双语:新发展理念蕴含的理论特质和品格

摘要

Theoretical Characteristics of China’s New Development Principles

新发展理念

新发展理念蕴含的理论特质和品格

Theoretical Characteristics of China’s New Development Principles

 

刘奇葆

Liu Qibao

 

党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为总书记的党中央,坚持以理论创新引领实践创新,开辟了治国理政新境界。党的十八届五中全会在深刻总结国内外发展经验教训、分析国内外发展大势的基础上,鲜明提出了创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念。新发展理念符合我国国情,顺应时代要求,在理论和实践上实现了新的突破,具有重大而深远的意义。从政治意义看,新发展理念凝结了我们党对经济社会发展规律的深刻认识,指明了我国未来发展的方向和路径,是我国经济社会发展必须长期坚持的重要遵循。从理论意义看,新发展理念创造性地回答了关于发展的一系列重大问题,是我们党关于发展理论的一次重大升华,是对马克思主义发展理论的丰富和发展。从实践意义看,新发展理念适应了时代发展和实践深化对党和国家工作的新要求,是关系我国发展全局的一场深刻变革,是破解发展难题、增强发展动力、厚植发展优势的行动指南。从世界意义看,新发展理念把准了当今世界发展的主脉,体现鲜明的中国特色,为世界发展贡献了中国智慧和中国方案。

 

In 2012, the Communist Party of China convened its 18th National Congress. Since then, the CPC Central Committee headed by General Secretary Xi Jinping has taken China’s national governance into new territory by relying on innovation in theory to guide innovation in practice. Reflecting deeply on the past experiences of China and other countries, and in view of major trends of development both domestically and internationally, the Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee, convened in 2015, proposed the new principles of innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared development. Geared not only to China’s national conditions, but also to the needs of the times, these principles of development represent a major breakthrough in both theory and practice that will have far-reaching implications for the future.

 

Politically speaking, these new principles of development embody the CPC’s profound understanding of the underlying patterns of economic and social development. Pointing out a clear direction and path of development, they constitute important guidelines that China must uphold on a long-term basis. Theoretically speaking, these new principles of development present new answers to a series of major questions concerning China’s development. Not only have they significantly enhanced the CPC’s existing theories of development, but they have also enriched and further developed Marxist theories on development. Practically speaking, these new principles of development respond to new expectations of the CPC and government as raised by the evolution of practice and the times. As a profound shift in thinking that will have a bearing on all aspects of China’s development, they constitute an action guide that will help us to overcome difficulties, gather momentum, and foster advantages in development. Internationally speaking, these new principles of development accurately pinpoint the key issues in world development at present. Displaying notable Chinese features, they contribute Chinese wisdom and a Chinese solution to world development.

 

新发展理念涵盖广泛、思想深邃,是一个系统完整、逻辑严密的科学体系,贯穿着马克思主义立场观点方法,闪耀着辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义的理论光芒,蕴含着鲜明的理论特质和理论品格。

 

China’s new principles of development are broad in scope and profound in meaning. Forming a fully-systematic, highly logical, and scientific framework, they are underpinned by the standpoint, viewpoints, and methods of Marxism, and illuminated by the wisdom of dialectical and historical materialism, embodying salient theoretical properties and character.

 

系统性:新发展理念是相互贯通、高度耦合、协同支撑的发展理念集合体

A systematic set of principles: China’s new development principles constitute a closely inter-connected, highly-cohesive, and mutually-supportive whole. 

 

创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念,不是随意提出来的,是在影响当代发展的诸多因素中,经过科学比较选择、精心总结提炼,抓住最为紧要、最具决定性的五大要素,形成一个系统化的发展理念体系。这五大发展理念,作为统领发展的总纲要和大逻辑,既各有侧重又相互支撑,共同构筑了未来发展图景的顶层设计,统一于党在社会主义初级阶段的基本路线之中,统一于“五位一体”总体布局和“四个全面”战略布局之中,统一于坚持和发展中国特色社会主义的伟大实践之中,统一于实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标和中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦的历史进程之中。

 

The principles of innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared development were not proposed at random, but were carefully selected and refined from a number of factors affecting development at present. This has resulted in a systematic framework of principles comprising the five most important and decisive factors of development. As an overall outline and logical framework to guide development, these five principles each have their own specific focus while supporting the other four. Together, they form an overall schematic for China’s future development, integrating seamlessly into the CPC’s basic line for the primary stage of socialism; into the “Five-Pronged” overall plan and the “Four Comprehensives” strategy; into the endeavor to uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics; and into China’s “Two Centenary Goals” and its push to realize the Chinese dream of national rejuvenation.

 

新发展理念是一个不可分割的有机整体,从发展的关联性来看“一个都不能少”。在新发展理念中,创新是引领发展的第一动力,协调是持续健康发展的内在要求,绿色是永续发展的必要条件和人民对美好生活追求的重要体现,开放是国家繁荣发展的必由之路,共享是中国特色社会主义的本质要求。从主要内容看,创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享各有明确指向,而又相互贯通、相互促进、相得益彰;从逻辑关系看,第一动力、内在要求、必要条件、重要体现、必由之路、本质要求紧密联系、环环相扣、顺理成章;从整体效能看,新发展理念不仅对传统发展观念进行革新升级,而且对现代发展内涵进行全方位拓展,增强发展的统一性、包容性和可持续性;从操作层面看,新发展理念需要统一贯彻、统一落实,一体推进、一起发力,不能顾此失彼,也不能相互替代。把握好新发展理念的系统性,就要树立全面系统的科学思维、掌握统筹兼顾的工作方法、增强贯彻落实的整体协同,不断开拓发展新境界。

