双语:李克强总理在第十一届夏季达沃斯论坛开幕式上的致辞

摘要

Full text of Chinese Premier Li Keqiang’s Speech at New Champions 2017 Annual Meeting Opening Ceremony

李克强总理在2017夏季达沃斯论坛开幕式上致辞。

在第十一届夏季达沃斯论坛开幕式上的致辞

Address at the Opening Ceremony of Annual Meeting of the New Champions 2017

 

中华人民共和国国务院总理 李克强

H.E. Li Keqiang, Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China

 

二〇一七年六月二十七日,大连

Dalian, 27 June 2017

 

尊敬的施瓦布主席先生,

尊敬的各位政府首脑,

尊敬的各位贵宾,

女士们,先生们:

 

Professor Klaus Schwab,

Your Excellencies Heads of Government,

Distinguished Guests,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

 

很高兴与大家再次相聚在美丽的大连。首先,我代表中国政府,对第十一届夏季达沃斯论坛的召开,表示热烈祝贺!对各位远道而来的嘉宾和媒体界的朋友,表示诚挚欢迎!

 

It’s a great pleasure to meet you again in this beautiful city of Dalian. On behalf of the Chinese government, let me offer our warm congratulations on the opening of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the New Champions, and extend a sincere welcome to all guests coming from afar and to members of the media.

 

昨天傍晚,我会见施瓦布主席及部分与会嘉宾。我们站在平台上眺望远处,看到青山被薄雾笼罩,时隐时现。但这只是暂时的,薄雾终会散去,青山则长久屹立。我由此联想到,当前的世界经济何尝不是如此。一方面,世界经济和贸易出现回暖迹象,新一轮工业革命使人们看到新的希望,经济全球化是不可逆转的趋势;另一方面,世界经济复苏动力不足,结构性问题尚未根本解决,逆全球化倾向有所抬头,地缘政治风险有所上升。如果把青山喻为世界经济稳定性,薄雾喻为不确定性,咬定青山不放松,就能用稳定性战胜不确定性。

 

Yesterday evening after my meeting with Professor Schwab and some of the delegates, we went to a viewing deck and enjoyed the sceneries around us. We saw green hills in the distance shrouded in a thin mist, which sometimes hid them from view. But it was only temporary. The mist eventually cleared away, and the mountain is always there. This scenery reminded me of the current state of the global economy. On the one hand, signs of world economic and trade recovery have begun to emerge and the new round of industrial revolution has given people new hope. Economic globalization has become an irreversible trend. On the other hand, global economic recovery remains weighed down by lack of growth drivers and structural imbalances that are yet to be fundamentally addressed. Backlash against globalization has worsened, compounded by rising geopolitical risks. If the hills represent stability of the global economy and the mist uncertainty, then stability will prevail over uncertainty as long as we harden our resolve and make relentless efforts.

 

在年初的世界经济论坛年会上,习近平主席发表主旨演讲,深刻阐述了中国坚定支持经济全球化、维护自由贸易的主张,赢得国际社会广泛认同。本次论坛以“在第四次工业革命中实现包容性增长”为主题,具有很强的现实针对性。

 

In his keynote speech at the Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum early this year, President Xi Jinping elaborated on China’s firm commitment to economic globalization and free trade, which has been widely acclaimed by the international community. The theme of this annual meeting, “Achieving Inclusive Growth in the Fourth Industrial Revolution”, is highly relevant to our times.

 

纵观世界历史,每一次工业革命都推动了社会生产力大跃升、人类文明大进步。这一轮工业革命,是在经济全球化背景下孕育兴起的,正以前所未有的速度、广度、深度改变着世界,为各国经济增长提供了强劲动力。但如果举措不当,也会带来增长包容性不足问题。比如,一部分人受益多、另一部分人受益少,传统产业和就业受到冲击,资本回报和劳动回报差距加大。解决好这些问题,既具有社会意义,也具有经济意义。增长包容性不够,会导致部分劳动力和资源闲置、阶层和区域分化,市场潜力难以充分发挥,社会分化凸显,经济增长也难以持续。实现包容性增长,就是增强社会公平性和发展普惠性,就是实现可持续增长。

