双语:深化党和国家机构改革是一场深刻变革

摘要

Full Text: A Profound Transformation: Continuing the Reform of Party and Government Institutions

刘鹤2018年3月11日在《人民日报》发表题为《深化党和国家机构改革是一场深刻变革》的署名文章

深化党和国家机构改革是一场深刻变革

A Profound Transformation: Continuing the Reform of Party and Government Institutions

 

刘鹤

Liu He

 

习近平总书记在党的十九大报告中就深化机构改革作出重要部署,党的十九届三中全会研究深化党和国家机构改革问题并作出决定。《决定》明确指出,“深化党和国家机构改革是推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的一场深刻变革”。我们要以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,从战略全局和长远发展的高度来认识推动这场深刻变革的必要性,自觉加以贯彻落实。

 

General Secretary Xi Jinping made important arrangements for furthering institutional reform in the report to the 19th National Congress of the CPC in 2017. In this light, the 19th CPC Central Committee deliberated on this issue and adopted the “Decision of the CPC Central Committee on Deepening the Reform of Party and Government Institutions” (hereinafter referred to as the Decision) at its Third Plenary Session. The Decision explicitly stated that “Furthering the reform of Party and government institutions is a profound transformation aiming to promote the modernization of China’s governance systems and capacity.” Under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, we need to realize the necessity of promoting this profound transformation from a strategic and long-term perspective, and consciously implement it.

 

一、充分认识推动这场深刻变革的历史和现实必然性

I. Fully realizing the historical and practical necessity of this profound transformation

 

党中央历来高度重视党和国家机构建设和改革。党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚持问题导向,突出重点领域,深化党和国家机构改革,在一些重要领域和关键环节取得重大进展,为党和国家事业取得历史性成就、发生历史性变革提供了有力保障。面对新时代新任务提出的新要求,按照党的十九大的战略部署,深化党和国家机构改革,不断推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,具有历史和现实必然性。

 

The CPC Central Committee has always attached great significance to the development and reform of Party and government institutions. Since the 18th National Congress of the CPC in 2012, the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at the core has upheld a problem-oriented approach and focused on key areas to continue the reform of Party and government institutions. By doing so, it has made major progress in key areas, and provided strong guarantees for historic achievements and changes in the undertakings of the Party and the country. The new era and our new tasks present us with new requirements; faced with these requirements and in line with the strategic arrangements made at the 19th National Congress of the CPC, it is historically and practically necessary that we continue the reform of Party and government institutions and continuously modernize China’s governance systems and capacity.

 

(一)深化党和国家机构改革是新时代坚持和发展中国特色社会主义的必然要求。党和国家机构职能体系作为上层建筑,是中国特色社会主义制度的重要组成部分,需要适应社会生产力进步、经济基础变化而不断完善。新中国成立后,在我们党领导下,我国确立了社会主义基本制度,逐步建立起具有我国特点的党和国家机构职能体系,为推进社会主义建设发挥了重要作用。改革开放以来,适应社会主义市场经济发展的需要,我们党积极推进党和国家机构改革,各方面机构职能不断优化、逐步规范,有力推动了改革开放和社会主义现代化建设。中国特色社会主义进入新时代,党和国家机构职能体系必须与新时代中国特色社会主义发展的要求相适应。但要看到,当前党和国家的机构设置和职能配置同统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局、协调推进“四个全面”战略布局的要求还不完全适应,同实现国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的要求还不完全适应,必须按照坚持和发展中国特色社会主义的要求,深化党和国家机构改革。

 

1. Furthering the reform of Party and government institutions is a necessary requirement for upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era.

