双语:乌镇展望2019

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摘要

Full Text: Wuzhen Outlook 2019

第六届世界互联网大会重要成果文件《乌镇展望2019》发布

乌镇展望2019

Wuzhen Outlook 2019

 

今年是互联网诞生50周年。互联网起源于应用研究,兴起于全球化,在日益互联互通、跨界融合进程中,将越来越多的国家和民众连接起来,驱动经济发展,催生产业变革,引领科技创新,促进文化繁荣,优化社会治理,便捷群众生活,越来越成为人民学习、工作、生活的新空间,成为获取公共服务的新平台,成为国家间交流合作的新领域,为推动社会文明进步、增进人类共同福祉作出了重大贡献。回首互联网50年的发展历程,世界互联网大会高咨委全体委员向所有为互联网的创新创造和发展治理作出贡献的思想先驱、技术社群、行业企业、社会组织、各国政府和广大网民表达由衷的敬意。

 

This year marks the 50th anniversary of the Internet. Created for applied research, the Internet has flourished in pace with globalization and is engaging more and more countries in the process of increased cross-border integration. It drives economic development, boosts industry transformation, accelerates scientific and technological innovation, promotes cultural prosperity, modernizes social governance, and enriches people’s lives. It has increasingly created new spaces for people to study, work and live, new platforms of governments to provide public services, new fields for communication and cooperation between nations. In addition, the Internet has made remarkable contributions to progress of human civilization and to mankind’s common well-being. Looking back at the 50 years of the Internet history, the High-level Advisory Council (HAC) of the World Internet Conference Organizing Committee would like to unanimously express their heart felt gratitude to all the Internet pioneers, technical communities, enterprises, social organizations, governments and international organizations, and to all netizens, who have contributed to the innovative creation, advancement, and governance of the Internet.

 

2019年10月20日至22日,第六届世界互联网大会在中国浙江乌镇召开,来自全球83个国家和地区的政府代表、国际组织负责人、互联网企业领军人物、专家学者等1500余名嘉宾出席大会,围绕“智能互联 开放合作——携手共建网络空间命运共同体”的主题,从科学与技术、产业与经济、人文与社会、合作与治理等方面,深入交流研讨,分享实践经验,贡献思想智慧。高咨委全体委员经深入讨论一致同意于会议期间发布《乌镇展望2019》,向国际社会阐释我们对网络空间现实发展和未来前景的看法。

 

The 6th World Internet Conference is being held in Wuzhen, Zhejiang province, China, from October 20 to 22, 2019. More than 1,500 delegates from 83 countries and regions of the world are participating in the conference, including government representatives, heads of international organizations, and prominent Internet entrepreneurs, practitioners, experts and scholars. Guided by the overarching theme of “Intelligent Interconnection for Openness and Cooperation: Building a Community with a Shared Future in Cyberspace”, the delegates are engaging in an intense exchange of ideas, sharing experiences, and contributing their wisdom in areas of science and technology, industry and economy, humanity and society, as well as cooperation and governance. Following in-depth discussions, the HAC has reached consensus to publish the Wuzhen Outlook 2019 during the conference, and to share its opinion on the current trends in, and the outlook for, the future of the cyberspace with the international community.

 

一、信息通信技术加速融合创新,跨越数字鸿沟面临新的挑战

I. Integration and innovation of information and communication technologies are accelerating, but our ambition to bridge the digital divide is facing new challenges.

 

人工智能、物联网、大数据、云计算、区块链等新兴技术深度融合,创造新的发展机遇,带动经济和社会实现新一轮跨越式发展。5G、IPv6、卫星互联网等数字基础设施建设稳步推进,支撑全球数字经济发展和数字化转型,加速互联网新技术新应用迭代升级。美国、中国、欧盟等国家和地区加快完善数字化战略规划,人工智能、量子计算等新技术逐渐成为各国竞争合作的关键领域。

 

Emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, big data, cloud computing, and blockchain are becoming far more integrated to spark new development opportunities which drive economies and societies to achieve a new stage of leap-forward development. With the continuous expansion of emerging digital infrastructures, such as 5G, IPv6, and satellite internet, they promote the global digital economic development and transformation, and speed up the evolution of the Internet technologies and applications. The United States, China, the European Union, and others have been busy refining their digital strategies. New technologies, including artificial intelligence and quantum computing, are gradually becoming key fields of international cooperation and constructive competition.

