双语:坚持和发展中国特色社会主义必须加强和改进党的领导

摘要

Strengthening CPC Leadership: The Key to Developing Socialism with Chinese Characteristics

Strengthening CPC Leadership

注:中英文并非完全对照。

 

坚持和发展中国特色社会主义必须加强和改进党的领导

Strengthening CPC Leadership: The Key to Developing Socialism with Chinese Characteristics

 

徐光春

Xu Guangchun

 

一、中国特色社会主义最本质的特征是中国共产党领导

I. Leadership by the CPC: the most essential attribute of socialism with Chinese characteristics

 

马克思主义、共产主义(社会主义)与共产党,三者有着天然的血缘关系。共产主义(社会主义)、共产党是马克思主义的产物。共产主义(社会主义)是马克思主义为人类指明的社会发展方向和奋斗目标,共产党是马克思主义主张建立的带领人类实现共产主义(社会主义)发展方向和奋斗目标的无产阶级政党。三者是统一整体,互为条件、互为因果,谁也离不开谁。从社会主义角度来说,作为共产主义的过渡阶段,有两个“离不开”:一是离不开马克思主义的指导,二是离不开共产党的领导。这两个“离不开”,揭示了社会主义最本质的特征。

 

Marxism, communism (socialism), and communist parties are all members of the same family. Communism (socialism) and communist parties are products of Marxism: communism (socialism) is the path and goal of social development envisioned by Marxism; while communist parties are the proletarian political parties proposed by Marxism to lead humanity in realizing the goal of communism (socialism). Together, Marxism, communism (socialism), and communist parties form a mutually-dependent, integrated whole that cannot be separated. Socialism, as a transitional stage towards communism, has two essential prerequisites: the guidance of Marxism and the leadership of a communist party. These two requirements reveal the most fundamental attributes of socialism.

 

中国特色社会主义,是中国共产党带领中国人民冒战火、经风雨,爬雪山、过草地,走泥潭、跨沟坎,闯难关、攀险峰,经过近一个世纪的长途跋涉、顽强奋斗、艰难探索而形成的关于在中国建设社会主义的新道路、新理论、新制度。在这一征程中,是中国共产党团结带领中国人民进行28年浴血奋战,推翻三座大山,完成了新民主主义革命,建立了新中国,为社会主义制度的确立创造了重要条件;是中国共产党团结带领中国人民完成社会主义革命,确立了社会主义基本制度,推进了社会主义建设,为中国特色社会主义的发展打下了良好基础;是中国共产党团结带领中国人民进行改革开放新的伟大革命,开辟了中国特色社会主义道路,形成了中国特色社会主义理论体系,确立了中国特色社会主义制度,实现了中国人民从站起来到富起来、强起来的伟大飞跃,使中国这个贫穷落后的国家跃升为世界第二大经济体,创造了人类社会发展史上的奇迹。从中我们可以悟出这样一个真理:没有中国共产党的坚强领导,就不可能有新民主主义革命的成功,就不可能有新中国;没有中国共产党的坚强领导,就不可能有社会主义制度的确立,就不可能有社会主义建设的推进;没有中国共产党的坚强领导,就不可能有中国特色社会主义道路的开辟,就不可能有富起来、强起来的伟大飞跃。中国共产党不仅是中国革命的坚强领导核心,是中国社会主义建设的坚强领导核心,也是新时期中国特色社会主义事业的坚强领导核心。因此,习近平总书记强调指出:“中国特色社会主义最本质的特征是中国共产党领导,中国特色社会主义制度的最大优势是中国共产党领导”,深刻而精辟地揭示了中国共产党领导在中国特色社会主义伟大事业中的重要地位和重大作用。

 