 

A review of world history shows that each of the industrial revolutions has brought about leapfrogging expansion of productivity and huge progress of civilizations in general. This round of industrial revolution, fostered in the era of economic globalization, is changing our world in a way unseen before in terms of speed, scope and depth of transformation, giving a strong boost to economic growth of all countries. However, if not managed properly, this round of change may also lead to lack of inclusiveness in growth. Some people may benefit more than others, traditional industries and jobs may take a hit, and returns on capital and labor may diverge further. Addressing these issues well is of both social and economic importance. Lack of inclusiveness will render part of the workforce and resources idle, and deepen the divide within society and between regions. This would hinder the tapping of market potential, aggravate the social divide, and make growth unsustainable. In contrast, inclusive growth makes societies fairer and development more widely beneficial. Realizing inclusiveness and achieving sustainable development are therefore two sides of the same coin.

 

与以往的工业革命相比,在新工业革命中实现包容性增长,具有更大的可能性。以网络化、数字化、智能化为代表的新工业革命,不仅创造了新的供给与需求,大大拓展了发展空间,也给各方带来前所未有的机会、平等参与的机会。每个人都可借助互联网,更加便利地创业创新创富。中小企业可以与大企业站在同一起跑线上,融通发展催生更多新领军者。发展中国家也可以更好发挥比较优势和后发优势。关键是要采取有力有效的举措,把这些可能变为现实,使更多的人、企业、国家在新工业革命中实现更好发展。

 

Compared with the previous times, the new industrial revolution offers greater promise in fostering inclusive growth. Driven by Internet, digital and intelligent technologies, it has created new supply and demand, greatly expanded development space and brought unprecedented opportunities for equal participation. Now, it is much easier for anyone to log on the Internet to start a business, pursue innovation and create wealth. SMEs can get on the same starting point as big companies and foster new champions through integrated innovation. Developing countries can better leverage their comparative strengths and latecomer advantage. The key is to take vigorous and effective steps to turn these possibilities into reality and help more people, businesses and nations achieve greater progress in the new industrial revolution.

 

当今时代,推动包容性增长,必须维护经济全球化。经济全球化极大促进了商品、资本、人员流动,让生产者有了更大市场、消费者有了更多选择,世界各国都能从中受益。但在经济全球化面前,无论是发达国家还是发展中国家,都遇到了这样那样的不适应问题。这些问题的根源不在于经济全球化本身,主要在于如何适应或应对。我们不能走路崴了脚,就怪地不平,不再往前走了。应更好适应和引导经济全球化,维护多边体制权威性和有效性,促进贸易和投资自由化便利化,同时改革和完善国际经贸规则,保障各国在国际经济合作中权利平等、机会平等、规则平等。现在有人在讨论“公平贸易”问题。事实上,自由贸易作为经济全球化的基础,是贸易公平的前提,限制贸易自由带不来贸易公平;公平原则是自由贸易的应有之义,不公平的贸易也无法持续。至于贸易中出现的问题和争端,要考虑对方国情,平等协商、互谅互让,寻求利益契合点和平衡点,找到优势互补、双赢之道。在国际多边规则下,要一视同仁,不宜将单边规则强加于人,而是要寻求多赢。

 

Promoting inclusive growth in our times calls for upholding economic globalization, which has greatly facilitated the flow of goods, capital and people, and provided bigger markets for producers and more choices for consumers than ever before. All countries are beneficiaries in this process. At the same time, countries, both developing and developed, have encountered challenges of different forms in adapting to economic globalization. However, these problems cannot be blamed on economic globalization per se. What is important is how to adapt or respond to it. To give an analogy, one cannot blame the uneven ground for his sprained ankle and stop walking altogether. Instead, we must better adapt to and steer economic globalization forward, uphold the authority and efficacy of the multilateral system, and promote investment and trade liberalization and facilitation. In the meantime, we need to reform and improve international economic and trade rules to secure equal rights, equal opportunities and equal rules for all countries in international economic cooperation.