 

China’s new principles of development constitute an organic whole that cannot be separated. Looking at how each of these principles relates to development, it is evident that none can be omitted. Innovation is the primary driving force behind development; coordination is an inherent requirement of sustained, healthy development; greenness is a prerequisite of sustainable development and an important embodiment of the better life that people desire; opening up is vital for China’s prosperity and development; and sharing is the essence of socialism with Chinese characteristics. In terms of content, while innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared development each have their own clear orientation, they also link to the other four in a mutually-reinforcing, mutually-complementary fashion. Logically speaking, these five principles, each with their own attributes, come together to form a closely-knit whole. In terms of effectiveness, these principles have not merely upgraded our traditional concept of development, but have pushed the boundaries of modern development in all directions, presenting us with a more unified, inclusive, and sustainable concept of development. And on the operational level, these principles are designed to be implemented, advanced, and put to effect in an integrated, unified fashion. No one of these principles can be emphasized over, or in place of, any of the others. With a firm grasp of the systematic nature of these principles, we need to foster a comprehensive, systematic, and scientific way of thinking, develop holistic working techniques, enhance overall coordination, and constantly broaden our horizons of development.

 

辩证性:新发展理念是把握运用马克思主义世界观和方法论的典范

A dialectic set of principles: China’s new development principles represent a paradigm for the application of the Marxist worldview and methodology. 

 

新发展理念是运用唯物辩证法认识、分析、解决问题得出的思想理论硕果。应当看到,经过新中国成立60多年特别是改革开放30多年的努力,我国已经成功走完了现代化“前半程”,迈上了一个更高的发展阶段。但发展起来后的问题比预料的更多,面临的矛盾和困难关联性、叠加性、不确定性越来越突出,不仅要解决好长期积累的老问题,也要解决好发展过程中出现的新问题;不仅要解决好增强内生动力的问题,也要解决好提高对外开放水平的问题;不仅要解决好完善经济体制的问题,也要解决好政治、文化、社会、生态文明体制相互协调的问题;不仅要解决好提高发展效率的问题,也要解决好促进社会公平正义的问题。要在这样极其复杂的“问题岛链”中驾驭中国号巨轮继续前行,其难度和艰巨性可想而知。新发展理念创造性地运用马克思主义唯物辩证法,廓清了前进道路上的迷雾,为中国号巨轮劈波斩浪、扬帆远航标注了正确航向。

 

China’s new development principles represent a major theoretical outcome of our efforts to perceive, analyze, and resolve development problems through the application of materialist dialectics. Following more than 60 years of efforts since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, and particularly during more than 30 years of reform and opening up, China has successfully completed the “first half” of its modernization drive, and has now reached a new plane of development. However, it should be noted that in spite of this success, China has encountered more post-development problems than originally anticipated. The contradictions and difficulties it faces are increasingly overlapping, and uncertainty is becoming more pronounced. Not only must China resolve old problems that have built up over the long-term, but it also needs to respond to new ones that emerge in the process of development. Not only must it bolster the internal driving forces of development, but it also needs to raise its level of economic openness. Not only must it improve its economic system, but it also needs to coordinate its political, cultural, social, and environmental systems. Not only must it increase the efficiency of development, but it also needs to promote social equity and justice. It is not difficult to appreciate the sheer difficulty and enormity of navigating China through such a complex array of problems. But China’s new principles of development, through their innovative application of Marxist materialist dialectics, have cleared away the mist on the path ahead, pointing to a correct course for China, like navigating a great ship to break the waves and sail into the distance.

 

新发展理念体现了唯物主义和辩证法鲜活生动的有机结合,彰显了我们党驾驭复杂局面、处理复杂问题的科学态度和高超智慧。比如,新发展理念既主动适应和积极引领经济发展新常态,又从全球经济联系中进行谋划,借鉴各国发展有益经验,有共性更有自己的特色,体现了立足国内和全球视野相统一;又如,新发展理念既着眼于“五位一体”总体布局进行战略谋划,又注重牵住“牛鼻子”,突出薄弱环节和短板领域集中攻关,体现了全面规划和突出重点相统一;再如,新发展理念既从党和国家发展大局大势中提出大谋划大战略,又围绕发展中的突出矛盾和问题提出明确思路和务实举措,体现了战略性和操作性相统一。总之,新发展理念集中彰显了唯物辩证法的鲜明品格,为推动我国经济社会发展提供了方法论指引。把握好新发展理念的辩证性,就要掌握其中蕴含的唯物辩证法精神,以辩证思维统筹发展大局、创新发展实践。

 

Representing an integration of materialism and dialectics, China’s new principles of development highlight the scientific attitude and great wisdom with which the CPC navigates complex situations and handles complex problems. First, these principles not only actively adapt to and guide the new normal of development, but also take the global economy into account and borrow from the experiences of other countries. Universal in some respects and unique in others, they are rooted in China but demonstrate global perspective. Second, these principles not only lay out a strategic plan according to the “Five-Pronged” overall plan, but also manage to identify key points and focus on weak areas and shortcomings, thus achieving a balance between overall planning and specific priorities. Third, these principles not only constitute a major strategy formulated in line with the wider developmental trends of the CPC and the country, but also present clear thinking and practical measures for responding to highly pronounced problems. In this sense, they represent the middle ground between strategy and operability. In summary, China’s new principles of development display the character of materialist dialectics, providing a sound methodology to guide our country’s economic and socialist development. With a firm grasp of the dialectic nature of these principles, we need to seize the spirit of materialist dialectics embodied therein, and apply dialectic thinking to coordinating development and guiding innovation.

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