双语:习近平主席在纪念马克思诞辰200周年大会上的讲话

摘要

Speech by President Xi Jinping at the Ceremony Commemorating the Bicentenary of the Birth of Marx

习近平主席在纪念马克思诞辰200周年大会上致辞

在纪念马克思诞辰200周年大会上的讲话

Speech at the Ceremony Commemorating the Bicentenary of the Birth of Marx

 

习近平

Xi Jinping

 

2018年5月4日

May 4, 2018

 

同志们:

 

Comrades,

 

今天,我们怀着十分崇敬的心情,在这里隆重集会,纪念马克思诞辰200周年,缅怀马克思的伟大人格和历史功绩,重温马克思的崇高精神和光辉思想。

 

Today, we gather here filled with reverence to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the birth of Karl Marx, remember his strong character and historical achievements, and review his eminent spirit and brilliant ideas.

 

马克思是全世界无产阶级和劳动人民的革命导师,是马克思主义的主要创始人,是马克思主义政党的缔造者和国际共产主义的开创者,是近代以来最伟大的思想家。两个世纪过去了,人类社会发生了巨大而深刻的变化,但马克思的名字依然在世界各地受到人们的尊敬,马克思的学说依然闪烁着耀眼的真理光芒!

 

Marx is the revolutionary leader of the proletariat and the working people the world over, the principal founder of Marxism, the founder of Marxist parties and of the international communist movement, and the greatest thinker of the modern era. Two centuries have passed, during which human society has undergone massive and profound changes. However, Marx’s name continues to be met with respect around the world, and Marx’s theories continue to emanate their brilliant rays of truth.

 

1818年5月5日,马克思诞生在德国特里尔城的一个律师家庭。早在中学时代,他就树立了为人类幸福而工作的志向。大学时代,马克思广泛钻研哲学、历史学、法学等知识,探寻人类社会发展的奥秘。在《莱茵报》工作期间,马克思犀利抨击普鲁士政府的专制统治,维护人民权利。1843年移居巴黎后,马克思积极参与工人运动,在革命实践和理论探索的结合中完成了从唯心主义到唯物主义、从革命民主主义到共产主义的转变。1845年,马克思、恩格斯合作撰写了《德意志意识形态》,第一次比较系统地阐述了历史唯物主义基本原理。1848年,马克思、恩格斯合作撰写了《共产党宣言》,一经问世就震动了世界。恩格斯说,《共产党宣言》是“全部社会主义文献中传播最广和最具有国际性的著作,是从西伯利亚到加利福尼亚的千百万工人公认的共同纲领”。

 

On May 5, 1818, Marx was born in Trier, Germany, into a lawyer’s household. As early as his middle school years, Marx aspired to work toward human happiness. During his university years, Marx undertook extensive and intensive studies into philosophy, history, and law in pursuit of the secrets underlying the development of human society. When he was working for the Rheinische Zeitung newspaper, Marx wrote incisive articles attacking the autocratic rule of the Prussian government and defending the rights of the people. In 1843, after he moved to Paris, Marx became an active participant in the workers’ movement. In the course of his participation he brought together revolutionary practice with theoretical inquiry, thus completing his shift from idealist to materialist and from revolutionary democrat to communist. In 1845, Marx and Engels coauthored The German Ideology, which was the first relatively systematic elaboration of the basic principles of historical materialism. In 1848, Marx and Engels coauthored Manifesto of the Communist Party – which, once published, immediately shook the world. Of Manifesto of the Communist Party, Engels said that it is “the most widespread, the most international production of all socialist literature, the common platform acknowledged by millions of workingmen from Siberia to California.”

 

1848年,席卷欧洲的资产阶级民主革命爆发,马克思积极投入并指导这场革命斗争。革命失败后,马克思深刻总结革命教训,力求通过系统研究政治经济学,揭示资本主义的本质和规律。1867年问世的《资本论》是马克思主义最厚重、最丰富的著作,被誉为“工人阶级的圣经”。晚年,马克思依然密切关注世界发展新趋势和工人运动新情况,努力从更宏大的视野思考人类社会发展问题。

 

In 1848, as the bourgeois democratic revolution sweeping across Europe erupted, Marx threw himself into and guided this struggle. Following the failure of the revolution, Marx reviewed the lessons learned from the revolution and subjected them to a systematic politico-economic analysis, thus revealing the nature and patterns governing capitalism. In 1867, Capital was published, which is his most profound and fecund work, and which has been honored as the “Bible of the working class.” In his later years, Marx continued to closely watch new trends in global development and new events in the workers’ movement, making great efforts at reflecting on issues concerning human development from an even greater viewpoint.

 

——马克思的一生,是胸怀崇高理想、为人类解放不懈奋斗的一生。1835年,17岁的马克思在他的高中毕业作文《青年在选择职业时的考虑》中这样写道:“如果我们选择了最能为人类而工作的职业,那么,重担就不能把我们压倒,因为这是为大家作出的牺牲;那时我们所享受的就不是可怜的、有限的、自私的乐趣,我们的幸福将属于千百万人,我们的事业将悄然无声地存在下去,但是它会永远发挥作用,而面对我们的骨灰,高尚的人们将洒下热泪。”马克思一生饱尝颠沛流离的艰辛、贫病交加的煎熬,但他初心不改、矢志不渝,为人类解放的崇高理想而不懈奋斗,成就了伟大人生。

 

Marx’s life was a life of harboring lofty ideals and of dedication to the struggle for the emancipation of humankind. In 1835, a 17-year-old Marx wrote a high-school graduation composition entitled “Reflections of a Young Man on the Choice of a Profession” in which he wrote, “If we have chosen the position in life in which we can most of all work for mankind, no burdens can bow us down, because they are sacrifices for the benefit of all; then we shall experience no petty, limited, selfish joy, but our happiness will belong to millions, our deeds will live on quietly but perpetually be at work, and over our ashes will be shed the hot tears of noble people.” Throughout his life, Marx encountered hardships from an errant life and suffered poverty and illness, yet he stayed the course, never swayed from his original aspiration, dedicated himself to the lofty ideal of the emancipation of humankind, and accomplished a life of greatness.

