双语:李克强总理答记者问(2019年)

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摘要

Full Transcript of Premier Li Keqiang’s Press Conference

彭博新闻社记者:中美建交40年以来,现在两国关系猜疑和竞争似乎比以往任何时候都严重。您如何看待现在的中美关系,您对中美关系未来的走向持何看法?您能否简单谈及目前中美面临的一些具体的冲突点?比如贸易问题,什么样的贸易协议中方可以接受,什么样的不能接受?在技术问题上,中国政府是否会迫使中国的有关企业帮助其监视他国?

 

Bloomberg News: There’s probably not been as much suspicion and competition in the relationship since ties began some 40 years ago. How would you describe the current state of US-China ties? What’s your outlook for the relationship? And also, if you could address some specific issues on trade, what kind of deal would China accept, and what kind would China not accept? And on technology, would China force Chinese technology companies to help spy?

 

李克强:我认为,中美建交40年来,两国关系可以说是一直向前,取得了丰硕成果。在这个过程中曲折不断、风云变幻,但是向前走的大趋势没有改变,因为中美两国之间有着广泛的共同利益,我们的共同利益是远大于分歧的。中美之间保持稳定的双边关系,不仅有利于双方,也有利于世界。我认为,在曲折中前行、继续前行这个大趋势是不会、也不应该改变的。

 

Premier Li: I would like to say that China-US relationship has been forging ahead in the past four decades. And a great deal has been accomplished in the growth of this relationship. At the same time, it is true that the relationship has also gone through some twists and turns. But the underlying trend is for the relationship to go forward, and this has not changed. This is because there are broad common interests between China and the US. And the shared interests far outweigh the differences. Steady growth of China-US relationship is in the interest of both countries. It’s also something good for the whole world. So I expect this relationship to continue forging ahead despite twists and turns. And that should be the underlying trend going forward.

 

当然,中美关系保持总体稳定的同时,一些矛盾纠纷也经常突出地表现出来。一段时间以来,表现比较突出的是中美经贸摩擦。中美双方磋商一直没有停。在去年二十国集团领导人峰会期间,两国元首达成了重要共识,现在双方的磋商还在继续进行。我们希望磋商能有成果,能够实现互利双赢。我相信,这也是世界的期待。

 

While maintaining the overall stability of China-US relations, we have also seen problems and difficulties appear from time to time. In the past weeks and months, one prominent difficulty in China-US relationship lies in their economic and trade friction. The two countries have been in consultation the whole time. Last year, during the G20 Summit, the presidents of the two countries reached important common understandings. Consultations between the two sides are still ongoing. We hope that good outcomes will be delivered out of those consultations, outcomes that work for both sides and are a win-win. I believe that such a result is also what the whole world would like to see.

 

中美作为两大经济体,经过几十年来的发展、合作,可以说已是你中有我、我中有你,想人为地把这两大经济体隔开,那是不现实的,也是不可能的。我们还是应该本着合作比对抗好、相互尊重、平等互利这个原则去推动中美关系,包括经贸关系的发展,这样可以使两国人民从中受惠。对于矛盾和分歧,我们相信,中美两国人民是有智慧、有能力来进行化解管控的,推动符合世界潮流的中美关系保持稳定并且向着健康的方向发展。

 

China and the US, as two large economies, have become closely entwined through years of development and cooperation. It is neither realistic nor possible to decouple these two economies. I believe we need to follow the principles of cooperation instead of confrontation, mutual respect, equality, and mutual benefit, to continue to grow China-US relationship, including economic and trade ties, and to deliver concrete benefits to people of both countries. As for the differences and disagreements, we have the confidence that people of the two countries have the wisdom and capability to defuse and manage them properly, and to pursue steady and sound growth of China-US relationship in keeping with the trend of our time.

 

你问中国政府有没有要求自己的企业去监视他国,我可以明确地回答你,这样做不符合中国法律,也不是中国行事的方法,现在没有,将来也决不会有。

 

You asked whether the Chinese government will ask Chinese companies to “spy” on other countries. Let me tell you explicitly that this is not consistent with Chinese law. This is not how China behaves. China did not and will not do that in the future.

 

新华社记者:2018年是中国改革开放40周年,提出了改革要再出发,现在国内外对中国加快改革有许多新期待。请问今年改革会有什么具体的行动?在优化营商环境方面会有哪些新举措?

