双语:全面把握中国特色社会主义进入新时代

摘要

Full Text: Socialism with Chinese Characteristics Has Entered a New Era

全面把握中国特色社会主义进入新时代

Socialism with Chinese Characteristics Has Entered a New Era: A Comprehensive Analysis

 

栗战书

Li Zhanshu

 

中国特色社会主义进入了新时代,这是党的十九大作出的一个重大政治判断。这一判断,明确了我国发展新的历史方位,赋予党的历史使命、理论遵循、目标任务以新的时代内涵,为我们深刻把握当代中国发展变革的新特征,增强贯彻落实习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想的自觉性和坚定性,提供了时代坐标和科学依据。

 

A major political determination was announced at the 19th National Congress of the CPC: socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era. This specifies the new historical juncture in China’s development, endowing the Party’s historic mission, theoretical guideline, goals, and tasks with new currency. It also identifies the temporal context and scientific basis that enable us to fully appreciate the new features of contemporary China’s development and reform, and apply Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era in a more purposeful and determined manner.

 

一、中国特色社会主义进入新时代的基本依据

I. Basic evidence that socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era

 

中国共产党是顺应时代潮流诞生的,也是在把握时代脉搏的历史进程中发展、壮大和成熟的。在当代中国,坚持和发展中国特色社会主义,必须把握时代特点、直面时代课题,在体现时代性、把握规律性、富于创造性中不断展现蓬勃的生机活力。中国特色社会主义进入了新时代这一重大政治判断,正是在准确把握我国发展所处新的历史方位基础上作出的,具有充分的时代依据、理论依据和实践依据。

 

The CPC was born in response to the trend of the times; its development, growth, and maturation have also been in conformity with the trend of the times. In today’s China, to uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, it is essential that we understand the peculiarities of the current era and confront contemporary issues, so that Chinese socialism will continue to show strong vitality while embodying the spirit of the times, reflecting a mastery of the laws of development, and demonstrating creativity. With an accurate grasp of this new historical juncture in China’s development, our Party has made the major political determination that socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era, a determination with solid temporal, theoretical, and practical underpinnings.

 

这一判断首先基于中国特色社会主义进入新的发展阶段。党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央科学把握国内外发展大势,顺应实践要求和人民愿望,以巨大的政治勇气和强烈的责任担当,举旗定向、谋篇布局,迎难而上、开拓进取,取得改革开放和社会主义现代化建设的历史性成就,推动党和国家事业发生历史性变革。这些变革力度之大、范围之广、效果之显著、影响之深远,在党的历史上、在新中国发展史上、在中华民族发展史上都具有开创性意义。这表明,在新中国成立以来特别是改革开放以来我国发展取得的重大成就基础上,我国发展站到新的历史起点上,中国特色社会主义进入新的发展阶段。这个新的发展阶段,既同改革开放近40年来的发展一脉相承,又有很多与时俱进的新特征,比如党的理论创新实现了新飞跃,党的执政方式和执政方略有重大创新,党推动发展的理念和方式有重大转变,我国发展的环境和条件有重大变化,对发展水平和质量的要求比以往更高,等等。科学认识和全面把握中国特色社会主义新的发展阶段,需要从新的历史方位、新的时代坐标来思考来谋划。

 

First, this determination is based on the fact that socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new stage of development.

 

Since the 18th National Congress of the CPC in 2012, the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at the core has accurately understood major development trends at home and abroad, and acted in line with practical needs and the people’s wishes. With great political courage and a strong sense of responsibility, the Central Committee has set the direction, made overall plans, and braved challenges with a pioneering spirit. On this basis, it has made historic achievements in reform, opening-up, and socialist modernization, and propelled historic changes in the undertakings of the Party and the country. The high intensity, wide scope, marked effect, and far-reaching impact of these changes are unprecedented in the history of the CPC, the history of the development of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), and the history of the development of the Chinese nation. On the basis of the major achievements made in China’s development since the founding of the PRC in 1949, especially those made since reform and opening-up, it is clear that China’s development has come to a new historical starting point and that socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new stage of development. This new stage of development not only runs in continuity with the nearly 40 years of reform and opening-up, but also incorporates many new features of contemporary relevance. For example, it incorporates new breakthroughs in the Party’s theoretical innovations, major innovations in the Party’s methods and principles of governance, major shifts in the principles and models the Party uses to drive development, major changes in the environment and conditions in which China’s development takes place, and higher demands regarding the level and quality of development. In order to correctly understand and fully engage with the new stage of development at which socialism with Chinese characteristics finds itself, we need to make considerations and plans in light of this new historical juncture and temporal context.