 

Some people talk about the question of “fair trade”. In fact, free trade, as the underlying driving force for economic globalization, is the prerequisite for fair trade. Restricting free trade will not make trade fairer. Fairness is an inherent requirement of free trade, and unfair trade will not be sustainable. When problems and trade disputes arise, it is advisable to take into account the national conditions of the other side, conduct consultation on the basis of equality and mutual accommodation, seek areas of converging and balanced interests and find win-win solutions through complementarity. All countries should be treated equally under international and multilateral rules. Imposing unilateral rules on others is much less advisable than pursuing all-win outcomes.

 

推动包容性增长,离不开各国自身努力。在经济全球化和新工业革命进程中,各国能否用好机遇,加快经济发展,解决好失业、收入差距拉大、贫困等问题,主要取决于自身的选择和行动。要健全讲求效率、注重公平的制度安排,打造平衡普惠的增长模式,提供人人平等参与的机会,改革面向未来的教育,增强劳动者在产业变革中的适应性,化解就业结构性矛盾,加大对弱势群体扶持力度,努力让所有人分享发展带来的好处。讲到可持续发展,就不能不提应对气候变化,这是国际社会的共同责任。中国将信守《巴黎协定》承诺,落实应对气候变化的措施,这也是中国绿色发展的需要。

 

Promoting inclusive growth requires the hard work of countries themselves. Against the backdrop of economic globalization and new industrial revolution, a country’s ability to seize the opportunities to speed up economic development and address challenges of unemployment, widening income gap and poverty is very much shaped by its own choices and actions. We should put in place better institutional arrangements incentivizing efficiency and equity, develop a model of balanced and inclusive growth, and provide opportunities for equal participation by all. We should make education future-oriented to help the workforce better adapt to industrial transformation, remove structural hindrances to employment, and give more support to vulnerable groups to enable all to benefit from development. Talking about sustainable development, one should not fail to mention responding to climate change, which is the shared responsibility of the international community. China will honor its commitments under the Paris Agreement and carry out climate response measures on the ground, as this is also required for China’s green development.

 

前不久,中国成功举办“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛。“一带一路”建设立足于共商共建共享,是一个包容发展的大平台,为世界各国及工商企业提供了新的机遇。希望各方积极参与,在互利合作中实现联动发展、共赢发展。

 

Not long ago, China successfully held the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation. The Belt and Road Initiative, which follows the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, provides a wide platform for inclusive development and offers new opportunities for all countries and businesses. We look forward to the active participation of all sides for interconnected and win-win development through mutually beneficial cooperation.

 

女士们、先生们!

 

Ladies and Gentlemen,

 

中国是包容性增长的积极实践者。近年来,在世界经济低迷的大环境中,中国经济之所以保持平稳发展,一个重要原因就是包容性不断增强。我们深入贯彻创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的发展理念,顺应经济全球化和新工业革命大趋势,在发展战略上体现包容,在体制机制上保障包容,在政策举措上促进包容,走出了一条具有自身特色的包容性增长之路。当然,我们还在探索之中。

 

China has been an active facilitator of inclusive growth. More inclusive growth in our country has been an important reason why the Chinese economy has maintained steady growth in recent years despite the sluggish world economy. In keeping with the principles of innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared development and the trend of economic globalization and the new industrial revolution, we have highlighted inclusiveness in our development strategies, and worked to promote inclusive growth through providing institutional guarantee and policy support. This has helped us to blaze a path of inclusive growth with distinctive Chinese features. Naturally, we are still feeling our way forward along this path.

 

我们坚持把就业置于发展优先位置。就业是包容性增长的根本。没有比较充分的就业,就谈不上包容性增长,增加收入、创造社会财富也就成了无本之木。中国有9亿多劳动力,每年有1300万左右大中专毕业生,还有大量农业富余劳动力需要向城镇转移。我们把就业作为衡量经济运行状况的关键指标,稳增长主要是为了保就业。坚持实施积极的就业政策,着力扩总量、抓重点、扶弱困。鼓励以创业带动就业,实施大学毕业生就业促进计划,支持农民工返乡创业,帮助去产能分流职工、城镇困难人员、残疾人等就业,确保零就业家庭至少有一人稳定就业。过去几年,中国城镇每年新增就业超过1300万人,城镇调查失业率保持在5%左右。有国际权威机构进行多项发展指标综合评估,将中国就业表现列为世界第一。同时,居民收入增长与经济增速保持同步,基尼系数逐步缩小,中等收入群体稳步扩大。这对一个13亿多人口的发展中大国来说,是一项了不起的成就,也是对包容性增长的重要贡献。