 

Xinhua News Agency: The year 2018 marked the 40th anniversary of China’s reform and opening-up, putting China’s reform at a new starting point. There have been new hopes, both at home and abroad, for China to accelerate its reform agenda. What concrete actions will be taken to deepen reform this year? What specific measures will be adopted to improve China’s business environment?

 

李克强:改革开放40年来,中国发展取得了巨大成就,惠及了亿万中国人民。这条路我们会继续走下去,而且应该越走越深入、越宽广。也就是说,我们要继续推进建设社会主义市场经济,继续坚持市场化改革的方向。

 

Premier Li: Through 40 years of reform and opening-up, China has made remarkable achievements, delivering benefits to its entire population. We intend to stay on this path and will pursue our reform at greater depth and breadth. We will continue to develop our socialist market economy, and pursue market-oriented reforms.

 

政府要坚持推进市场化、法治化的改革,以实际行动、具体举措让改革成果不断显现。政府的改革应该是更好地让市场在配置资源中发挥决定性作用,也就是说要围着市场做文章,不是老给市场下指令、让市场做什么,而是要把市场的活力激发出来。这次我在参加“两会”的时候,不少代表委员都提出希望继续优化营商环境。给企业好的营商环境、公平的营商环境,市场就会发挥自身的力量。应该说,我们这几年通过“放管服”改革,营商环境的优化是取得成效的。去年有关国际组织把中国营商环境的排名提升了30多位。但社会上也有呼声,营商环境改善得还不够,还有较大差距。我们要倾听这种呼声,进一步改善营商环境。营商环境好了,市场的活力和社会的创造力就会更大地释放出来。

 

The government will continue to move forward these reforms in accordance with market principles and the law, to ensure that concrete outcomes will be delivered through specific actions. In carrying out reform, the government must create an enabling environment for the market to play its decisive role in allocating resources. The job of the government is not to direct what the market should or should not do, but to do its best to energize all market players. During this year’s “Two Sessions”, I have heard the hope expressed by many NPC deputies and CPPCC members for a better business environment in China. They told me that if there is a more enabling business environment and a level playing field, the market will be in a stronger position to play its role. Over the years, through the reform of government functions, we have made substantial progress in improving our business environment. This has also been evidenced by the fact that China’s global ranking in terms of ease of doing business run by an important international organization moved up by over 30 spots last year. There has been improvement, but we are still falling short in some respects. We must listen closely to the views expressed by market players and do our level best to foster a better business environment to unlock market vitality and creativity of the people.

 

改善营商环境,还是要放管结合、放管并重。放就是要平等地放,不能搞三六九等。我们减少审批程序、办证办照时间,应该说对各类所有制企业,原则是一视同仁的。现在开办企业拿营业执照的时间,经过几年努力,已经从22天降到了8.5天,今年要力争降到5天,有的地方可以降到3天,目前有的发达国家才1天。我到基层去调研,有不少企业反映,拿到营业执照以后还需要很多证,这是所谓“准入不准营”。我们要采取措施,除了涉及公共安全、特种行业之外,都应该拿到营业执照以后就可以正常经营。政府的监管部门可以加强事中事后监管,在这个过程中,对企业的行为进行甄别辨别,需要发证的发证,不符合资质条件的,该逐出市场就逐出市场。

 

When improving the business environment, efforts will be made in both deregulation and oversight. By deregulation, we will ensure that companies of all types of ownership will stand to benefit as equals from our measures of administrative streamlining, including cutting the time required for companies to get business license or other required licenses and permits. There should be no discriminatory practices. For example, through years of efforts, we have cut the time required to get a business license from 22 days to 8.5 days. This year, our goal is to further cut it to five days, and in some places with better conditions, maybe three days. It only takes one day to get a business license in some developed countries. When I visited some local areas, I heard complaints from business owners, telling me that even with a business license, they still face a myriad of requirements for other types of permits, that is, their companies can be up but not actually running. We plan to ensure that except for those areas involving public safety and security and other special sectors, a business license should be enough for a company to be up and running. For government departments, their job should be focused on enhancing compliance oversight, to see what permits are required, and ban non-compliant and disqualified companies from the market.