 

——马克思的一生,是不畏艰难险阻、为追求真理而勇攀思想高峰的一生。马克思曾经写道:“在科学上没有平坦的大道,只有不畏劳苦沿着陡峭山路攀登的人,才有希望达到光辉的顶点。”马克思为创立科学理论体系,付出了常人难以想象的艰辛,最终达到了光辉的顶点。他博览群书、广泛涉猎,不仅深入了解和研究哲学社会科学各个学科知识,而且深入了解和研究各种自然科学知识,努力从人类创造的一切文明成果中汲取养料。马克思毕生忘我工作,经常每天工作16个小时。马克思在给友人的信中谈到,为了《资本论》的写作,“我一直在坟墓的边缘徘徊。因此,我不得不利用我还能工作的每时每刻来完成我的著作”。即使在多病的晚年,马克思仍然不断迈向新的科学领域和目标,写下了数量庞大的历史学、人类学、数学等学科笔记。正如恩格斯所说:“马克思在他所研究的每一个领域,甚至在数学领域,都有独到的发现,这样的领域是很多的,而且其中任何一个领域他都不是浅尝辄止。”

 

Marx’s life was a life of defiance in the face of hardships and of bravely scaling new intellectual heights in search of truth. Marx once wrote that, “There is no royal road to science, and only those who do not dread the fatiguing climb of its steep paths have a chance of gaining its luminous summits.” In founding his scientific theoretical system, Marx endured hardships unimaginable to most ordinary people until ultimately arriving at the luminous summit. Being well-read and erudite, he not only thoroughly understood and studied the scholarship of all disciplines of philosophy and the social sciences, but also that of a range of natural sciences, diligently working to draw pabulum from the civilizational achievements of all of humankind. Throughout his life, Marx selflessly dedicated himself to his work, regularly working sixteen hours a day. Of his work Capital, Marx once wrote a letter to his friend saying that, “I was perpetually hovering on the verge of the grave. Therefore, I had to use every moment in which I was capable of work in order that I might finish the task.” Despite constant illness in his later years, Marx still continued to stride toward new scientific fields and objectives, and he wrote an immense number of scientific manuscripts in the fields of history, humanities, and mathematics. Just as Engels said, “In every single field which Marx investigated – and he investigated very many fields, none of them superficially – in every field, even in that of mathematics, he made independent discoveries.”

 

——马克思的一生,是为推翻旧世界、建立新世界而不息战斗的一生。恩格斯说,“马克思首先是一个革命家”,“斗争是他的生命要素。很少有人像他那样满腔热情、坚韧不拔和卓有成效地进行斗争”。马克思毕生的使命就是为人民解放而奋斗。为了改变人民受剥削、受压迫的命运,马克思义无反顾投身轰轰烈烈的工人运动,始终站在革命斗争最前沿。他领导创建了世界上第一个无产阶级政党——共产主义者同盟,领导了世界上第一个国际工人组织——国际工人协会,热情支持世界上第一次工人阶级夺取政权的革命——巴黎公社革命,满腔热情、百折不挠推动各国工人运动发展。

 

Marx’s life was a life of ceaseless fighting to topple the old world and create it anew. As Engels said, “Marx was before all else a revolutionist... Fighting was his element. And he fought with a passion, a tenacity, and a success such as few could rival.” Marx’s lifelong mission was to struggle for the emancipation of humankind. In order to change the people’s lot of suffering exploitation and oppression, Marx threw himself without hesitation into the dynamic worker’s movement, always standing at the vanguard of the revolutionary fight. Under his leadership, the Communist League was founded in 1847, which was the world’s first proletarian party, and he led the International Workingmen’s Association which was the world’s first international workers’ organization. He also zealously supported the Commune of Paris, the first revolution in which the working class seized political power, and fervently and unrelentingly drove the development of the workers’ movement across the world.

 

马克思是顶天立地的伟人,也是有血有肉的常人。他热爱生活,真诚朴实,重情重义。马克思、恩格斯的革命友谊长达40年。正如列宁所说:“古老传说中有各种非常动人的友谊故事”,但马克思、恩格斯的友谊“超过了古人关于人类友谊的一切最动人的传说”。马克思无私资助革命事业,即使在自己生活极度困难的情况下仍然尽最大努力帮助革命战友。马克思和妻子燕妮患难与共,谱写了理想和爱情的命运交响曲。

 

Marx was a great man of indomitable spirit, yet he was also a man of flesh and blood. He loved life, and was sincere, honest, sentimental, and fair-minded. Marx and Engels’ revolutionary friendship lasted for 40 years. Just as Lenin once said that, “Old legends contain various moving instances of friendship,” but that Marx and Engel’s friendship “surpasses the most moving stories of the ancients about human friendship.” Marx unselfishly financed the revolutionary cause; even during the most difficult times of his life he gave his utmost to help his revolutionary comrades-in-arms. Marx and his wife, Jenny, endured these hardships together, composing a providential symphony of ideals and love.

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