双语:开启新时代全面深化改革新征程(节选)

摘要

Full Text: Opening a New Stage for Comprehensively Deepening Reform

全面深化改革

开启新时代全面深化改革新征程

Opening a New Stage for Comprehensively Deepening Reform

 

郭强

Guo Qiang

 

全面深化改革是习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想的重要内容,既是“8个明确”之一,又是“14个坚持”之一。如何站在新时代的高度理解和推进全面深化改革,开启全面深化改革新征程,是当前和今后一个时期重要的理论和实践问题。

 

Comprehensively deepening reform is an important component of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, as well as a basic policy confirmed by the 19th CPC National Congress. As Chinese socialism has entered a new era, a new journey has also begun for the comprehensive deepening of reform.

 

一、新时代对全面深化改革提出新要求

I. The new era: setting forth new requirements for comprehensively deepening reform

 

中国特色社会主义进入了新时代,我国经济发展也进入了新时代,社会主要矛盾发生了新变化,我们党对新时代中国特色社会主义发展作出了新的战略安排,这些都对全面深化改革提出了更高更长远的新要求。

 

Chinese socialism has entered a new era, and so has China’s economy. The CPC has drawn up new strategic plans for the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, which have placed higher and longer-term demands on comprehensively deepening reform.

 

经济发展新时代对全面深化改革提出了更高要求。新时代我国经济发展的特征,就是我国经济已由高速增长阶段转向高质量发展阶段。经过改革开放40年的发展,我国成为了世界第二大经济体和上中等收入国家。以产能为主要指标的工业化基本完成,第三产业占国内生产总值的比重超过了第二产业;城镇化进入了城乡融合发展新阶段,城镇常住人口超过了农村常住人口,而且人口加速向大城市汇集。这些变化为我国经济发展进入新时代打下了坚实的生产力基础。党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央深刻把握我国发展阶段的变化,以敢于啃硬骨头、敢于涉险滩的担当和勇气,坚决推进以经济体制改革为重点的全面深化改革,形成了一大批改革理论成果、制度成果、实践成果,推动生产关系适应新时代生产力发展的重大变化,使我国经济由高速增长阶段转向高质量发展阶段。当前,世界新一轮科技革命和产业变革方兴未艾、多点突破,正在带来生产方式的深刻变化,必然要求生产关系和上层建筑进行新的革命。我们必须推动高质量发展,建设现代化经济体系,这对全面深化改革提出了更高要求,需要更加艰辛、勇毅的探索和努力。

 

1. The new era of economic development has raised the requirements for comprehensively deepening reform.

 

China’s economy has already begun the transition from a phase of rapid growth to a phase of high-quality development. Over four decades of development through reform and opening-up, a sturdy foundation of productive power has been laid in support of economic development. The CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at the core has made reforming economic structures a point of focus as it has continued reform across the board. This has given shape to a large batch of theoretical, institutional, and practical achievements, and caused China’s economy to change its course from rapid growth toward high-quality development. It is imperative for China to promote high-quality development, build a modern economic system, and be more demanding of reform.

 

社会主要矛盾新变化为全面深化改革指明了主攻方向。党的十九大提出,我国社会主要矛盾已经转化为人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾。这是新时代推进全面深化改革的基本理论依据,也为全面深化改革指明了主攻方向。一方面,全面深化改革要适应人民群众美好生活需要日益广泛和全面增长的时代变化。改革既要往有利于增添发展新动力方向前进,又要往有利于维护社会公平正义方向前进;既要推进有利于满足人民对物质文化生活更高要求的改革,又要推进有利于满足人民对民主、法治、公平、正义、安全、环境日益增长要求的改革。另一方面,全面深化改革必须把主攻方向放在解决不平衡不充分的发展问题上,特别是发展不平衡问题上。当前我国发展不平衡的一个重要原因是部分体制的系统性、整体性、协同性不够。比如,城乡发展差距巨大、农民工身份职业“两张皮”、留守儿童等现象背后就是城乡二元体制,是社会体制不适应市场经济和现代化建设需要的具体体现,这些问题都需要通过进一步改革加以解决。

 

2. The evolution of the principal contradiction in Chinese society has shown how we must approach comprehensively deepening reform.