 

As it forms the superstructure, the system which comprises the functions of Party and government institutions is an important component of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and should be improved constantly in line with the development of productive forces and changes in the economic base. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, China has, under the leadership of the CPC, established the basic socialist system, and gradually developed a unique system which comprises the functions of Party and government institutions. This system has played an important role in advancing China’s socialist development. Since reform and opening up began in 1978, in line with the requirements for developing a socialist market economy, the CPC has actively advanced the reform of Party and government institutions to continually optimize and gradually standardize their functions in all aspects, thus providing a strong boost for reform, opening up, and socialist modernization. As Chinese socialism has entered a new era, the functions of Party and government institutions must conform to the requirements for developing Chinese socialism in this new era. However, it should be noted that, at present, the setup and functions of Party and government institutions do not entirely meet the requirements for the coordinated advancement of the five-pronged overall plan and the “Four Comprehensives” strategy, or for the modernization of China’s governance systems and capacity. Therefore, we must boost the reform of Party and government institutions in accordance with the requirements for upholding and developing Chinese socialism.

 

(二)深化党和国家机构改革是加强党的长期执政能力建设的必然要求。中国共产党领导是中国特色社会主义最本质的特征。党和国家机构职能体系是我们党治国理政的重要保障,是确保党始终总揽全局、协调各方的重要依托。我们党要顺利推进新时代中国特色社会主义各项事业,更好领导人民进行伟大斗争、建设伟大工程、推进伟大事业、实现伟大梦想,必须从组织机构上发挥党的领导这个最大制度优势,把党的领导贯彻落实到党和国家机关全面正确履行职责的各领域各环节,从制度上保证党的长期执政和国家长治久安。当前,一些领域党的机构设置和职能配置还不够健全有力,保障党的全面领导、推进全面从严治党的体制机制有待完善。加强党的长期执政能力建设、推进全面从严治党,迫切要求深化党和国家机构改革,完善保证党的全面领导的制度安排,改进党的领导方式和执政方式,提高党把方向、谋大局、定政策、促改革的能力和定力。

 

2. Furthering the reform of Party and government institutions is a necessary requirement for strengthening the Party’s long-term governance capacity.

 

The leadership of the CPC is the defining feature of Chinese socialism. The system which comprises the functions of Party and government institutions is an important guarantee for our Party’s governance, and an important foundation that ensures our Party exercises overall leadership and coordinates overall initiatives. If our Party is to smoothly carry out all undertakings of Chinese socialism in the new era and better lead the Chinese people in carrying out our great struggle, developing our great project, advancing our great cause, and realizing our great dream, it is essential that we give play to the leadership of the CPC – our greatest institutional advantage – in our organizations and institutions. We must then apply this advantage in all areas and aspects so that Party and government fully and correctly perform their duties and their institutions provide guarantees for the long-term governance of the CPC and lasting stability of the country. At present, the Party’s institutional setup and functions in some areas have yet to be improved and strengthened, and the systems and mechanisms for guaranteeing overall Party leadership and promoting full and strict governance over the Party have yet to be enhanced. In order to strengthen the Party’s long-term governance capacity and ensure full and strict governance over the Party, there is a pressing need to further the reform of Party and government institutions, to improve institutional arrangements for ensuring overall Party leadership, to refine the way our Party leads and governs, and to enhance our Party’s capacity and resolve to chart the direction, exercise overall governance, formulate policies, and facilitate reform.

 

(三)深化党和国家机构改革是社会主义制度自我完善和发展的必然要求。完善和发展中国特色社会主义制度、推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化是全面深化改革的总目标。深化机构改革作为全面深化改革的重要内容,对各领域改革发挥着体制支撑和保障作用。党的十八大以来,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,坚决破除各方面体制机制弊端,重要领域和关键环节改革取得突破性进展,中国特色社会主义制度更加完善。但必须看到,要从根本上解决发展中的许多深层次矛盾和问题,巩固和发展已取得的改革成果,必须将改革深入到机构层面。目前,我国一些领域党政机构重叠、职责交叉、权责脱节问题比较突出;一些政府机构设置和职责划分不够科学,职责缺位和效能不高问题凸显,政府职能转变还不到位;一些领域中央和地方机构职能上下一般粗,权责划分不尽合理等。要解决这些问题,必须深化党和国家机构改革,为经济、社会、政治、文化、生态文明等领域改革持续深化、攻坚克难提供体制支撑和保障。

 

3. Furthering the reform of Party and government institutions is a necessary requirement for self-improvement and development of the socialist system.

