双语:维护全球自贸体系 促进地区开放合作

摘要

Full Text: China: From Humble Student of World Trade to Staunch Defender

From Humble Student of World Trade to Staunch Defender

On 25th April 2018, H.E. Mr. Hong Xiaoyong, Chinese Ambassador to Singapore, has a signed article published in The Straits Times titled “China: From humble student of world trade to staunch defender”. The full text is as follows:

 

2018年4月25日,新加坡《海峡时报》纸质版和网站刊发驻新加坡大使洪小勇署名文章《维护全球自贸体系 促进地区开放合作》,全文如下:

 

China: From Humble Student of World Trade to Staunch Defender

维护全球自贸体系  促进地区开放合作

 

Hong Xiaoyong

洪小勇

 

The recent trade friction between China and the United States has drawn increasing attention and given rise to the concern about a possible trade war. This is because nothing less than the future of the global free trade system and the global economy hinges on it.

 

一段时间以来,中美贸易摩擦问题突出,甚至引发“贸易战”的担忧。之所以引起全球性关注,是因为这一问题涉及全球自由贸易体系和世界经济前景。

 

The friction started when the US unilaterally announced extra tariffs on imported Chinese products worth US$50 billion (S$68 billion), and then threatened tariffs on an additional US$100 billion of imports from China. The US claimed that it was China’s unfair trade practices that created the huge trade deficit.

 

It is true there is a trade imbalance between China and the US, but this hardly justifies the use of unilateral trade sanctions and violation of World Trade Organisation (WTO) rules. As many commentators worldwide have noted, there are many reasons behind the US trade deficit that have little to do with Chinese imports.

 

这次贸易摩擦始于美国单方面对中国500亿美元输美商品加征关税,并声称还考虑将加征额增至1000亿美元。美国的理由是,中国的“不公平贸易”使美国对华贸易出现大量逆差。中美贸易不平衡问题是存在的,但这很难成为进行单边贸易制裁、违背世贸组织规则的理由。正如许多国际评论所称,美国贸易逆差背后原因众多,同其从中国进口关系不大。

 

First, the US trade deficit with China is closely linked with the globalised division of labour. For example, electronics accounts for a considerable part of China-US trade.

 

These electronic products exported to the US are assembled in China with numerous components imported from other countries, and the added-value created in China is quite small. As such, it is highly unreasonable to book the value of all these components as China’s surplus and the US’ deficit. Following such logic, if all countries with a trade deficit put the blame on their trading partners, there might be no international trade at all!

 

Moreover, different methods used by China and the US for collecting and calculating trade data cause statistical discrepancies. The entrepot trade, as well as trade in services, has further enlarged such discrepancies.

 

For example, US trade data considers goods shipped to the US via entrepot trade through other economies as Chinese imports. Its data also does not include trade in services, for which the US would enjoy a surplus with China. The US trade deficit vis-a-vis China would not look that huge if entrepot trade was excluded and trade in services included.

 

首先,中美贸易逆差同全球化背景下国际产业分工有很大关系。比如,电子产品在中国对美国贸易中占相当比例,但这些产品的许多零部件都是从其他国家进口的,中国创造的价值只占其中很少一部分,如果把上游产品价值都归结于中国对美国出口而产生的贸易逆差,显然不合理。如果出现逆差的国家都按照这个逻辑相互归咎,那么全球贸易就无法开展了。此外,综合考虑中美统计差异以及转口和服务贸易等因素,美国对华贸易逆差并不像被渲染的那么多。例如,美国贸易数据将通过其他经济体转运至美国的货物统计为从中国进口,而不统计美国对中国享有顺差的服务贸易。如果减去转口贸易并计入服务贸易,美国对中国的贸易逆差额不会那么巨大。

 

Second, a fundamental reason behind the US trade deficit with China lies in the US economic structure. For decades, the US has been importing huge amounts of products to sustain its high-level domestic consumption, which outweighs the US’ production capacity.

 

US purchases may be funded by debt. In this way, its consumption is actually sustained by the savings and investment of other countries. It is this low-saving, high-consumption model that has destined the US to run deficits with China and many other countries. In other words, the US deficit is a structural problem of its own, not a problem caused by China’s trade policy. What China needs is a balanced and sustainable trade relationship.

 

其次,美国对华贸易产生逆差的根源在于美国经济结构。长期以来,美国需要进口大量商品,以满足国内因生产不足而无法保证的高消费,美国的举债消费模式,实际上是用其他国家的储蓄和投资来维持自身消费。美国低储蓄、高消费的经济结构决定了在当前阶段美对华以及许多其他国家都会存在贸易逆差。换句话说,美国贸易逆差是一个自身结构性问题,而非中国贸易政策的结果。中国需要的是一个平衡的、可持续的贸易关系。

 

Third, the US government puts restrictions on exports to China, which push the trade deficit with China much higher. According to a study by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace published last April, should the US adjust its export barriers against China to those applicable to Brazil, the US-China trade deficit could have been narrowed by up to 24 per cent. If lowered to France’s level, the US deficit could have narrowed by as much as 34 per cent. So, it is not China that rejects the US products or its advanced industries, but rather, it is the US that rejects China’s market.

 

第三,美国政府限制优势行业向中国出口,加剧了对华逆差。根据美国卡内基国际和平基金会去年4月的报告,如果美国将对华出口管制降至对巴西的水平,对华贸易逆差最多可缩减24%;如果降至对法国的水平,最多可缩减34%。中国没有排斥美国的商品,尤其是优势产品,是它们排除了中国市场。

 

The US also accuses China of stealing its intellectual property rights (IPR). This ignores the remarkable efforts made by China in protecting IPR. Innovation has long been China’s national strategy and it has improved its IPR regime. Last year, there were 1.382 million applications for invention patents in China, outnumbering figures for the US, Japan, South Korea and the European Union combined, and Chinese enterprises spent as much as US$28.6 billion on patent licensing.