 

The principal contradiction we now face is that between imbalanced and inadequate development and the people’s ever-growing needs for a better life. This provides a basic theoretical grounding for comprehensively deepening reform, while also pointing out what its main priorities should be. On the one hand, our efforts to comprehensively deepen reform should conform to the people’s needs for a better life in the new era, which are constantly growing larger and more extensive. Reform must be beneficial for both adding new drivers of growth and defending social fairness and justice. It must not only help satisfy the people’s higher demands on material and cultural life, but also help meet the people’s growing calls for improvement with regard to democracy, the rule of law, fairness, justice, security, and the environment. On the other hand, we must make resolving the problem of imbalanced and inadequate development the priority of deepening reform, with particular emphasis on imbalances. For example, the enormous development gap between urban and rural areas is a concrete reflection of the fact that our social structures are now incompatible with the needs of the market economy and modern development. Such issues must be addressed through further reform.

 

社会主义现代化新征程为全面深化改革描绘了新蓝图。党的十九大规划了“两步走”全面建设社会主义现代化国家的新征程。新征程就是新蓝图,对全面深化改革提出了更明确更长远的要求。一方面,新征程指明了全面深化改革的方向与目标,全面深化改革必须时时处处对标国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的要求。另一方面,新征程需要全面深化改革源源不断提供动力,把“基本实现现代化”提前15年并提出到本世纪中叶实现更宏伟的目标,要求改革必须更加全面,更加深化,更加坚决有力。当前,我们正处于“两个一百年”奋斗目标的历史交汇期,体制机制要从适应于全面建成小康社会逐步向适应于全面建设社会主义现代化国家转型。这是一个重要历史关口,改革必须坚持问题导向,始终针对体制机制上的弊端;必须坚持体系导向,始终着力增强改革的系统性、整体性、协同性;必须坚持现代化导向,始终紧紧盯住总目标。

 

3. A new blueprint has been drawn up for comprehensively deepening reform on our new journey toward socialist modernization.

 

The 19th CPC National Congress introduced a two-step plan for building China into a fully modern socialist country. The new journey is a new blueprint, which has spelled out more explicit and long-range requirements for deepening reform. The new journey has set the objectives and pointed the way for comprehensively deepening reform, but at the same time, it needs reform to provide continuous momentum. Moving up the goal of basically achieving modernization by 15 years and setting an even grander goal for the middle of the century mean that reform must extend further, penetrate deeper, and advance with greater determination. Reform must uphold a problem-oriented approach and always aim at deficiencies in our systems and mechanisms as the target. It must also uphold a system-oriented approach, with a constant focus on becoming more systematic, holistic, and coordinated. Finally, reform must continue to be geared toward modernization, keeping its sights trained on our overall objectives.

 

二、新时代全面深化改革的总目标与路线图

II. The overall objectives and roadmap for comprehensively deepening reform

 

党的十九大把“坚持全面深化改革”确立为新时代坚持和发展中国特色社会主义的基本方略,并围绕党和国家事业发展新要求,对全面深化改革提出了新任务,进一步完善了全面深化改革的总目标和路线图。

 

The 19th CPC National Congress confirmed comprehensively deepening reform as a basic policy underpinning our endeavors to uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era. It also put forward new tasks and further refined the overall objectives and roadmap for the comprehensive reform program.

