双语:李克强总理答记者问(2017年)

摘要

Full Transcript of Premier Li ’s Meeting with the Press at the Fifth Session of the 12th National People’s Congress

Premier Li meets the press 2017

在十二届全国人大五次会议记者会上李克强总理答中外记者问

Transcript of Premier Li Keqiang’s Meeting with the Press at the Fifth Session of the 12th National People’s Congress

 

记者会开始时,李克强说,刚才我听主持人说,由于来的人多,很多记者提前两三个小时就到这里了,大家很辛苦,也充分表现了你们的职业精神,我对中外记者对中国两会报道所付出的辛劳表示感谢。时间有限,我们单刀直入,我愿意回答记者朋友们提出的问题。

 

Premier Li Keqiang: The moderator told me that some of the journalists came to the Great Hall of the People for this press conference as early as two to three hours in advance. This shows how hard you work and how committed you are to this profession. I want to thank you for your efforts in covering the “Two Sessions” this year. Since we only have limited time, I suggest we get the questions started right away.

 

美国有线电视新闻网记者:特朗普总统一直对华发表一些批评性言论,表示中国偷窃了美国就业岗位,批评中国汇率政策以及中国在维护地区安全上做得不够。我们还了解到,最早就在下个月,中美两国元首可能会实现会晤。我们对于美国希望从中国得到什么已经有了一些概念,我想问,中国希望从美国那儿得到什么?中国对于一个健康可持续发展的中美关系的底线是什么?您是否有信心实现这样的中美关系的发展?还是觉得前路比较艰难?

 

CNN: President Trump has been consistently critical of China, claiming that it’s stealing US jobs, manipulating its currency and not doing enough for regional security. Now we are hearing that the US-China talk of the highest level may take place as early as next month. We have a good idea of what the US wants from China, but what does China want from the US? What is China’s bottom line for a healthy, sustainable Sino-US relationship? Are you confident that you can achieve that or will it be a difficult process?

 

李克强:你的提问让我回想起去年9月份,我去联合国出席联大系列高级别会议期间到美国纽约经济俱乐部演讲,当时美国总统大选正在白热化阶段,就有人向我提问,如果新的总统当选,中美关系会不会有大的改变?我的回答是,不管谁当选美国总统,虽然中美关系经历过风风雨雨,但会一直前行,我对此持乐观态度。特朗普总统当选以后,习近平主席和特朗普总统通了电话,两国元首都表示要共同推动中美关系向前发展。特朗普总统和美国新政府的高官也都明确表示,要坚持一个中国政策,这是中美关系的政治基础,不是风云变幻能够动摇的,也动摇不得。有了这样一个政治基础,中美合作的前景是广阔的。

 

Premier Li: Your question reminds me of my trip to New York last September for the UN General Assembly meeting and other high-level events. I was asked a question about China-US ties following a speech at the New York Economic Club. It was a time when the US presidential campaign was turning white-hot. I was asked whether there will be significant change in China-US ties when a new president is elected. My reply was that China-US relations have been going forward in spite of twists and turns in the past decades. So I am optimistic about the future of this relationship no matter who gets elected. President Trump has since been elected, and President Xi Jinping has talked with him over the phone. The two presidents agreed to work together for further progress in China-US relations. President Trump and senior officials from the new US administration have explicitly reaffirmed continued US adherence to the one-China policy, which forms the political foundation of China-US relations. This foundation has remained firm and unshaken despite changing circumstances, and it would always remain so in the future. With the right political foundation in place, China-US cooperation enjoys bright prospects.