 

全球移动和固定宽带网络接入与使用率持续上升。截至2019年6月底,全球45亿人使用互联网,渗透率达58.4%;移动互联成为主要方式,全球4G用户达37.4亿,94个国家积极投资5G网络。不同国家和地区在互联网普及、基础设施建设、技术创新创造、安全风险防范、数字技能掌握等方面的发展水平极不平衡,严重影响和限制世界各国特别是发展中国家和欠发达国家的信息化建设和数字化转型。面对数字赋能在各领域的加速渗透,国际社会应建立适应新技术革命和产业变革的更有效的机制,持续加强网络基础设施互联互通建设,注重促进实现“有意义的普遍连接”,特别是注重提升农村和偏远地区互联网接入水平和质量,为边缘化群体提供普惠平等的数字化机遇,培育面向未来智能时代的人类技能成长体系,努力弥合数字鸿沟。

 

The penetration of global mobile and fixed broadband networks is on the rise. By the end of June 2019, 4.5 billion people around the world have used the Internet, with a global penetration rate of 58.4%; mobile internet has become widespread with 3.74 billion 4G users worldwide, and 94 countries are actively investing in 5G network. However, there have been notable cross-country and cross-regional differences in Internet penetration rates, infrastructure construction, technological innovation, exposure to security risk, and digital literacy. This drastically hampers the speed and scale of global informatization and digital transformation processes, particularly for the most vulnerable nations. Facing the accelerated pace of digital empowerment in all fields, the international community should establish more effective mechanisms adaptable to the new technological revolution and industrial transformation, continuously expanding network infrastructures and inter-connectivity. In particular, the international community should pay extra attention to improving Internet access and quality of online services for people in rural and remote areas, and providing inclusive and equal digital opportunities for marginalized groups, fostering ‘Meaningful Connectivity’ and a human capacity development system for the future, and making vigorous efforts to bridge the digital divide.

 

二、全球数字经济活力充沛,发展政策和监管规则亟待完善

II. The global digital economy is booming and the improvement of development policies and regulatory rules is imperative.

 

数字经济成为推动全球经济和社会持续转型的强大驱动力。全球主要经济体数字经济规模庞大,数字经济拉动GDP增长作用显著。数字技术与服务业深度融合,催生共享经济、平台经济等新模式、新业态。全球电子信息制造业持续增长,大数据、云计算、人工智能等新一代信息技术驱动的制造业数字化转型呈现出巨大潜力,物联网、金融科技、智能应用、区块链成为发展新亮点。数字技术广泛地应用于各国数字政府建设以及医疗、教育、扶贫等公共服务领域。推动数字经济持续蓬勃发展,加快释放数字技术红利成为世界各国的共同选择。

 

Digital economy has become a powerful enabler for the process of global socio-economic transformation. Already large in scale, the digital economy has spurred growth in major economies’ GDP. The deep integration of digital technologies with service industries has given rise to new business models and processes, such as the sharing economy, global platforms, etc. The global electronic information manufacturing industry has been continuously on the rise, and while driven by emerging technologies, such as big data, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence, the traditional manufacturing industry has shown a great potential to further digital transformation. In addition, the Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, advanced financial technologies, and blockchain have emerged as new frontiers of ICT development. Numerous countries have proactively employed digital technologies to build e-government ecosystems, to efficiently deliver core public services such as healthcare and education, and to alleviate poverty. Countries across the world have chosen to vigorously pursue sustained development of digital economy and to reap the resulting digital dividends.