Socialism with Chinese characteristics represents a new path, theory, and system for the development of socialism in China. It has taken shape through almost a century of bitter searching, struggle, and exploration under the leadership of the CPC, during which the Chinese people have endured countless battles, weathered the most grueling of conditions, and overcome all manner of trials and tribulations. On this journey, the CPC led the Chinese people in carrying out a bloody, 28-year struggle, during which they toppled imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism (the three “great mountains” that weighed on the backs of the Chinese people), carried out the new democratic revolution, and founded the People’s Republic of China, thus creating conditions for the establishment of the socialist system in China. On this journey, the CPC led the Chinese people through the socialist revolution, which established socialism as China’s basic system and set in motion China’s socialist transformation, thus laying down sound foundations for the subsequent development of Chinese socialism. And on this journey, the CPC has led the Chinese people in launching reform and opening up, a new revolution that has established the system of Chinese socialism, propelled the Chinese people towards affluence and strength, transformed a once poor and backward country into the world’s second largest economy, and created a miracle in the history of human development. From this historical process, we are able to appreciate a truth: were it not for the strong leadership of the CPC, the new democratic revolution could not have succeeded and there would be no new China; were it not for the strong leadership of the CPC, the socialist system could not have been established and China’s socialist transformation could not have taken place; and were it not for the strong leadership of the CPC, the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics could not have been blazed, and the Chinese people could not have become affluent or strong. The CPC was not only the strong leading core of China’s revolution and socialist transformation, it is also the strong leading core of the cause of Chinese socialism today. This is why Xi Jinping remarked, “The leadership of the CPC constitutes the most essential attribute of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and the greatest strength of this system.” These remarks reveal the pivotal position and role of the CPC in the cause of Chinese-style socialism.

 

中国共产党领导是中国特色社会主义最本质的特征,集中体现在:中国共产党是中国特色社会主义的开创者、领导者、指引者、推动者、实践者;中国共产党的领导是中国特色社会主义存在和发展的决定因素和根本保证;中国共产党的奋斗目标与中国特色社会主义的前进方向是完全一致的。中国共产党领导是中国特色社会主义制度的最大优势,集中体现在:中国共产党是中国特色社会主义的坚强领导核心;中国共产党是中国人民根本利益的代表者和实现者,能最大限度地广泛动员和激励广大人民群众投身中国特色社会主义伟大实践,带领全国各族人民不断推进中国特色社会主义伟大事业;中国共产党的领导能确保中国特色社会主义发展有坚定正确的方向、强大无比的力量和坚强有力的保障。

 

How, exactly, is CPC leadership the most essential attribute of Chinese socialism? This is embodied in the following aspects: First, the CPC is the pioneer, leader, guide, promoter, and practitioner of Chinese socialism. Second, CPC leadership is the decisive factor that guarantees the continuation and development of Chinese socialism. And third, the goals that the CPC pursues conform exactly to the direction in which Chinese socialism is advancing.

 

How is CPC leadership the greatest strength of China’s socialism? This is embodied in the following aspects: First, the CPC acts as the strong leading core of Chinese socialism. Second, the CPC represents and actualizes the fundamental interests of the Chinese people. This enables it to fully motivate the people to devote themselves to the cause of socialism in China, and lead all Chinese people in advancing this cause. Third, CPC leadership ensures that Chinese socialism moves firmly in the right direction, is driven by a force of unparalleled strength, and is supported by a strong foundation.

 

二、坚持和发展中国特色社会主义必须加强和改进党的领导

II. Strengthening and improving CPC leadership: a prerequisite for upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics

 

党的十八大深刻指出,坚持和发展中国特色社会主义是一项长期而艰巨的历史任务,必须准备进行具有许多新的历史特点的伟大斗争。习近平总书记强调了四个方面的重大斗争,鲜明地提出“坚持和发展中国特色社会主义,坚持和巩固党的领导地位和执政地位”。

 

In 2012, the report to the 18th National Congress of the CPC stated that developing socialism with Chinese characteristics would be a long-term, arduous task of historic importance, one that would call on us to carry out great struggles with many new historical features. On this basis, Xi Jinping has highlighted four aspects of these great struggles.