 

我们之所以对中美关系前行持乐观态度,是因为中美建交几十年了,已经有了广泛的共同利益。当然,我们之间也有分歧,比如你刚才提到的在就业岗位、汇率等问题上有些看法不一,或者在安全问题上也有不同认识。我们双方都需要保持战略定力,加强沟通,坐下来谈,增进相互了解和理解,现在两国外交部门正就两国元首会晤进行沟通。我想,中美关系不仅关系两国利益,而且事关地区和世界的和平安全稳定,我们要维护它前行。

 

We feel optimistic about the future of China-US relations on the strength of the extensive common interests that have bound the two countries together in the course of several decades of our diplomatic relations. It is true that there are some differences between the two countries over issues like jobs, exchange rate and security. What’s important for both countries is to stay focused on the overall interests, and enhance dialogue and communication to deepen mutual understanding. Foreign relations departments of our countries are now engaged in discussions on a face-to-face meeting between the two presidents. This relationship is crucial not just for the interests of our countries, but also for regional and global peace, security and stability. We must work together to take it forward continuously.

 

至于贸易问题,我在两会参加代表团讨论时,有来自外贸企业的人大代表跟我说,虽然中方是贸易顺差,但是企业生产的产品利润90%以上是美国企业拿走了,中国的生产企业拿到的利润最低只有2%—3%。据有关统计,光去年一年,中美的贸易、投资给美国创造的就业岗位过百万个。当然,各方的统计方法可能不一,没关系,我们坐下来谈,总是会有共识的,即便一时达不成共识,可以搁置分歧。智者的办法是扩大共同利益,分歧点所占比例就会越来越小。

 

As for China-US trade, I want to share with you what an NPC deputy from a foreign trade company told me during this year’s Two Sessions. He said that although China runs a surplus in trade with the US, for his company, over 90% of the profits goes to US firms, and the profit margin of his business is a mere 2 to 3 percent. Statistics show that last year, trade and mutual investment between the two countries created up to one million jobs in the United States. We may have different statistical methods, but I believe whatever differences we may have, we can always sit down and talk about them, and work together to find solutions. And for those differences that cannot be resolved for the time being, they can be shelved and we may continue to focus on expanding common interests, which I believe is the wise choice. And as we do so, the differences will account for a lesser and lesser proportion in overall China-US relations.

 

我想起前两天看到国际上有一个权威智库发表文章,他们认为,如果中美发生贸易战的话,首先受损的是外资企业,首当其冲的是美资企业。我们不希望看到打贸易战,贸易战带不来贸易公平,而且双方都受损。现在全世界都比较关心中美关系,中方希望,中美关系不管有什么样的坎坷,还是要向前走、向好处走。中美两国人民都是伟大的人民,我们有智慧来管控分歧,我们有需要也有条件来扩大共同利益。

 

I also want to cite a recent article written by a well-reputed international think-tank. It says that should a trade war break out between China and the United States, it would be the foreign-invested companies in China, particularly US firms that would bear the brunt of it. We don’t want to see a trade war. A trade war won’t make our trade fairer. It will only hurt both sides. I understand the whole world is paying close attention to China-US relations. China hopes that no matter what bumps this relationship may run into, it will continue to move forward in a positive direction. Both our peoples are great people and we believe that we have the wisdom to properly manage differences. There is the need and capacity on both sides to expand common interests.

 

中央人民广播电台记者:我们注意到这几年中国经济的增长速度在持续放缓,今年又把经济增长的预期目标下调到6.5%左右,这是否会对世界经济造成不利的影响?另外有人认为中国经济存在很多风险,特别是在金融方面的风险,中国是否能够在世界经济疲软这个大背景下继续扮演世界经济推动者的角色?

 

China National Radio: China’s economic growth has been declining in recent years and we have seen that the projected target of GDP growth in 2017 has been trimmed to about 6.5%. Will this adversely affect the global economy? Some people say that China’s economy still faces a lot of risks, especially in the financial sector. Do you think that China’s economy will remain an engine driving global economy when global economic growth remains sluggish?