 

宽进就要严管。公平的准入,公正的监管,这是鸟之两翼,不可偏废。如果我们监管不到位,那些坑蒙拐骗、侵犯知识产权、假冒伪劣、恶意拖欠款项的行为就有可能肆意妄为。这次“两会”上我听到一些政协委员反映,他们遇到的是打官司难、讨债难,政府的监管不到位。监管要把规则公开透明,让被监管者知道自己该做什么、不该做什么。监管不能搞选择性监管、任性监管。要形成一种放和管结合的有效的制度性安排。

 

With lower market thresholds, there must be tightened oversight. There should be fair access to market and impartial regulation. With laxity in regulation on the part of government, malpractices such as cheating and manipulation, infringements of intellectual property, making and selling of fake or substandard goods, or payment arrears, may be left unchecked. I have heard complaints from CPPCC members during this year’s “Two Sessions” about difficulties in seeking legal redress and getting debts repaid due to inadequate oversight. We must make the rules open and transparent, so that market players are fully aware of the dos and don’ts. We must not exercise selective or arbitrary regulation. We must put in place effective institutional arrangements for both deregulation and oversight.

 

我可以这么说,减税降费和简政、公平监管,这是我们应对经济下行压力、激发市场活力的两个重要的关键举措,目的是要让中国经济行稳致远,而且活力四射。

 

It can be said that the tax and fee cuts, together with administrative streamlining and impartial regulation, are two very important parts of our measures to counter the downward economic pressure and boost market vitality. The purpose is to ensure steady and sustained growth of the Chinese economy, and make it full of vigor and vitality.

 

东森新闻云记者:今年年初习近平总书记在《告台湾同胞书》发表40周年纪念会上的重要讲话,在两岸引起广泛关注。外界很关注,大陆今年会在促进两岸共同发展和两岸民众福祉等方面具体如何贯彻和落实?

 

ETV Today of Taiwan: Early this year, President Xi Jinping gave an important speech at the Meeting Commemorating the 40th Anniversary of the Issuance of the Message to Compatriots in Taiwan and that important speech received close attention from people on both sides of the Taiwan Strait. My question is: how will the mainland implement the policies and propositions set out in that important speech, in particular, to promote the common development of the two sides of the Taiwan Strait and improve the well-being of people on both sides?

 

李克强:今年年初,习近平总书记在《告台湾同胞书》发表40周年纪念会上的重要讲话,阐述了我们关于台湾问题的大政方针、原则立场。我们将继续坚持一个中国原则和“九二共识”,反对“台独”,促进两岸关系和平稳定发展,促进祖国和平统一。

 

Premier Li: Indeed, early this year, General Secretary Xi Jinping gave an important speech at the Meeting Commemorating the 40th Anniversary of the Issuance of the Message to Compatriots in Taiwan. In the important speech, he articulated our principles and policies on the Taiwan question. We will continue to adhere to the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus, and oppose Taiwan independence. We will continue to work to promote peaceful growth of cross-Strait relations and the peaceful reunification of our motherland.

 

两岸同胞同根相系,我们愿意出台更多的优惠政策,让台湾同胞在大陆不论是投资兴业、就业就学,还是生活居住,都能够享受到和大陆同胞同等待遇。我们已经出台了促进两岸经济文化交流合作的“31条举措”,现在的问题是要把这“31条举措”扎扎实实地落到位,而且在这个过程中还应当有新的举措。两岸同胞共享发展机遇、走得越近越亲,两岸关系的发展就会越好越实。我们都希望能够共圆中华民族伟大复兴的梦想。

 

People on both sides of the Taiwan Strait are bound by kinship. We intend to introduce more preferential policies toward our compatriots in Taiwan to ensure that they will enjoy the same treatment as mainlanders when they come to work, study, live and do business on the mainland. Previously, we introduced 31 measures for promoting cross-Strait economic and cultural exchanges. These measures must be fully delivered. In this process, new measures should be introduced as well. When people on both sides of the Strait enjoy the same development opportunities and come closer to each other, the cross-Strait relationship will grow stronger and make more solid progress. We need to work hand in hand to realize our shared dream of national renewal.

 

《人民日报》记者:去年以来,一些企业存在裁员的情况,有的内外资企业开始向境外转移。同时也有一些企业反映,他们想招一些合适的技术工人却很难。政府将采取哪些政策措施来推动这些问题的解决?

 

People’s Daily: Last year, some companies have started to trim staff. Some Chinese and foreign-invested firms have started to relocate their businesses overseas. We have also heard complaints by companies about a shortage of skilled workers. My question is: what measures will the government adopt to resolve these problems?