 

We have given priority to employment in pursuing development. Employment is the foundation for achieving inclusive growth. Without relatively full employment, inclusive growth would not be possible, and there would be no solid foundation for generating greater income and wealth. China has a workforce of over 900 million. Every year, about 13 million students graduate from colleges and secondary schools and a large number of rural surplus labor migrate to towns and cities. We see employment as a key indicator of economic performance and promoting steady growth is mainly for the purpose of securing employment.

 

We have implemented a proactive employment policy to boost total employment, address key employment issues and help vulnerable people. We encourage the creation of jobs by business start-ups. We have launched targeted employment programs for college graduates, supported migrant workers in starting up businesses back in their hometowns, and provided employment assistance to laid-off workers from industries with excess capacity, vulnerable urban residents and people with disabilities. The aim is to make sure that each family has at least one person on a stable job. Over the past few years, over 13 million new urban jobs have been created on a yearly basis, and surveyed urban unemployment rate has been kept at around 5%. A recent survey conducted by an authoritative international organization on various development indicators has ranked China’s performance on employment at the very top of the world. In the meantime, people’s income has been rising in tandem with economic growth, the Gini Coefficient is gradually going down and the ranks of middle-income earners have steadily swelled. This is a truly remarkable achievement for a major developing country with more than 1.3 billion people and an important contribution to inclusive growth.

 

我们持续扩大全社会创业创新参与度。这也是拓展就业渠道。人人参与、人人尽力、人人享有,是包容性增长的核心要义,也是当代中国创业创新的显著特征。近年来,中国深入实施创新驱动发展战略,广泛开展大众创业、万众创新,厚植社会创业创新沃土,取得了超出预期的效果。中国的创业创新,是社会成员广泛参与的。不仅企业和科研单位在推进“双创”,越来越多的普通人也加入进来,八仙过海、各显神通。自2014年我们提出“双创”以来,三年间平均每天新增市场主体超过4万家,其中新登记企业近1.4万户,企业活跃度保持在70%左右,今年5月份每天新登记企业更是达到1.8万户。中国的创业创新,是各类主体协同推进的。我们打造开放共享的“双创”平台,各类创新主体携手合作,线上线下良性互动,聚众智、汇众力,使创业创新的成本更低、速度更快、效率更高。前些天,世界知识产权组织等机构发布了2017年全球创新指数排名,中国列第22位,较2013年上升13位,居中等收入经济体之首。中国的创业创新,是人民群众普遍受益的。我们对新产业、新业态、新模式,如电子商务、移动支付、共享单车,实行包容审慎监管方式,促进了其快速健康发展。这不仅便利了百姓生活,也增加了大量就业岗位。在去年全部新增就业中,新动能的贡献率达到70%左右。“双创”让更多人有了改变自身命运的机会,拓宽了社会纵向流动通道。中国的创业创新,有力促进了经济转型升级和竞争力提高。“双创”推动了新兴产业迅速发展,使很多传统产业焕发生机,壮大了发展新动能。去年中国分享经济市场规模达3.5万亿元,增长速度超过100%,有6亿人参与分享。中国的创业创新,因其“众”而成其快、成其势、成其强,是实现包容性增长的有效途径。

 

We have encouraged more people to go for entrepreneurship and innovation. It also helps broaden the channel of employment. To make sure that everyone takes part, contributes and shares the benefits is the essence of inclusive growth. It is also what drives entrepreneurship and innovation in today’s China. In recent years, China has earnestly implemented the strategy of innovation-driven development, and promoted mass entrepreneurship and innovation by fostering enabling conditions. These efforts have yielded better-than-expected results.