 

这一判断基于我国社会主要矛盾发生了新变化。党的十九大提出,我国社会主要矛盾已经由人民日益增长的物质文化需要同落后的社会生产之间的矛盾,转化为人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾。这个论断,反映了我国发展的实际状况,揭示了制约我国发展的症结所在,指明了解决当代中国发展问题的根本着力点。经过改革开放近40年努力,我国稳定解决了十几亿人的温饱问题,总体上实现了小康,不久将全面建成小康社会,人民美好生活需要日益广泛,不仅对物质文化生活提出了更高要求,而且在民主、法治、公平、正义、安全、环境等方面的要求日益增长。同时,我国社会生产力水平显著提高,社会生产能力在很多方面进入世界前列,当前和今后面临的突出问题是发展不平衡不充分。发展不平衡,主要指各区域各领域各方面发展不够平衡,制约了全国水平的提升;发展不充分,主要指一些地区、一些领域、一些方面还存在发展不足的问题,发展的任务仍然很重。这已经成为满足人民美好生活需要的主要制约因素。我国社会主要矛盾发生变化,对我国发展全局必将产生广泛而深刻的影响。科学认识和全面把握我国社会主要矛盾的变化,也需要从新的历史方位、新的时代坐标来思考来谋划。

 

Second, this determination is based on the evolution of the principal contradiction in Chinese society.

 

At the 19th National Congress, it was stated that the principal contradiction in Chinese society, which used to be that between the people’s ever-growing material and cultural needs and backward social production, has evolved into that between the people’s ever-growing needs for a better life and unbalanced and inadequate development. Regarding China’s development, this statement reflects its realities, reveals its major constraining factors, and identifies the fundamental priorities it faces today. After nearly 40 years of reform and opening-up, China has ensured the basic needs of over a billion people have been met, has basically made it possible for people to make a decent living, and will soon become a moderately prosperous society. Meanwhile, the people have increasingly broad needs to be met for a better life. Not only have they voiced growing material and cultural needs; they also have increased demands regarding democracy, rule of law, fairness and justice, security, and the environment. At the same time, China’s overall productive forces have significantly improved and in many areas the country’s production capacity leads the world. At present and into the future, a prominent problem we need to address is that of unbalanced and inadequate development. Unbalanced development refers to developmental imbalances between different regions, sectors of society, and aspects of those sectors, which have restrained China’s overall development; inadequate development refers to the problem that development in some regions, sectors of society, and aspects of those sectors lags behind, and that much work remains to be done with regard to development. These have become major obstacles to meeting the people’s needs for a better life. The evolution of the principal contradiction in Chinese society will undoubtedly exert an extensive and profound influence on China’s overall development. In order to correctly understand and fully engage with the evolution of the principal contradiction in Chinese society, we also need to make considerations and plans in light of this new historical juncture and temporal context.

 

这一判断同时基于党的奋斗目标有了新要求。从党的十九大到党的二十大,是“两个一百年”奋斗目标的历史交汇期,我们既要全面建成小康社会、实现第一个百年奋斗目标,又要乘势而上开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程,向第二个百年奋斗目标进军,使命光荣、责任重大,有必要进一步进行顶层设计和精心谋划。党的十九大综合分析国际国内形势和我国发展条件,对决胜全面建成小康社会提出明确要求,将实现第二个百年奋斗目标分为两个阶段安排。从2020年到2035年,在全面建成小康社会基础上,再奋斗15年,基本实现社会主义现代化;在基本实现现代化的基础上再奋斗15年,到本世纪中叶把我国建成富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国。这是新时代中国特色社会主义发展的战略安排,不仅使实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标的路线图、时间表更加清晰,而且意味着原定的我国基本实现现代化的目标将提前15年完成,第二个百年奋斗目标则充实提升为把我国建成富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国。科学认识和把握这一既鼓舞人心又切实可行的奋斗目标、宏伟新蓝图,同样需要从新的历史方位、新的时代坐标来思考来谋划。

 

Third, this determination is also based on a reassessment of the Party’s goals.