 

伴随全球数字经济的加快发展,现有发展政策和监管规则的不健全不适应问题进一步凸显。贸易保护主义在世界范围内迅速抬头,许多国家的互联网科技企业遭遇非市场规则的限制,严重影响全球数字经济产业链的正常运行和供应链安全。伴随区块链技术的普及,数字货币兴起,对传统金融体系和金融秩序形成冲击。国际社会应坚持开放包容的理念,深化合作,优势互补,构建协同机制,提升监管能力,营造公正平等的市场环境,让更多的群体共享互联网创新与服务成果。

 

With the accelerated development of the global digital economy, an insufficient degree of policy coordination and regulation has become more visible. Trade protectionism is growing around the world, and Internet technology companies from many countries are encountering non-market barriers, with adverse effects on the global industry supply chain. Along with the increasing use of blockchain technology, emerging digital currencies challenge the long-established financial order. The international communities should commit to principles of openness and inclusiveness, greater cooperation, robust synergies, building collaborative mechanisms, enhancing regulatory capacity, and shaping a fair and equal market environment, so as to promote benefits of Internet innovation and services.

 

三、网络文化繁荣发展,文明成果交流互鉴有待深化拓展

III. Internet culture has thrived, but cultural exchange should be deeper and broader.

 

网络文化的多样性发展丰富了人类精神生活,促进了人类文明交融互鉴。各种文化与数字技术的结合为文明的传承和发展带来新机遇,同时为新生代网民的思想表达和价值体现提供了新空间。多元文化得到更广泛的创造性转化和创新性发展,网络亚文化持续活跃,网络文学、网络音乐、网络广播、网络影视等均呈快速发展态势,网络直播、短视频等新产品、新业态不断涌现,数字出版、数字音乐、网络游戏、网络动漫、网络旅游等文化产业进一步繁荣发展。

 

The advent and rise of Internet culture has enriched the spiritual life of humankind and promoted interaction and mutual learning across the human civilization. The interplay of various cultures and digital technologies has brought about new opportunities for the inheritance and development of civilization. At the same time, it has provided a new space for value expression for new generations of netizens. Cultural content has undergone creative transformation and innovative development, and Internet subcultures are continuously evolving. Online literature, music, films and TV have witnessed a new phase of rapid development. New products and business formats, such as online live streaming and online short video enjoy a greater popularity. Internet cultural industries, such as digital publishing, digital music, online gaming and animation, and online tourism, flourish.

 

当前,网络空间内容传播面临新的挑战,网络欺诈、网络暴力、虚假信息等违法犯罪行为屡禁不止,深度伪造等技术的滥用正在降低人们对网络内容的信任度,网络内容产品和平台不时成为违法犯罪的载体,冲击文化传播的正常秩序。国际社会应加强和拓展网络文明的交流合作机制,推进不同文明间的平等交流与对话,维护文明多样性,促进文化交流互鉴,建立健全对未成年人的网络保护机制,推动形成网络环境下文明交融新生态,弘扬积极向上、公平正义的正能量,化解网络空间的暴戾之气,助力世界文明和谐进步、共生共享。

 

However, dissemination of content in cyberspace presently faces new challenges. Harmful and illegal activities, such as cyberfraud, cyberbullying, distribution of violent content, to name a few, still persist despite repeated efforts to counter them; meanwhile, fake news undermine people’s trust in online content. In addition, an improper use of online content products and platforms serving as carriers of illegal activities affects communication of cultural values. The international community should improve mechanisms to improve communication and cooperation in the area of cyber culture, promote equal-footing exchange and dialogue between various nations, maintain cultural diversity, facilitate cross-pollination between cultures, establish online protection mechanisms for minors, drive the formation of a new ecosystem of civilization interaction online, spread positive values of fairness and justice, prevent violence and resolve conflicts in cyberspace, and benefit harmonious progress, coexistence and sharing across the global civilization.

 

四、技术演进伴生安全新风险,非技术因素日益改变全球网络安全格局

IV. Technological evolution is accompanied by new security risks, and non-technical factors are increasingly changing the global cybersecurity landscape.

