双语:对“垃圾输出”说不

摘要

Full Text: Dumping Garbage Overseas Is Not the Right Way to Go

Amb. Zhang Ming published an article at European media on the China’s ban on “foreign garbage” import

On April 3, 2018, Euractiv published an article by H.E. Ambassador Zhang Ming, Head of the Chinese Mission to the EU, on the China’s ban on “foreign garbage” import.

 

2018年4月3日,驻欧盟使团团长张明大使就中国做出限制“洋垃圾”进口的决定在欧洲主流媒体《欧盟动态》发表署名文章,原文如下:

 

Dumping Garbage Overseas Is Not the Right Way to Go

对“垃圾输出”说不

 

Zhang Ming

张明

 

During the recent meeting of the WTO Council for Trade in Goods, some representatives raised concerns about China’s ban on “foreign garbage” import. Some even asked China to halt its implementation. As Chinese Ambassador to the EU, while quite surprised by such “concerns”, I would like to share my views on why China made such a decision and why China will not overturn the ban.

 

最近有国家在世贸组织货物贸易理事会上对中国决定停止接收“洋垃圾”表示关切,甚至要求中方收回成命。作为中国大使,在对上述“关切”感到惊讶之余,我愿与读者讨论为什么中国做出限制“洋垃圾”进口的决定?为什么中国不可能改变实施有关禁令?

 

China is a Party to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal adopted in 1989. The Convention provides for and fully recognizes the right of its Parties to prohibit the import of hazardous wastes or other wastes. China started importing solid wastes in the 1980s, whose annual volume surged from 4.5 million tons to 45 million tons in the past 20 years. A great amount of prohibited wastes, or “foreign garbage” as is often called, were mixed up in the imports, causing great harm to China’s environment and threatening public health. The widely-watched documentary “Plastic China” released in 2015 well captures the problem.

 

To address the challenge, China decided to ban foreign garbage and to reform the management system of solid wastes import. According to international law, China has the legitimate right to do so. This is also what we must do to improve our environment and protect our people’s health, as a crucial part of our new development philosophy. The decision is widely welcomed and applauded by the Chinese people.

 

首先,1989年国际社会制定了《控制危险废物越境转移及其处置的巴塞尔公约》,中国是缔约方。该公约明确规定并充分确认,各国有权禁止外国的危险废物和其他废物进入本国领土。中国自上世纪80年代开始进口固体废物,二十年前是450万吨,目前增加到4500万吨。大量禁止类废物、洋垃圾夹杂其中被进口,对中国环境造成严重污染和损害,对中国生态安全和人民健康构成威胁。2015年,一部名为《塑料王国》纪录片引发国际社会广泛关注。中国禁止洋垃圾入境,推进固体废物进口管理制度改革,是中国政府贯彻落实新发展理念,着力改善生态环境,保障生态安全和人民健康安全的重大举措,深得民心,也完全是中国政府根据国际法所享有的权利。

 

Before announcing the ban, China had full communication with other parties. It was half a year before the ban was actually put in place that we notified the WTO of the change. Issues arising in the course of implementation have been well addressed through timely coordination.

 

其次,中国政府在出台禁令之前,与各方进行了充分沟通。第一批固体废物进口目录的调整,就提前了半年时间把信息及时通报了相关国际组织。对于实施过程中遇到的具体问题,我们及时协调各方推动解决,都得到了很好的解决。

 

The Basel Convention stipulates that Parties have an obligation to minimize the quantities that are transported, and to treat and dispose of wastes as close as possible to their place of generation. In other words, it is the due responsibility of Parties to do their best to reduce and take care of their own wastes. Only when this principle is well appreciated can we join forces more effectively to promote green, low-carbon and circular development globally, and to make our planet a cleaner and better place.