 

China’s entrepreneurship and innovation are based on extensive public participation. Not only enterprises and research institutions are engaged in this effort, but more and more ordinary people are also joining in to make the best of their creative capabilities. This is aptly described by a Chinese idiom: Eight immortals crossing the sea, each with their own magical power. For the past three years since 2014 when we first put forward this initiative, an average of 40,000 new market entities have been set up every day, including some 14,000 newly registered enterprises. Business activity rate has stood at around 70%, and in May, the daily count of newly registered enterprises even reached 18,000.

 

China’s entrepreneurship and innovation are driven by cooperation among different market entities. We have built open and sharing platforms of mass entrepreneurship and innovation, where innovation players of various kinds interact online and offline. Pooling their wisdom and efforts has made entrepreneurship and innovation more efficient, less costly and faster. The Global Innovation Index 2017 issued by the World Intellectual Property Organization and others a few days ago put China at 22nd place, 13 spots higher from 2013 and topping the middle-income economies. China’s entrepreneurship and innovation have delivered benefits to all. The Chinese government has adopted an accommodating and prudent regulatory approach toward new industries, new business forms and models, such as e-commerce, mobile payment and bike-sharing, which have enabled their fast and healthy development. As a result, people’s lives are made more convenient and a large number of jobs are created. Of all the new jobs created last year, about 70% were contributed by new growth drivers.

 

Mass entrepreneurship and innovation have given more people the opportunity to better their lives and thus improved opportunities for vertical social mobility. China’s entrepreneurship and innovation have greatly advanced economic transformation and upgrading and raised our competitiveness. It has brought about fast growth of emerging industries and re-energized traditional ones, boosting new driving forces for development. Last year, the market value of China’s sharing economy reached 3.5 trillion yuan, growing by more than 100% year-on-year, and 600 million people got involved in sharing. Thanks to the large population involved, China’s entrepreneurship and innovation have gained a fast and strong momentum and provided an effective means to achieve inclusive growth.

 

我们不断提升基本民生保障水平。中国是世界上最大的发展中国家,解决好十几亿人口的温饱、住房、教育、医疗等基本民生问题很不容易。通过艰苦努力,中国建立起了覆盖全民的基本养老、基本医疗、义务教育三张保障网。我们瞄准中低收入人群特别是贫困人口,想方设法改善他们的生产生活条件,着力实施农村脱贫攻坚、城镇棚户区改造等重大民生工程。过去30多年,中国有7亿多人口摆脱贫困,创造了人类减贫史上的奇迹。目前正在大力推进精准扶贫、精准脱贫,计划到2020年使剩余的4000多万农村贫困人口实现脱贫。中国曾经有约1亿人生活在城镇棚户区,过去8年累计投入各类资金6万多亿元,改造棚户区房屋3000多万套,让8000多万居民住上新楼房,这相当于一个较大国家的人口总量。中国的包容性增长,使人民群众生活更好、更有尊严,使经济社会发展更有活力、更可持续。当然,中国还是一个发展中国家,推进全体人民共享发展成果、实现现代化,还有很长的路要走。

 

We have continued to raise the standards of basic social welfare for our people. China is the world’s biggest developing country. Meeting the basic needs of the over one billion people, such as subsistence, housing, education and medical care, is a huge challenge. Through painstaking efforts, China has put in place three social safety nets covering the entire population, i.e. basic pension, basic medical care and compulsory education. We have made utmost efforts to improve the living and working conditions of the low- and middle-income group, especially people living in poverty, and carried out major projects to improve people’s livelihood, including rural poverty alleviation and rebuilding of run-down areas in cities. As a result of our efforts in the past 30 years and more, over 700 million Chinese have been lifted out of poverty, creating a Chinese miracle in the history of poverty reduction. We are now putting in targeted poverty alleviation efforts with the goal of taking the remaining 40 million rural poor out of poverty by 2020.

 

There used to be about 100 million people living in urban run-down areas in China. In the past eight years, we have invested over six trillion yuan in cumulative terms to ensure proper housing for over 80 million people by rebuilding more than 30 million run-down housing units. This is equivalent to housing the whole population of a relatively big country. Inclusive growth has delivered a better and more dignified life to our people and made our economy and society more dynamic and sustainable. That being said, China remains a developing country, and it still has a long way to go before the fruits of development can be shared among all its people and modernization realized.

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