 

Without the great emphasis and vigorous protection of IPR, the Chinese economy would not have seen so many new industries – such as in e-commerce, robotics, mobile payments and artificial intelligence – driving synergies for growth.

 

美国将对华贸易逆差归咎于中国“窃取”知识产权,只能说它对近年来中国在保护知识产权方面所做的巨大努力视而不见。中国将创新发展作为国家战略,不断加强对知识产权的保护力度,去年受理发明专利138.2万件,超过美国、日本、韩国和欧洲的总和,对外支付知识产权使用费高达286亿美元。如果没有这么大的重视和保护力度,中国近年经济不可能创造出如此多的新动能。

 

In 2001, China was welcomed to the WTO, to the applause of the US and the Western world. Since then, China, like a humble student learning the trade rules, has integrated its own development into this system. Today, China is a staunch defender of and contributor to the global rules-based system. In contrast, the rule-maker is behaving more like a rule-breaker, breaching what it once cherished so dearly. It bears reminding that rules are made to be followed, not discarded when convenient.

 

The US tries to paint itself as a victim of trade problems with China. But it made unilateral demands of trade tariffs, which suddenly escalated threefold from US$50 billion to US$150 billion. This shows not only the US’ arrogance towards China, but also its disdain of the global trade system.

 

Worldwide, there is a growing consensus that anti-globalisation and protectionism only generate endless troubles. Anti-globalisation is not the solution to the problems caused by unfettered globalisation, and protectionism is not the right medicine for the “illnesses” caused by free trade.

 

中国2001年加入世贸组织时,美国等西方国家为此欢呼。中国入世后,以谦虚的姿态学习世界贸易规则,并把自身发展纳入这一体系,成为规则的维护者和建设者。今天,曾经的规则制定者变成了规则的背弃者和破坏者。规则不能“合则用,不合则弃”,没有规则的世界是可怕的。美国在贸易逆差问题上摆出的是受害者的样子,而在如何解决问题上仍然是强权者的姿态,今天提出500亿加税,明天又张口1000亿加税,这不是商谈,而是威吓。在这一问题上,人们看到的不仅是美国对中国的傲慢,而且更有美国对全球自由贸易体系的漠视。越来越多的国际共识是,逆全球化和反自由贸易贻害无穷,用逆全球化的思维来解决全球化进程中遇到的问题,用反自由贸易的办法来对待自由贸易中出现的矛盾,是没有出路的。

 

As two major countries in the world, how should China and the US work together and what responsibilities must they shoulder for the world? These are the questions of our time.

 

Chinese President Xi Jinping has laid out China’s solutions in his keynote speech during the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference on April 10. He advocated that no country can stay aloof or immune from the world, and only peaceful development and win-win cooperation benefits all parties.

 

Mr. Xi also announced a series of measures opening the Chinese market further and solemnly pledged that China will translate these measures into reality without delay. These measures demonstrate China’s responsibility in upholding the global free trade system and its desire to share its development dividends with the rest of the world.

 

中美两个大国应该以何种方式展现对两国关系和世界未来的态度和责任?针对上述时代之问,4月10日,习近平主席在博鳌亚洲论坛年会开幕式上,以宽广的全球视野和深邃的历史思考给出中国方案,强调和平发展与携手合作才能实现共赢多赢,妄自尊大和独善其身只能四处碰壁。习主席宣布中国扩大开放的一系列重大举措,并作出尽快落地、及早惠及中国企业和人民、及早惠及世界各国企业和人民的庄严承诺。这些举措既反映了中国深化改革的要求,又体现了维护全球自贸体系、共享发展机遇的意愿,更体现了中国的世界胸怀与历史担当。

 

Singapore’s Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong also attended the Boao Forum and made a successful visit to China. Leaders of China and Singapore had in-depth discussions on cooperation in the Belt and Road Initiative and the Southern Transport Corridor. The two countries also agreed to boost third-party cooperation, promoting greater collaboration between Singapore and Chinese companies in third-party markets in Belt and Road countries. These initiatives display a common vision for the progress of regional cooperation through bilateral collaboration. They are also major steps to showcase the historical trends of peace, cooperation, openness, connectivity, reform and innovation.

 

李显龙总理不久前成功出席博鳌亚洲论坛年会并访华。中新两国领导人进一步商谈了深化“一带一路”合作、开展“南向通道”建设,同意两国企业合作开发“一带一路”第三方市场,展示了促进两国合作、进而带动区域合作的愿景。这些都是顺应和平合作、开放融通、变革创新时代潮流的重要举措。

 

China and Singapore are working together for the early conclusion of an upgraded bilateral free trade agreement and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership. They are also working on the early entry into force of an upgrade to the China-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement and the building of the Asia-Pacific free trade area.

 

At the same time, China is ready to strive with the international community for open and win-win cooperation, and contribute to a better world with a new type of international relations and a better shared future for all.

 

当前,中新双方正共同致力于推动尽早完成中新自贸区升级版谈判和“区域全面经济伙伴关系协定”谈判,推动中国—东盟自贸区升级版早日生效,促进亚太自贸区建设。中国也愿同国际社会一道,在开放中合作,以合作求共赢,为世界的美好未来,为构建新型国际关系,构建人类命运共同体作出贡献。

资源下载

隐藏内容:******,购买后可见!

下载价格:0.2 巴币

您需要先后,才能下载资源

虚拟货币,支付后概不退回。

weinxin
英文巴士公众号
扫一扫,获取最新资讯。
avatar