 

李克强:我们把今年经济增速定在6.5%左右,我看到有外媒报道说中国是温和下调了增速。其实,增长6.5%这个速度不低了,也很不容易。我曾经在中国少林寺陪同外宾看过武僧表演,几岁的小武僧一口气翻十几个跟头不费劲,而练过十几年武功的青年武僧翻三五个跟头就了不得了,主要是块头大了。如果今年中国实现经济增长目标,增量比去年还要大,因为这是在我们经济总量已经超过74万亿元人民币,相当于11万亿美元基础上的增长,而且可以带动1100万人以上的就业。我们这样做符合经济规律,也可以使注意力更多地放到提高质量和效益上来,对世界经济增长的贡献率不会低。中国仍然是世界经济复苏乏力情况下推动全球增长的重要力量。

 

Premier Li: I read some foreign media commentary describing the projected GDP growth target of about 6.5% this year as moderate downward adjustment. In fact, 6.5% growth is not a low speed and it would not be easy to meet this target. I can’t help but recall a martial art performance I saw at Shaolin Temple, during which a child monk can do over a dozen somersaults at one go quite easily, but several such consecutive somersaults for an adult monk would be quite an accomplishment due to their different size. 6.5% of GDP growth in 2017, if achieved, would generate more additional economic output than last year, as this is a growth attained on the basis of RMB 74 trillion yuan, or US$11 trillion in GDP. And this growth is projected to generate over 11 million new urban jobs. The measures we take are consistent with the laws of economics, and moreover, slower growth can help us better focus on enhancing the quality and performance of China’s economy. I don’t think China’s contribution to global growth will come down. We believe China’s economy will continue to be a strong driving force in the face of sluggish world economic recovery.

 

至于说到风险,今年世界经济政治不确定的因素很多,这是很大的外部风险。对中国来讲,不发展是最大的风险。我们保持中高速的稳定增长,本身就是在为世界稳定做贡献。当然,我们自己也有一些不可忽视的风险,像你刚刚提到的金融领域。对于这些风险点,我们是高度关注的,发现了会及时处置,“靶向治疗”,不会让它蔓延。当然,我还必须强调,中国金融体系总体是安全的,不会发生系统性风险,因为我们有很多应对工具,储备政策许多还没有用。我们的财政赤字率没超过3%,商业银行资本充足率在13%,拨备覆盖率176%,这些都超过许多国家,特别是国际上所确定的相关标准。所以我们是有能力防范风险的。当然,我们在中高速行进当中也会系紧“安全带”,不会让风险“急性发作”,更不会发生区域性或者系统性的风险。

 

With respect to risks, we are seeing growing uncertainties in the international economic and political landscape. These are the risks on the external front. As for China, stalled development presents the biggest risk. So it is essential that we maintain steady, medium-high growth and that, in itself, is China’s contribution to global stability. We take very seriously the risks we face on the domestic front, including the financial sector. We will take prompt and targeted measures to prevent them from spreading. I should point out that China’s financial system is generally secure and we do not foresee systemic risks. We still have a good reserve of policy options and instruments at our disposal. Our deficit to GDP ratio is below 3%. The capital adequacy ratio of commercial banks in China is 13% and their provision coverage ratio is 176%, both above the international standards for financial security. As the express train of China’s economy continues to roll along at medium-high speed, we need to fasten our seat belt and ward off acute outbreaks of risks. Still less will we allow regional or systemic risks to break out.

 

彭博社记者:随着美国收缩它在全球贸易体系中所发挥的作用,包括退出跨太平洋伙伴关系协定,似乎中国愿意在全球贸易中发挥领导性作用。您和习近平主席都倡导自由贸易、开放型经济以及全球化。但同时我们看到,中国也在实施不公平贸易、自身经济开放速度还不够快方面受到批评。请问,在未来一年,中国会采取什么措施让国际社会确信中国是要致力于推进自由贸易和开放型经济的?

 

Bloomberg: As the United States pulls back from its roles in global trade deals, such as the TPP, China seems poised to take the leadership role. You and President Xi have become advocates of free trade, open economy and globalization. At the same time, China has come under criticism for unfair trade practices and not opening its economy fast enough. Can you say what steps you are taking in the next year to convince the rest of the world that China is committed to free trade and an open economy?