 

Improving and developing the system of Chinese socialism and advancing the modernization of China’s governance systems and capacity are the overall objectives of comprehensively continuing reform. As an important aspect of this effort, furthering institutional reform serves as an institutional support and guarantee for reforms in various areas. Since the 18th National Congress of the CPC, under the leadership of the CPC Central Committee led by Xi Jinping, institutional barriers have been removed in all areas and breakthroughs made in key areas, further improving China’s socialist system. However, it should be noted that, it is essential that we take our reform to the institutional level if we are to fundamentally resolve deep-rooted conflicts and problems in development and bolster and build on achievements in reform. At present, problems whereby some Party and government institutions have overlapping responsibilities or their powers and responsibilities are not well matched are relatively prominent. Another prominent issue is that the institutional setup and division of responsibilities in some government institutions are illogical, leading to dereliction of responsibilities and low efficiency, and the transformation of government functions is not yet where it should be. Also at issue is that the functions of some local institutions are exactly the same as their counterparts at the central level, and the division of power and responsibility is irrational. In order to resolve these problems, we must boost the reform of Party and government institutions to provide institutional support and guarantees for continuing reform and overcoming difficulties in the economic, social, political, cultural, and ecological realms.

 

(四)深化党和国家机构改革是实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标、建设社会主义现代化国家、实现中华民族伟大复兴的必然要求。为实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标,党的十九大作出新时代中国特色社会主义发展的战略安排,即到2020年,全面建成小康社会;到2035年,基本实现社会主义现代化;到本世纪中叶,把我国建成富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国。实现第一个百年奋斗目标,党和国家机构职能必须为解决突出矛盾,打好防范化解重大风险、精准脱贫、污染防治的攻坚战提供保障;同时,实现第二个百年奋斗目标,又必须注重解决事关长远的体制机制问题。但要看到,目前我国机构设置和职能配置还不适应实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标的要求,特别是基层机构设置和权力配置有待完善,组织群众、服务群众能力需要进一步提高;群团组织政治性、先进性、群众性需要增强等。这就迫切要求深化党和国家机构改革,科学配置机构职能、完善体制机制,为决胜全面建成小康社会、开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦提供有力制度保障。

 

4. Furthering the reform of Party and government institutions is a necessary requirement for achieving the “Two Centenary Goals,” developing a modern socialist country, and realizing national rejuvenation.

 

In order to achieve the “Two Centenary Goals,” the 19th National Congress of the CPC made strategic arrangements for developing Chinese socialism in the new era – building China into a moderately prosperous society by 2020, basically realizing socialist modernization by 2035, and developing China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful by the middle of the 21st century. To achieve the first centenary goal, the functions of Party and government institutions must provide guarantees that ensure tough steps are taken to forestall and defuse major risks, carry out targeted poverty alleviation, and prevent and control pollution with a view to resolving prominent problems. Meanwhile, to achieve the second centenary goal, we must focus on resolving institutional issues that have a long-term bearing. However, it should be noted that the setup and functions of our Party and government institutions have yet to meet the requirements for achieving the “Two Centenary Goals.” In particular, we have yet to improve the setup and use of power in community-level institutions, and their capacity to organize and serve the general public needs to be raised. Also, people’s organizations need to strengthen their political consciousness, become more advanced, and better represent the people. Thus, we urgently need to boost the reform of Party and government institutions, rationally define the functions of these institutions, and improve relevant systems and mechanisms. Doing so will provide strong institutional guarantees for securing moderate prosperity throughout society, embarking on a new journey to build a thoroughly modern socialist country, and realizing the Chinese dream of national rejuvenation.

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