双语:中国无意与美国打贸易战,但必须捍卫自身权益

摘要

Full Text: China Does Not Want a Trade War with the US, but It Must Defend Itself

刘晓明大使在英国主流大报《卫报》发表署名文章批评美国挑起中美贸易冲突损人害己

On 11 April 2018, the Guardian published a signed article by Ambassador Liu Xiaoming entitled “There Would Be No Winner in a Trade War”. The newspaper’s website also published the article with the title “China Does Not Want a Trade War with the US, but It Must Defend Itself”. The full text is as follows:

 

2018年4月11日,英国主流大报《卫报》纸质版和网络版分别以《打贸易战损人害己》、《中国无意与美国打贸易战,但必须捍卫自身权益》为题刊登驻英国大使刘晓明署名文章。全文如下:

 

China Does Not Want a Trade War with the US, but It Must Defend Itself

中国无意与美国打贸易战,但必须捍卫自身权益

 

Liu Xiaoming

刘晓明

 

A dark cloud hangs over China and the United States. America has announced successive protectionist tariffs pursuant to its domestic laws, forcing China to take counter-measures. The so-called “investigations” under legislation, such as section 301 of the US Trade Act of 1974, risk igniting a trade war between the world’s two biggest economies. But a trade war, which would be unpopular, damaging and anachronistic, should and can be avoided.

 

连日来,美国政府基于1974年《美国贸易法》301条款等国内法,接连宣布针对中国的贸易保护主义举措,中国被迫出台反制措施。中美两大经济体 “贸易战”阴云密布。但我认为,“贸易战”不得人心、不利于发展、不合乎潮流,应该也完全可以避免。

 

There would be no winner in a trade war. If the Trump administration, by announcing unilateral protectionist measures, believes there could be, it must be suffering the damaging after-effects of the years in which it had a hegemonic mindset. It must also be suffering from historical amnesia.

 

For the most recent “safeguard” tariffs – on steel by the Bush administration and on tyres from China by the Obama administration – all backfired. They did more harm than good to the US. Likewise, the previous 125 unilateral investigations carried out by the US under section 301 caused damage to many other countries, including the UK, Germany and France.

 

Should a trade war erupt, the multilateral trade system would bear the costs, and the global economy, which is yet to fully recover from the last crisis, would be at risk again. The global trade arrangements, including the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade of 1947, and the World Trade Organisation, established in 1995, were built on international consensus, after the bitter lessons of the 1930s Great Depression and the second world war. These rules have contributed hugely to global trade and economic growth. All countries, including the US, must cherish and safeguard those achievements.

 

首先,历史一再证明“贸易战”没有赢家。特朗普政府单方面出台贸易保护主义举措,既是美国长期霸权思维的“后遗症”,也是无视历史事实的“健忘症”。据统计,美国历史上至少125次单方面对其他国家发起“301调查”。无论是布什政府的钢铁保障性关税,还是奥巴马政府的轮胎特保案,美国最终都伤及自身,得不偿失。“贸易战”一旦爆发,将严重冲击全球多边贸易体制,使正企稳回升的世界经济蒙上阴影。在经历了上世纪30年代大萧条和第二次世界大战的惨痛教训后,国际社会就全球贸易秩序安排达成共识,签署关税与贸易总协定,成立世界贸易组织。上述安排为全球贸易及经济增长作出重大贡献。

 

To uphold the rules-based international trade regime as well as to safeguard its own legitimate rights and interests, China has taken counter-measures. The total value of our additional tariffs – first $3bn (£2bn) and then $50bn (£35bn) – is commensurate in scale with the measures taken by the US. In terms of what is affected, China’s measures cover 234 US products, far fewer than the over 1,300 Chinese products on the US proposed tariff list. China did not announce its counter list or file for WTO dispute settlement until the US refused to respond to our request for consultations over trade compensation within the WTO framework.