 

The period between the 19th and the 20th national congresses is the period in which the timeframes of the “Two Centenary Goals” converge. In this period, not only must we achieve the first centenary goal of becoming a moderately prosperous society; we must also build on this achievement to embark on a new journey toward the second centenary goal of becoming a modern socialist country. This glorious mission and weighty responsibility require further top-level design and meticulous planning. The 19th National Congress conducted a thorough analysis of the international and domestic situations as well as of the conditions in which China’s development is taking place, and outlined specific requirements for securing a decisive victory in becoming a moderately prosperous society, and divided the second centenary goal into two stages. In the first stage from 2020 to 2035, building on the foundation created by the moderately prosperous society, we will work hard for a further 15 years to see that socialist modernization is basically realized; in the second stage from 2035 to the middle of the 21st century, building on having basically achieved modernization, we will work hard for a further 15 years and see that China develops into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful. This is our strategic plan for the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics for the new era. It not only identifies a clearer road map and timetable for realizing the “Two Centenary Goals,” but also indicates that China’s original goal of basically achieving modernization will be reached 15 years ahead of schedule, and that the second centenary goal has been enriched and upgraded to developing China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful. In order to correctly understand and engage with this inspiring and feasible goal and this grand, new blueprint, we also need to make considerations and plans in light of this new historical juncture and temporal context.

 

这一判断还基于我国面临的国际环境发生了新变化。世界正处于大发展大变革大调整时期,我国发展仍处于重要战略机遇期,前景十分光明,挑战也十分严峻。我国正处在从大国走向强国的关键时期,“树大招风”效应日益显现,外部环境更加复杂,一些国家和国际势力对我们的阻遏、忧惧、施压有所增大,这同样是需要面对的重大问题。现在,我国发展同外部世界的交融性、关联性、互动性不断增强,中国正日益走近世界舞台中央。作出中国特色社会主义进入新时代的判断,也充分考量了国际局势和周边环境的新变化。

 

Fourth, this determination is based on the new changes in the international environment that China faces.

 

The world is in a period of major development, transformation, and adjustment, and China’s development is still in an important period of strategic opportunity; the prospects are bright, but the challenges are severe. China is at the crucial stage of its transformation from being a large country to becoming a strong one, and this transformation increasingly brings with it the phenomenon whereby success invites detraction. China is confronted with a more complex external environment in which some countries and international forces have become increasingly apprehensive about China, or attempt to contain or coerce it; this is also a major issue that we need to face. China’s development is increasingly integrated, interrelated, and interactive with the outside world, and China is moving closer to center stage. To conclude that socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era, we have also given full consideration to the new changes in the international situation and our neighboring environment.

 

总体来说,中国特色社会主义进入了新时代这一重大政治判断,是在科学把握时代趋势和国际局势重大变化,科学把握世情国情党情深刻变化,科学把握实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标历史交汇期已经遇到、将要遇到、可能遇到和难以预料的新情况新问题新矛盾基础上作出的。这一判断,符合中国特色社会主义实际,是改革开放以来我国社会发展进步的必然结果,是我国社会主要矛盾运动的必然结果,更是党的十八大之后5年来全党全国人民推进党和国家事业发生历史性变革的必然结果,也是我们党团结带领全国各族人民开创光明未来的必然要求。

 

Generally speaking, the major political determination that socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era is made on the basis of accurately grasping three key changes. First are the major changes in contemporary trends and in the international situation. Second are the profound developments globally, nationally, and within the Party. Last are the new situations, issues, and conflicts that have been, will be, or might be encountered, or that are unpredictable during the period when we work to realize the “Two Centenary Goals.” This determination conforms to the realities of socialism with Chinese characteristics. It is the consequent outcome of China’s social progress since reform and opening-up, of the movement of the principal contradiction in Chinese society, and of the historic changes in the undertakings of the Party and the country in the five years following the 18th National Congress; it is also essential for our Party’s efforts to unite all Chinese people and lead them to a bright future.

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