 

李克强:在中国现代化进程中,就业会始终是一个巨大的压力。我们每年城镇需就业的新增劳动力1500多万,未来几年不会减,而且还要给几百万新进城农民工提供打工的机会。今年我们确定要确保新增城镇就业人数在1100万人以上,并要力争实现去年的实际规模,也就是1300万人以上的就业。所以,我们把就业优先的政策首次和财政政策、货币政策并列为宏观政策。财政和货币政策不管是减税、还是降低实际利率水平等,在很大程度上都是围绕着就业来进行的。有了就业,才会有收入,才会有社会财富的创造。

 

Premier Li: Indeed, in China’s modernization process, there will always be tremendous employment pressure. In recent years, on average, some 15 million new entrants entered the labor force each year, and that number will not decrease in the foreseeable future. In addition, we also need to provide job opportunities for several million rural migrant workers every year. This year we plan to create another 11 million or more new urban jobs. And in actual practice, our goal is to generate the same amount of job opportunities as we did last year, that is, over 13 million. You may have also noticed, this year for the first time, we are elevating the status of jobs-first policy to a macro policy together with our fiscal policy and monetary policy. The tax cuts under the fiscal policy as well as cutting real interest rates under the monetary policy are all designed to ensure employment in our country. When there is a job, there is income and there is increase in social wealth.

 

我们说保持经济运行在合理区间,首先是要保就业,不让经济滑出合理区间,就是不能出现“失业潮”。我们要多措并举,对一些重点人群要继续努力保障他们就业,像大学毕业生、复转军人、转岗职工等。今年的高校毕业生又达834万,比去年还多,创历史新高。我们还要确保不出现零就业家庭,对那些吸纳劳动力比较多的企业要给政策优惠支持。我们还要推动创新创业创造,用好大众创业、万众创新平台,提供更多的就业岗位。就业好不好,这本身也是经济好不好的一个重要体现。

 

Keeping our major economic indicators within a proper range is first and foremost about ensuring employment and preventing a surge in unemployment. To do that, we will apply a combination of measures including promoting employment for key groups of people like college graduates, demobilized military personnel and laid-off workers. This year, the number of college graduates will reach another new high – 8.34 million. We also need to make sure there will be no zero employment families. For those companies that hire more, the government will provide more policy support. In the meantime, we will expand the platforms to encourage business startups and innovation as a way to generate more jobs. The state of employment very much reflects how our economy is faring.

 

政府工作报告主要讲了保障城镇新增就业,这里我想特别强调一下农民工就业。中国现在有2.8亿多农民工,而且每年是以百万计的数量在增长。他们是许多产业行业的主力军,农民的收入大部分来自于打工收入。农民工的身后可以说有无数家庭的期待。讲到这里,我就想起几年前到我国东北一个中型城市的建设枢纽工地上去考察,有一个印象至今挥之不去。在寒冷的天气里农民工在施工,其中有一位农民工跟我岁数差不多大,我和他对话,他就希望一条:多加班,多挣钱。我说为什么?他说他的一个孩子考上了重点大学,他要挣钱使孩子安心学习,并且学习好。我从他的眼神里看到他对下一代、对未来的期待。

 

The government work report touched mainly upon creating new urban jobs. Here I would like to make a special mention of our rural migrant workers which are now numbered at above 280 million. And that figure is still increasing by several million each year. These rural migrant workers are a leading force in many industries and sectors of our country. Much of their earnings come from non-farming jobs, and they carry the hopes of a lot of families. One thing I can never forget is that several years ago, I was visiting the construction site of a local transportation project in a mid-sized northeastern city, where I met some rural migrant workers. It was a cold winter day, and I talked to one of the workers who was about my age on the construction site. He said to me that he wanted to work longer hours so that he could earn more money. I asked him why. He said that his child was just enrolled into a leading university and he wanted to earn more so that his child won’t have to worry about the college tuition fees and can focus on his studies. In his eyes I saw his hopes for a better future for his children.

 

我们中华民族几千年生生不息,这40年来有如此巨大变化,教育的确起了巨大支撑作用。所以我们要善待农民工,不仅要给他们提供打工的机会,而且要保障他们应有的所得。现在不时发生农民工被欠薪的问题,我们要立法规,坚决打击那些恶意欠薪的行为,确保农民工打工有机会,而且合法权益得到保障,要看到他们是无数家庭的希望。

 

Indeed, education has been an important underpinning force that keeps the Chinese nation going for several thousand years. That has made it possible for us to come this far in the past 40 years of reform and opening-up. These rural migrant workers must be treated with kindness. And we must ensure that they will not only find jobs but also get paid for their work. There have been instances where their wages cannot be paid in full and on time. The government will formulate regulations to crack down on such malpractices to ensure that the lawful rights and interests of all rural migrant workers will be fully protected. The government must not fail the hope of all their families.

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