 

前沿技术发展演进创造了巨大社会价值,同时也伴生了网络安全新风险。新型勒索软件、电子邮件欺诈、数据泄露、信息盗窃等在全球范围持续产生严重危害,各类网络攻击事件对全球经济社会发展造成的影响越来越大。5G、大数据、智能硬件、区块链等新技术带来新的安全威胁,对关键信息基础设施实施网络攻击、智能杀伤性武器生产和应用等安全隐患触动各国神经。面对日益严峻的网络安全形势,各国纷纷将网络安全提升至国家安全的战略高度,积极加强网络安全综合防护能力建设。

 

Evolving cutting-edge technologies have created tremendous social value, while bringing about cybersecurity risks. Whilst various cyber-attacks, such as ransomware, e-mail fraud, data breaches, identity theft, etc., seriously affect the global economic and social development, new technologies such as 5G, intelligent hardware, blockchain, among others, might bear new security threats. Many countries share legitimate concerns about potential threats, such as attacks on critical information infrastructures, and development and application of intelligent weapons of mass destruction, and they have promoted cybersecurity to be a part of a national security strategy while also building their comprehensive cybersecurity measures.

 

地缘政治等非技术因素对网络安全的影响显著上升,全球主要国家间的战略关系基础受到单边主义的破坏。网络战威胁浮出水面,网络空间安全治理和约束机制缺位严重。国际社会应深化务实合作,采取强有力的措施遏止网络空间的分裂和军事化倾向。政府、国际组织、企业、技术社群、社会组织、公民个人等各主体应提升网络安全风险防范能力,加大网络安全政策的透明度,加强协调配合,推进建立全球网络安全新规范,携手共建安全、稳定、互信的网络安全新秩序。

 

The influence of non-technical factors like geopolitics on cybersecurity has increased significantly. Global powers have found their relations compromised by unilateralism. The danger of an all-out cyberwar is now evident, while the absence of security governance and restraint mechanisms in cyberspace poses a significant challenge to the international community. At this critical juncture, stakeholders should deepen pragmatic cooperation and take strong measures to address potential conflicts and avoid the militarization of cyberspace. Governments, international organizations, enterprises, technical communities, social organizations, and users should improve their capabilities to prevent cybersecurity risks, work to enhance the transparency of cybersecurity policies, promote coordination and cooperation, and speed up the process of construction of new global cybersecurity  norms, in a concerted cooperative effort to build a new cybersecurity order resting upon safety, stability, and mutual trust.

 

五、网络秩序面临严峻挑战,国际治理亟需重建信任体系

V. The cyber order is facing serious challenges, and the trust needs to be rebuilt throughout the international governance of cyberspace.

 

网络空间国际治理规则的脆弱性和不确定性日益显现,网络空间和平秩序正遭遇强烈冲击和挑战,强权政治阻滞国际合作进程,逆全球化、民粹主义、单边主义和保护主义倾向扰乱全球供应链安全,部分双边多边机制呈现碎片化和无序化趋势,对一些治理进程和治理模式探索产生诸多阻碍,给各相关方维护网络空间利益和开展有效协作带来不利影响。

 

The fragility and uncertainty of international cyberspace governance rules have become increasingly apparent. The peaceful order in cyberspace faces daunting challenges. Power games compromise international cooperation in the cyberspace, and anti-globalization, populist, unilateralism and protectionist sentiments tend to disrupt the security of the global supply chain. Already, individual bilateral and multilateral cooperation mechanisms seem to have fallen prey to increasing fragmentation and disorder. These trends impede efforts to explore cyber governance processes and models and derail the efforts for cooperation between actors that share concerns about the balance of interests in cyberspace and prospects for effective cooperation.

