondents say Muslims are subject to at least some discrimination in the United States. Some 64 percent say Jews face at least some discrimination in the United States. Extremists inspired by extremist ideology were responsible for 249 anti-Semitic incidents in 2018. An UN report noted the exceptionally violent anti-Semitic incidents in the United States.

 

——美国是高收入国家中女性处境最危险的国度。高收入国家被枪杀的女性中92%来自美国,美国女性被枪击致死的概率比其他高收入国家高21倍,美国平均每个月有52名女性被其伴侣枪杀致死。多达70%的美国女性曾遭受来自亲密伴侣的身体或性暴力。

 

– The United States has the most dangerous situation for women among high-income countries. In 2015, an astounding 92 percent of all women killed with guns in these countries were from the United States. Women in the United States were 21 times more likely to die by firearm homicide than women in peer nations. Every month, an average of 52 women were shot and killed by an intimate partner. Up to 70 percent of U.S. women had experienced physical or sexual violence from an intimate partner in their lifetime.

 

——儿童贫困问题触目惊心。美国仍有1280万名儿童生活在贫困之中,5岁以下的贫困儿童数量多达350万,其中160万生活在极端贫困中。美国儿童保护基金批评道:“在全球最富有的国家,居然还有超过五分之一的儿童每天都不得不面对无比残酷的现实——下顿吃什么,今晚睡哪里?”

 

– Child poverty is a shocking problem. Around 12.8 million U.S. children lived in poverty and a total of 3.5 million children under five were poor, with 1.6 million of those children living in extreme poverty. “No child should have to worry where her next meal will come from or whether she will have a place to sleep each night in the wealthiest nation on Earth,” commented the Children’s Defense Fund in a report, adding that yet “about one in five children in America lived in poverty and faced these harsh realities every day.”

 

——老年人贫困问题越来越严重。美国60岁以上的老年人中,每12人中就有1人缺乏足够的食物,总人数达550万。大约40%的美国中产阶级到65岁时将接近或陷入贫困。

 

– Poverty among the elderly is becoming more and more serious. One in 12 seniors aged 60 and older – 5.5 million people – did not have enough food. About 40 percent of middle-class Americans would live close to or in poverty by the time they reach age 65.

 

——美国政府对待移民日趋严苛和非人道。“零容忍”政策导致大量儿童被迫与亲人分离。2017年7月以来,移民当局在边境将5400多名儿童与父母分离。2018年以来,共有包括7名儿童在内的24名移民在美国边境收容所拘留期间死亡。

 

– The U.S. government’s treatment of immigrants has become increasingly harsh and inhumane. The “zero-tolerance” policy caused the separations of many children from their families. U.S. immigration authorities had separated more than 5,400 children from their parents at the Mexico border since July 2017. A total of 24 immigrants, including seven children, have died in U.S. custody since 2018.

 

——美国堪称“世界历史上最好战的国家”。2001年以来,美国不断对外发动战争,花费的财政开支超过6.4万亿美元,造成的死亡人数超过80万,导致数千万人流离失所。

 

– The United States is “the most warlike nation in the history of the world.” The United States has spent 6.4 trillion U.S. dollars on wars it launched since 2001, which resulted in more than 800,000 deaths and left tens of millions displaced. 

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  • 版权声明 本文源自 国新办 整理 发表于 2020年3月14日23:21:52