 

李克强:首先,在全球化进程受到一些非议或者在某些方面有挫折的情况下,中国始终坚持一贯的立场,那就是:维护经济全球化,支持自由贸易。这本身就表明中国是要推动开放。实际上,全球化使各国都受益了,不过在这个过程中也有一些问题,像收益分配等方面,但它们不是全球化本身的问题,而是应对的问题。中国愿意和世界各国一道来改善全球治理体系。全球化和世界的和平发展合作是一体的、不可分的。关起门来以邻为壑,解决不了问题。

 

Premier Li: Although globalization has encountered some bumps in the road, China has consistently upheld economic globalization and free trade. I believe such a position in itself is a good indication of China’s commitment to opening-up. It is fair to say that economic globalization has benefited countries across the world. Some problems may have occurred in this process, for example, with respect to distribution of benefits. But we don’t think they are the result of globalization per se but more of an issue of how one responds to it. China is ready to work with other countries to further improve the global governance system. We also believe that economic globalization has been deeply embedded in the global trend of peace, development and cooperation. A closed-door policy or beggar-thy-neighbor approach leads to no solutions.

 

中国和世界许多国家一样,是全球化的受益者,这其中也因为中国一直在坚持不断地扩大开放。中国首先要把自己的事情办好,但关起门来也办不好自己的事情。所以我们开放的大门会越开越大。当然,开放是一个渐进的过程。回过头来看,这几十年来,我们的步伐一直是向前进的。

 

Like many countries in the world, China has benefited from economic globalization as it has been opening up ever wider to the outside world. China needs to first run its own things well. But the truth is, this cannot be done with our doors shut. Hence, we will only pursue greater openness. Naturally opening-up is a gradual process. The important thing is that we have kept moving forward for the past decades.

 

去年,我们吸引外资在发展中国家仍居首位,达到1260亿美元。世界银行对中国营商环境的评估,去年和2013年相比排名上升了18位。我们推动上海自贸试验区建设,已经逐步扩大到11个省区市,而且还会把普遍适用的经验向全国推广。我们还要在今年举办“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛,不断推出扩大开放的措施。我们也向很多国家提议,建立自由贸易区或者进行投资贸易协定的谈判,这些都是有利于双向开放的措施。有一点我想大家要明确,就是开放力度越大,开放程度越深,摩擦相应就会越多,但是占的比例会越来越小。对此,我们是有信心的。我们就是要打造开放的高地、投资的热土,和世界共享发展机遇。

 

Last year, China was still the largest recipient of FDI among developing countries and FDI reached US$126 billion. In the World Bank’s ease of doing business ranking, China moved up 18 spots in 2016 compared with where it was in 2013. We have launched 11 pilot free trade zones starting from Shanghai, and good experience gained from them will be applied across the country. This year we will hold the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation and more steps for opening-up will be introduced. We have proposed to many countries the building of free trade zones or the negotiating of investment and trade agreements. These will all contribute to two-way opening-up.

 

One thing I should point out is that when one opens itself wider and at a higher level, there will be more frictions, but we are confident that their proportion to overall economic links will only get smaller. So China will open at a higher level and remain a popular destination for investment. We welcome other partners to share in China’s development opportunities.

 

至于维护全球贸易的自由化,这需要世界各国共同努力,因为天下是天下人的天下。我们对已经达成或者希望达成的一些区域贸易安排一直持开放态度,也乐见其成。关于区域的自由贸易安排,涉及中国的,有条件的,我们持开放态度,愿意去进行推动。我们不会越俎代庖去做不应是中国做的事情。只要是有利于贸易自由化的,我们都会去参与、去推进,而且中国人明白,要以开放抓住全球化的机遇,不管有什么挑战都不能错过。

 

As for liberalization of global trade, we believe all countries need to work together to push it forward. The world belongs to us all and we all need to do our part to make things better. We are open-minded toward the various regional trading arrangements, established or proposed, and welcome progress in them. When they concern China and where conditions are in place, we would follow an open-minded approach and we would be ready to work with others to push them forward. But China has no intention to reach beyond its role or get involved where we shouldn’t. China will participate in and support all initiatives that will promote the liberalization of global trade. We the Chinese understand that the opportunities of economic globalization must be seized through opening-up. They should not be missed no matter what challenges we may face.

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