 

第二,中国采取反制措施既是为了捍卫自身合法权益,也是为了维护以规则为基础的国际贸易体系。从内容上看,中方先后出台约30亿美元和500亿美元的反制措施,规模与美方相当;中方反制措施共涵盖234项美国产品,远远少于美“301调查”拟加税的1300多项中国产品。从程序上看,在美国宣布有损中国利益的贸易保护主义措施后,中国第一时间在世贸组织向美提出贸易补偿磋商请求,但美方拒绝答复。此后,中国才宣布反制清单,并在世贸组织内正式启动争端解决机制。

 

Raising tariffs will not balance America’s books because the real problem is its excessive consumption and low savings rate. The trade imbalance with China is further aggravated by the long-term US restriction on high-tech exports to China. China, for example, imported $260.1bn of integrated circuit in 2017, but only $10.2bn, or 3.9% of that, came from the US.

 

The Trump administration is putting domestic law above international law and forcing America’s trading partners to make concessions. It is tantamount to returning the international trade order to the “law of the jungle”. In the face of this, China had no choice but to take firm counter actions.

 

众所周知,过度消费、储蓄率低是美国际收支失衡的根本原因,单方面加税解决不了问题。同时,美国长期限制对华高科技出口,加剧了中美贸易不平衡。以2017年为例,中国进口集成电路2601亿美元,其中自美国进口仅102亿美元,占3.9%。特朗普政府强行把国内法凌驾于国际法之上,强迫贸易伙伴做出让步,无异于把国际贸易秩序推入“丛林化”深渊。面对美国的“破坏规则之举”,中国别无选择,只能坚决反击!

 

China has not, however, closed the door to negotiations and consultations. On the contrary, we will continue to deepen reform and open up on all fronts with a view to building closer trade and economic partnerships with the world. This basic national policy will not change. China has set the goal of importing $24tn of goods in the next 15 years. To begin with, the first International Import Expo will be held in Shanghai in November. This will be China’s invitation to the world to share the opportunities offered by its fast development and huge market.

 

It is China’s consistent position to address trade disputes through negotiations and consultations. China stands ready to carry out constructive negotiations with the US on the basis of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit, as long as the US abandons unilateralism and trade protectionism. Since our accession to the WTO in 2001, there have been numerous trade disputes between China and the US. None has led to a large-scale trade war, and one important reason for that is that both sides respected the authority of the WTO and agreed to address differences according to its rules.

 

第三,谈判磋商大门始终敞开。中国将坚定不移全面深化改革开放,敞开国门与各国深化经贸合作,这一基本国策不会改变。未来15年,中国将进口24万亿美元商品。今年11月中国将举办首届国际进口博览会,与世界各国分享中国发展机遇、共享中国市场红利。同时,中国一贯主张通过谈判磋商解决贸易纠纷。如果美国放弃单边主义和贸易保护主义,中国愿在相互尊重、平等互利的基础上与美国开展建设性谈判。自2001年中国加入世贸组织以来,中美之间曾出现过大大小小的贸易分歧和纠纷,但迄今并未发生大规模“贸易战”。一个重要原因,就是双方都能够尊重世贸组织权威,都同意根据世贸组织规则妥善处理分歧。

 

Whoever ties the knot should untie it. The US should bear in mind the long-term and fundamental interests of both countries, as well as the need for a solid international trade order and sound world economy. The right way for the US to untie the knot is to stop playing the “zero-sum game”, and return to the table of negotiations and consultations.

 

“解铃还须系铃人”,无论是维护中美长远和根本利益,还是维护国际贸易秩序、促进世界经济健康发展,摒弃“零和”思维、重归谈判磋商才是正道,才能解铃。

 

There is a Chinese adage that says, “A just cause enjoys abundant support, while an unjust one finds little.” I note that recently the spokesperson of the EU commission said that the EU does not support measures contrary to WTO regulations, and this is echoed by an increasing number of people from all sectors around the world – including the US – who voice strong opposition to trade protectionism. There is a dark cloud: but as long as the international community joins hands to safeguard the rules of international trade and to firmly oppose protectionism, I believe it can be dispelled.

 

“得道多助,失道寡助”。我注意到,近日欧盟委员会发言人表示,欧盟反对任何有违世贸组织规则的贸易措施,包括美国在内越来越多的各国各界人士也发出反对贸易保护主义的强烈呼声。我相信,只要国际社会团结一致,坚定捍卫国际贸易秩序和规则,坚决反对贸易保护主义,我们就一定能驱散“贸易战”阴云。

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