 

第三,《巴塞尔公约》规定,各国有义务就近减量和处理各国危险废物和其他废物。大家要根据巴塞尔公约的精神,立足于自己减量,自己处理,自己消化产生的危险废物和其他废物,承担自己应尽的责任和义务。有了这个共识和前提,我们才能更好地理解和开展相关合作,才能有利于全球绿色低碳循环发展的普及推动,才有利于构建清洁美丽的世界。

 

Interestingly, those who have expressed “concerns” are all from developed countries. For a long time, well-off and well-equipped developed countries have been dumping their garbage to developing countries. This phenomenon should not be overlooked. It is more of a moral issue that relates to the future of mankind than of a trade issue. The great Chinese philosopher Confucius said, “Do not do onto others what you do not want others to do onto you.” A famous quote from the Bible goes like this, “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” Islam belief has it that “none of you have faith until he loves for the people what he loves for himself”. No matter in which civilization, it is morally unacceptable to dump trash in others’ backyard. Moreover, as we already live in a global village, troubles shifted to your neighbor will get back to you sooner or later.

 

第四,表达上述“关切”的均为发达国家,而拥有资金、技术、能力的发达国家向发展中国家转移倾倒垃圾是一个长期存在,值得关注的问题。与其说这是一个涉及自由贸易的问题,不如说是一个道德问题,更是一个关系人类共同命运的问题。“己所不欲,勿施于人”是儒家文明信奉的道德准则,《圣经》要求“爱邻居如同自己”,伊斯兰教有谚语:“爱人如爱己,才是真信士”。我想世界文明中无论何种道德价值体系,都不会赞同把他人家园当作自家垃圾桶的行为。况且当今世界已经成为一个地球村,将脏水引入邻居,终将殃及自身。

 

For those garbage exporters, it is inadvisable to cry out loud and ask for too much from others, like spoiled children giving little heed to others’ interests. Rather, they should first examine what is going wrong on their part and fulfill their responsibilities. Developed countries need to rely on their own efforts to address excess waste and endeavor to develop a circular economy. Then they could see what they can do to help developing countries tackle their waste challenge. This is the right way to go.

 

正确的做法是,作为垃圾输出国的发达国家,不要再像个宠坏了的孩子,无视他人和公共利益,大哭大闹,过度索要权益,而应当反省自己,肩负起自己的责任。发达国家应动员自己拥有的资源和能力,消除自身垃圾产能过剩的问题,发展循环经济,就地处理自产垃圾,进而开展国际合作,帮助发展中国家应对垃圾处理与循环利用难题。

 

Many still remember the public health disaster in West Africa in 2006 caused by toxic waste shipped from other countries. The tragedy should have prompted garbage exporters to stop doing the wrong thing. Unfortunately, little has changed ever since. Mr. Erik Solheim, head of the UN Environment Program, said, “We should see the Chinese decision as a great service to the Chinese people and a wake-up call to the rest of the world”. Now, it is high time that developed nations re-thought their use of plastics and not simply sought alternative foreign dumping grounds.

 

早在2006年,发生在西非的进口垃圾酿成公共卫生安全灾难的事件,本该早已唤醒垃圾输出国改弦更张,纠正以邻为壑的错误做法。今天,正如联合国环境署执行主任索尔海姆所说的,颁布“洋垃圾”禁令是造福中国人的决定,也给其他国家敲了警钟。发达国家应该重新考虑对塑料的使用,不要只是简单想着在海外另找地方倾倒。

 

We could already see encouraging changes in China and elsewhere in the world. The Chinese people are more aware of the necessity of waste separation and sorting, and are following more stringent rules on waste management and recycling. Some American companies are setting higher and more sophisticated standards for waste sorting, and have introduced artificial intelligence to handle wastes. The EU has adopted the first-ever Europe-wide strategy on plastics as part of the transition to a more circular economy and to enhance the Union’s overall capacity for waste disposal. If China’s ban could trigger other countries to develop more advanced technologies out of a greater sense of urgency and to better serve their own people with a stronger sense of responsibility, China must, indeed, be doing a good deed.

 

现在在中国,垃圾科学合理分类理念更加深入人心,加强废物管理和循环利用更加严密规范。我们也欣慰地看到,在中方宣布“洋垃圾”禁令之后,美国一些废品回收企业开始重新制定更高和更精细的垃圾分类标准,启用人工智能完成分拣。欧盟也推出新的塑料战略,深入推进循环经济发展,提高欧盟整体垃圾处理能力。如果一个禁令能使相关国家都产生压力,增强责任感,提高科技水平,造福民众福祉,何尝不是一件理应支持点赞的好事情。

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