 

随着网络主权理念为越来越多的国家接受和认同,网络空间国际治理的多边主义得到更广泛响应。联合国在网络空间国际治理中的地位和作用日益凸显。2019年,联合国就如何充分发挥新设立的双轨机制——信息安全政府专家组以及开放式工作组的作用进行了研究和探讨。联合国数字合作高级别小组发布报告《数字相互依存时代》,强调应站在可持续发展以及提升全人类福祉的角度,全面看待数字技术的高速发展及其带来的复杂后果。国际社会应认真考虑在联合国框架下进一步加强协作的有效机制。政府、国际组织、企业、技术社群、社会组织、公民个人等各利益相关方应共同参与,提升治理责任,完善治理规则,重建开放合作的信任体系,协力构建网络空间命运共同体。

 

More and more countries recognize the importance of the concepts of cyber sovereignty and multilateralism in cyberspace governance, and a United Nations’ prominent status and increasing role in it. In 2019, the United Nations established a dual-track mechanism, known as the Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security, and the Open-Ended Working Group. Also, the United Nations High-level Panel on Digital Cooperation has issued a report under the title of The Age of Digital Interdependence to emphasize that the international community must take a holistic view on the rapid development of digital technologies and its complex consequences for sustainable development and promotion of humankind’s well-being.

 

The international community should continue to carefully consider more effective mechanisms to further promote collaboration under the framework of the United Nations. All the stakeholders- governments, international organizations, enterprises, technical communities, social organizations, and users -should share a greater responsibility in, and enhance the rules of, cyber governance, revamp the system of trust through transparent and cooperative action, and work together to build a community with a shared future in cyberspace.

 

面对国际网络空间的风云变幻,面对人工智能、万物互联的加速到来,人们不断憧憬互联网的未来发展。我们认为,作为人类伟大的文明成果,互联网发展的大幕才刚刚开启,对经济社会发展带来的深刻变革才刚刚起步。互联网正在从消费型向生产型转化,拥有巨大的发展潜力和广阔的发展空间。基于互联网带来的技术与应用的融合、创新、突破和提升,人工智能、物联网、5G、IPv6、卫星互联网、数据技术、区块链等技术潜能将竞相迸发;网络环境下社会分工将深度调整,以数据为代表的生产资料占有形式仍在演进,世界经济增长方式持续转变;互联网面向经济社会各领域、各层面、各维度的融合创新将在世界范围内广泛展开,必将进一步深刻影响和改变人类未来的经济形式、政治体制、文化形态、社会结构,在更高层次、更高水平上实现人类文明的新发展新跨越。这些不仅考验着人类运用和驾驭互联网的能力,更关乎人类的前途命运。站在互联网发展50年的历史新起点上,我们应当登高望远、携手并肩,共担责任、共迎挑战,坚持以人类共同福祉为根本,以更加开放的姿态、更加包容的胸怀、更加坚定的信心热情拥抱互联网、大力发展互联网、积极治理互联网,推进互联网持续稳定繁荣发展,让互联网更好地造福世界、造福人类、造福未来!

 

In face of the rapidly evolving cyberspace and an accelerated pace of adoption and deployment of artificial intelligence and the Internet of Everything, all stakeholders seem to anticipate the further advancement of the Internet. The HAC believes that, as a remarkable achievement of the human civilization, the Internet is on a path of continuing success, with profound changes to socio-economic development. Having evolved from a small-scale research project, through a consumer-economy phenomenon, it has now emerged as industry internet, thereby demonstrating a tremendous development potential. Propelled by integration and breakthrough innovation, the Internet will unlock the power of new technologies and applications such as artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, 5G, IPv6, satellite internet, data-based technology, blockchain, and more.

 

The Internet-enabled environment should help us to rethink the traditional concept of division of labor. The power of data as an asset and the ownership forms thereof are still evolving, thus affecting the pattern of the global economic growth. This will encompass previously untouched areas, and bolster a rapid transformation of the economy and society across the globe. Also, it is poised to profoundly influence and change future social structures, economic forms, political systems, and forms of culture. That is to say, it should ensure a new stage of the civilization’s advancement. Not only will these changes challenge the ability of human beings to apply and control the Internet, but they are also critical to the future and fate of human beings.

 

While celebrating the first jubilee of the Internet, the HAC believes that we should be guided by the common vision, work hand in hand, share the universal commitment to everyone’s well-being, and passionately embrace, vigorously develop and proactively contribute to the governance in the cyberspace in a more open, inclusive and participatory manner. We should promote the sustainable, stable, and positive advancement of the Internet, thus allowing it to benefit the world and ensure a brighter future for all humankind!

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