 

斗争的重大性,要求必须加强和改进党的领导。坚持和发展中国特色社会主义,必须夺取具有许多新的历史特点的伟大斗争新胜利。习近平总书记在“七一”重要讲话中将这些伟大斗争概括为“四个重大”,即应对重大挑战、抵御重大风险、克服重大阻力、解决重大矛盾。也就是说,坚持和发展中国特色社会主义,将会遇到重大挑战,将会遇到重大风险,将会遇到重大阻力,将会遇到重大矛盾,而这些重大挑战、风险、阻力、矛盾如果得不到及时有效的应对、抵御、克服和解决,将会直接影响中国特色社会主义的坚持和发展。因此,斗争重大性的特点,决定了必须加强和改进党的领导,使党切实提高领导水平和执政能力,更好地团结带领全国各族人民积极主动地去进行这些重大斗争,以取得斗争的重大胜利,使中国特色社会主义不断走向胜利。

 

1. The enormity of these struggles 

 

To uphold and develop China’s socialism, China must win great struggles with many new historical features. In his speech marking the 95th anniversary of the CPC’s founding in July 2016, Xi described these “great struggles” as responding to major challenges, withstanding major risks, overcoming major obstacles, and resolving major problems. If these major challenges, risks, obstacles, and problems are not promptly responded to, withstood, overcome, and resolved, they will directly undermine our ability to uphold and develop socialism in China. The enormity of these struggles dictates that we must strengthen and improve CPC leadership, and substantially raise its capacity to lead and govern, so as to ensure that the cause of Chinese socialism advances towards victory.

 

斗争的复杂性,要求必须加强和改进党的领导。习近平总书记在哲学社会科学工作座谈会上的重要讲话,提出了“五个面对”的重大问题:面对社会思想观念和价值取向日趋活跃、主流和非主流同时并存、社会思潮纷纭激荡的新形势,如何巩固马克思主义在意识形态领域的指导地位;面对我国经济发展进入新常态、国际发展环境深刻变化的新形势,如何贯彻落实新发展理念,如何更好保障和改善民生、促进社会公平正义;面对改革进入攻坚期和深水区、各种深层次矛盾和问题不断呈现、各类风险和挑战不断增多的新形势,如何提高改革决策水平、推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化;面对世界范围内的各种思想文化交流交融交锋的新形势,如何加快建设社会主义文化强国;面对全面从严治党进入重要阶段、党面临的风险和考验集中显现的新形势,如何不断提高党的领导水平和执政水平,使党始终成为中国特色社会主义事业的坚强领导核心。斗争的复杂性特点,决定了必须加强和改进党的领导,使党以崇高的责任担当、坚强的政治定力、高超的领导艺术、创新的思想理论、丰富的实践经验,洞察形势、驾驭全局、运筹帷幄、破解难题,使中国特色社会主义得到更好坚持和发展。

 

2. The complexity of these struggles 

 

In his speech at a symposium on philosophy and social sciences, Xi Jinping stressed five key questions that China must answer as it carries out its great new struggles. First, as ideas and values in our society become increasingly dynamic, the mainstream is juxtaposed with the non-mainstream, and different trends of thought contend, how can we consolidate the position of Marxism as our guidance? Second, as China enters a new normal of economic development and the international environment for development undergoes deep shifts, how can we implement our new principles of development, better guarantee and improve standards of living, and promote social equity and justice? Third, as reforms enter a more difficult stage, problems continue to emerge on various levels, and all kinds of risks and challenges mount, how can we raise the standard of our reform policies and promote the modernization of our national governance system and capacity? Fourth, as different ideas and cultures interact, integrate, and clash on a global level, how can we accelerate China’s establishment as a country with a leading socialist culture? Fifth, as we enter an important stage of our efforts to comprehensively govern the CPC with strict discipline, and the CPC faces mounting dangers and tests, how can we continue to raise the CPC’s capacity to lead and govern, and ensure that the CPC remains the strong leading core of the cause of Chinese socialism? The complexity of these struggles dictates that we must strengthen and improve CPC leadership, empowering the CPC to command the overall situation and solve tough problems with a strong sense of duty, firm political resolve, outstanding leadership, innovative theories, and rich practical experience. This will help to ensure that Chinese socialism is upheld and better developed.

