双语:贸易战反映出中美“三观之争”

摘要

Full Text: The Trade War Reveals Three Conflicts of Views

刘晓明大使在《星期日电讯报》发表题为《贸易战反映出中美“三观之争”》署名文章

2018年7月8日,英国主流大报《星期日电讯报》纸质版和网络版刊登驻英国大使刘晓明题为《贸易战反映出中美“三观之争”》的署名文章。全文如下:

 

On 8 July 2018, the Sunday Telegraph and its website published a signed article by Ambassador Liu Xiaoming entitled “The Trade War Reveals Three Conflicts of Views”. The full text is as follows:

 

贸易战反映出中美“三观之争”

The Trade War Reveals Three Conflicts of Views

 

今年4月以来,我曾就中美贸易争端发表4篇文章,从不同角度阐述了中方立场,呼吁各方支持自由贸易,反对保护主义。最近,美国不顾中美多轮艰苦谈判达成的原则共识,执意再次挑起“贸易战”。“贸易战”阴云还笼罩着美洲、欧洲、亚洲和非洲,给世界经济秩序和多边贸易体系带来严峻挑战。我认为,中美贸易争端表面看是贸易问题,但实质上反映了中美之间的“三观之争”:

 

This is the fourth article that I have published since April to elaborate on China’s position with regard to China-US trade dispute and to call on all parties to support free trade and oppose protectionism.

 

Somewhere in between those articles, a principled consensus was reached between China and the US after many rounds of tough negotiations. However, the US recently went back on its words and the dark clouds of “trade war” are once again looming over the Americas, Europe, Asia and Africa, and posing a severe challenge to world economic order and the multi-lateral trade regime.

 

Deep down, the trade dispute is much more than just a problem of trade. It reveals three conflicts of views between China and the US.

 

一是两种世界观之争。美国四处挥舞“关税大棒”,对欧盟、加拿大、日本等传统盟友的钢铝产品加征进口关税,并要求卢旺达、乌干达等非洲国家取消进口美国二手衣物关税。上述做法反映出“美国优先”的世界观。对美国而言,无论盟友还是其他国家,只要动了美国的“奶酪”,都会遭到打压。与之形成鲜明对比的是,中国以相互尊重、公平正义、合作共赢理念为引领,以维护世界和平、促进共同发展为宗旨,与国际社会一道,推动国际治理体系朝着更加公正合理的方向发展,推动构建新型国际关系和人类命运共同体。

 

The first is the conflict of views on the world. With increased tariffs on steel and aluminum from the EU, Canada and Japan, the US wields its “tariff baton” against its traditional allies. At the same time, it is demanding that African countries such as Rwanda and Uganda remove import tariffs on second-hand clothes from the US. That view on the world is known as “America first”, and it means that anyone seen as having “moved America’s cheese”, be it an ally or not, is punished.

 

By contrast, China sees its relations with the world as based on mutual respect, fairness, justice and win-win cooperation, and aims to safeguard world peace and promote common development. It is willing to work with the rest of the world to make the international governance system fairer and more reasonable, and build a new type of international relations and a community with a shared future for mankind.

 

二是两种合作观之争。美国奉行的是单边主义、保护主义,秉持的是“零和博弈”、“以邻为壑”的旧思维,引发国际社会广泛质疑和反对。中国则遵循“合则强、孤则弱”的古训,主张开放、融通、互利、共赢的合作观,努力为维护世界贸易组织规则,支持多边贸易体制,构建开放型世界经济做出积极贡献。目前,越来越多的国家已宣布或实施对美贸易反制措施,坚决回击单边主义和保护主义,目的就是要让“贸易战”的始作俑者尝到苦果、知难而退。

 

The second is the conflict of views on cooperation. The US has laid bare its belief in unilateralism, protectionism, “zero-sum games” and “beggar-thy-neighbor” approach, which have been widely questioned and opposed by the international community. China, by contrast, follows its time-honored philosophy of “strength through unity and weakness in isolation”, champions open, inter-connected, mutually beneficial and win-win cooperation, and strives to uphold WTO rules, support the multilateral trade regime and build an open world economy.

 

Now more and more countries have announced or implemented counter-measures against the US as firm and strong counters to unilateralism and protectionism. The purpose is to let the troublemaker taste the bitter fruit and beat a retreat.

 

三是两种发展观之争。多年来,美国一直是世界经济、军事和科技领域的领军者。美国在发展,别国也在发展。在全球化时代,世界各国命运相连、休戚与共。在此形势下,美国要维护自身发展优势,关键靠自身实力,靠与其他国家合作,而不是妄图阻碍其他国家的发展、剥夺其他国家人民追求美好生活的权利,否则不仅“失道寡助”,也终将损及自身。此次美国对中国产品加征关税,理由是“中国制造2025”威胁美经济产业安全。这完全是无稽之谈,也反映了美国“你输我赢”的狭隘发展观。中国一贯倡导创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的发展观,以此破解发展难题,增强发展动力,实现各国经济社会协同进步。中国实行“中国制造2025”正是落实上述五大发展理念的具体举措,目的是通过推动技术进步实现经济可持续发展。这一计划公开透明,没有任何“暗箱操作”,没有歧视或者排斥任何外国企业,完全是一个发展中国家提升自身发展水平的正当权利和正义事业。希望美国能认清大势,摒弃旧思维,与世界各国共同走出一条以合作促发展、以共赢促繁荣的新路。

 

The third is the conflict of views on development. For years, the US has been a world leader in economy, military affairs, science and technology, and has been growing stronger. But other countries have not stayed put. To maintain its competitive edge in a globalised world where the future and interests of all countries are intertwined, the US should build on its own strengths and cooperate with other countries. Slowing others down or depriving others of the right to a better life is an unjust cause that will gain little support and may in the end backfire.

 

The excuse given for US tariff hikes on Chinese products is that the strategy known as “Made in China 2025” threatens American economic and industrial security. This allegation is groundless and serves to only show the narrow-minded view of the US that development is a game of “I win, you lose”. China, however, has called for innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared development, believing that this will tackle the bottlenecks in development, empower the growth engine and realise the coordinated economic and social progress of all countries.

 

“Made in China 2025” outlines specific measures in accordance with this development philosophy, with a purpose of achieving sustainable development through technological progress. This strategy is open and transparent. There is no “black box”, discrimination against or exclusion of any foreign company. It represents the legitimate right and just cause of a developing country to reach a higher level of development.

 

The US should recognise the overarching trend, say goodbye to its old mindset and work with other countries to blaze a new trail of win-win cooperation so as to achieve development and prosperity.

 

“明者因时而变,智者随事而制”。中英两国都是全球化的推动者和受益者,也是单边主义和保护主义的受害者。在当前形势下,中国和英国更应与国际社会一道,坚定反对单边主义和保护主义,坚决维护世界经济秩序和多边贸易体系,坚决捍卫人类共同利益,共同促进全球经济繁荣稳定。

 

“A wise man changes as time and event change.” Both China and the UK have promoted and benefited from globalisation. Both are victims of unilateralism and protectionism.

 

Under the current situation, it is all the more important that China, the UK and the rest of the world unite against unilateralism and protectionism, uphold world economic order and the multilateral trade regime, safeguard the common interests of all mankind, and work for prosperity and stability of the world economy.

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