 

明确了国家治理现代化与国家整体现代化是同步的。党的十八届三中全会把完善和发展中国特色社会主义制度、推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化作为全面深化改革的总目标,并提出到2020年形成系统完备、科学规范、运行有效的制度体系,使各方面制度更加成熟更加定型。对2020年的目标,一些人有误读,认为系统完备、科学规范、运行有效的制度体系,各方面制度更加成熟更加定型,就等于国家治理体系现代化。党的十九大立足新时代、新征程,明确了全面深化改革的阶段性目标,是到2035年,各方面制度更加完善,国家治理体系和治理能力现代化基本实现;到本世纪中叶,实现国家治理体系和治理能力现代化。对全面深化改革时间表的新论述,一方面明确了国家治理体系和治理能力现代化与国家整体现代化在时间上是同步的,破除“2020年全面深化改革大功告成”的片面理解,坚定了改革只有进行时没有完成时的科学认识。另一方面,将“系统完备、科学规范、运行有效的制度体系”进一步明确为坚持全面深化改革的原则性要求,避免将到2020年全面深化改革的阶段性要求等同于全面深化改革的全部内容,降低国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的标准,防止犯急躁冒进、急于求成的错误。

 

1. Modernization of national governance must progress in step with modernization of the country as a whole.

 

At the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee held in 2013, the Party identified improving and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics and advancing the modernization of China’s national governance system and capacity as the overall objectives of comprehensively deepening reform. Furthermore, the session set the goal of forming a complete, well-conceived, well-regulated, and effective institutional framework by 2020 in order to help institutions in all areas become more mature and settled in place. However, simply achieving this goal does not amount to modernization of the national governance system. At the 19th National Congress four years later, it was proposed that institutions in all fields will be improved even further and modernization of China’s governance system and capacity will be basically achieved by 2035, while their full modernization will be achieved by the middle of the present century. From one perspective, this new timetable for comprehensively deepening reform will ensure that the modernization of China’s governance system and capacity advances in sync with the country’s overall modernization. From the other perspective, the establishment of a complete, well-conceived, well-regulated, and effective institutional framework as a principled requirement for upholding comprehensively deepening reform will be gradually achieved in pace with the modernization of China’s governance system and capacity.

 

初步探索了国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的内涵。党的十九大报告在论述2035年目标时指出:“人民平等参与、平等发展权利得到充分保障,法治国家、法治政府、法治社会基本建成”,“现代社会治理格局基本形成”;在论述经济体制改革时提出:“构建市场机制有效、微观主体有活力、宏观调控有度的经济体制”,“经济体制改革必须以完善产权制度和要素市场化配置为重点,实现产权有效激励、要素自由流动、价格反应灵活、竞争公平有序、企业优胜劣汰”,等等。这些论述初步勾勒了国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的图景和内涵。同时,党的十九大报告在决策部署中充分体现了全方位的现代化取向。例如:在经济建设方面,提出“建设现代化经济体系是跨越关口的迫切要求和我国发展的战略目标”,特别是决定实施乡村振兴战略,加快推进农业农村现代化;在文化建设方面,强调面向现代化、面向世界、面向未来;在社会建设方面,强调加快教育现代化;在生态文明建设方面,强调我们要建设的现代化是人与自然和谐共生的现代化;在国防和军队建设方面,强调全面推进军事理论现代化、军队组织形态现代化、军事人员现代化、武器装备现代化,力争到2035年基本实现国防和军队现代化,到本世纪中叶把人民军队全面建成世界一流军队。所有这些方面,既体现了各领域现代化的协同性,又体现了现代化建设与国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的同步性。

 

2. What does modernizing our national governance system and capacity entail?

 

In reference to the goal of basically realizing socialist modernization by the year 2035, the report to the 19th National Congress indicates the following conditions: “The rights of the people to participate and to develop as equals are adequately protected,” “The rule of law for the country, the government, and society is basically in place,” and, “A modern social governance system has taken shape.” On economic reform, the report suggests, “We should endeavor to develop an economy with more effective market mechanisms, dynamic micro-entities, and sound macro-regulation.” It also states, “In our economic reforms, we must concentrate on improving the property rights system and ensuring the market-based allocation of factors of production, so that property rights act as effective incentives. We should ensure free flows of factors, flexible prices, fair and orderly competition, and that business survival is determined by competition.” These statements draw a rudimentary outline of the basic content involved in modernizing China’s governance system and capacity.

 

(作者单位:中共中央党校中国特色社会主义理论体系研究中心)

 

(Guo Qiang is a research fellow at the Research Center for the Theories of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics of the School of the CPC Central Committee.)

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