 

斗争的普遍性,要求必须加强和改进党的领导。习近平总书记在全国党校工作会议上的重要讲话,对当前人们思想认识上和工作实践中存在的、社会各界普遍关注的重大思想理论问题和重大工作实践问题,列举了13个具体问题。这13个问题具有这样两个特点:一是问题的分布领域比较普遍,涉及中国特色社会主义建设“五位一体”总体布局,涉及坚持和发展中国特色社会主义“四个全面”战略布局,涉及党的思想、理论、路线、方针、政策等方方面面。二是对问题的关注比较普遍,由于这些问题关乎党和国家的前途命运,关系国计民生,不仅党内普遍关注,社会各界普遍关注,甚至国外也普遍关注。这两个特点,说明了坚持和发展中国特色社会主义要进行的伟大斗争,同样具有普遍性特点。要解决这些普遍存在、普遍关注的重大问题,取得伟大斗争的胜利,必须加强和改进党的领导,使党充分发挥政治优势,调动广大人民群众的积极性、主动性、创造性,动员各条战线、社会各界的力量,形成强大合力,创造良好条件,有组织、有计划、有部署、有重点地来破解这些事关全局的、深层次的、普遍存在和普遍关注的问题,有力地推进中国特色社会主义的新发展。

 

3. The universality of these struggles

 

In an important speech at a national conference on the work of Party schools, Xi Jinping highlighted 13 specific problems from a range of major issues, both theoretical and practical, that exist among Party members and that have been the subject of widespread public concern. These 13 problems have the following two characteristics. First, they are almost universal in scope, touching on the “five-pronged” overall plan for developing socialism with Chinese characteristics, on the “Four Comprehensives,” and on the CPC’s theories, principles, and policies. Second, these problems are the subject of almost universal concern: given that these problems have a bearing on the future of the CPC and country, on the state of the economy, and on the wellbeing of the people, they have not only been the subject of widespread concern within the CPC and all sectors of Chinese society, but have even received widespread attention abroad. These two characteristics imply that our great struggles to uphold Chinese socialism are similarly universal in scope and subject to universal attention. Therefore, to solve these major problems and win victory in our struggles, it is imperative that we strengthen and improve CPC leadership, enabling it to fully leverage its political advantage of being able to unleash the enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity of the people and rally all fronts and social sectors, so as to form strong synergy in the push to further develop socialism with Chinese characteristics.

 

斗争的长期性,要求必须加强和改进党的领导。中国特色社会主义是顺应中国将长期处于社会主义初级阶段这一基本国情而开辟的社会主义建设的新道路、新理论、新制度。社会主义初级阶段是一个很长的历史发展阶段,决不是五年、十年,也不是二十年、三十年,用邓小平同志的话来说,对这一点的认识和对这一时期党的基本路线的执行,要“一百年不动摇”。可见,这一历史阶段是十分漫长的,而要准备进行的一系列伟大斗争,也具有长期性的特点,所以,全党同志要有进行长期斗争的准备。斗争的长期性特点,决定了必须加强和改进党的领导。只有加强和改进党的领导,才能在漫长的征程中确保努力方向不变、奋斗目标不改、斗争意志不衰、推进动力不减、前进步伐不乱、创新发展不停,不断开创中国特色社会主义新局面。

 

4. The long-term nature of these struggles

 

The long-term nature of these struggles dictates that we must strengthen and improve CPC leadership. Socialism with Chinese characteristics represents a new path, theory, and system for developing socialism, which has been created on the basis of China’s most fundamental national condition: the fact that China will remain in the primary stage of socialism for a considerably long period of time to come. The primary stage of socialism is a long-term, historical stage of development, and the series of great struggles we are preparing to carry out are also long-term in nature. This means that we must strengthen and improve CPC leadership if we are to ensure that our direction and goals remain unchanged, our drive does not dwindle, and our innovation does not stop during this protracted campaign. Only this way can Chinese socialism advance into new territory.

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