双语:2019年政府工作报告

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摘要

Full Text: Report on the Work of the Government 2019

李克强总理作2019年政府工作报告

政府工作报告

Report on the Work of the Government

 

——2019年3月5日在第十三届全国人民代表大会第二次会议上

Second Session of the 13th National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China, March 2019

 

国务院总理 李克强

Li Keqiang, Premier of the State Council

 

各位代表:

 

Fellow Deputies,

 

现在,我代表国务院,向大会报告政府工作,请予审议,并请全国政协委员提出意见。

 

On behalf of the State Council, I will now report to you on the work of the government and ask for your deliberation and approval. I also invite comments from members of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).

 

一、2018年工作回顾

I. 2018 in Review

 

过去一年是全面贯彻党的十九大精神开局之年,是本届政府依法履职第一年。我国发展面临多年少有的国内外复杂严峻形势,经济出现新的下行压力。在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,全国各族人民以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,砥砺奋进,攻坚克难,完成全年经济社会发展主要目标任务,决胜全面建成小康社会又取得新的重大进展。

 

The year 2018 was the first year for putting the guiding principles of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China fully into effect. It was also this government’s first to perform, in accordance with law, the functions of office. In pursuing development this year, China faced a complicated and challenging domestic and international environment of a kind rarely seen in many years, and its economy came under new downward pressure.

 

Under the firm leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, we, the Chinese people of all ethnic groups, guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, forged ahead and overcame difficulties. The year’s main targets for economic and social development were accomplished, and in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, we made major progress toward a decisive victory.

 

——经济运行保持在合理区间。国内生产总值增长6.6%,总量突破90万亿元。经济增速与用电、货运等实物量指标相匹配。居民消费价格上涨2.1%。国际收支基本平衡。城镇新增就业1361万人、调查失业率稳定在5%左右的较低水平。近14亿人口的发展中大国,实现了比较充分就业。

 

The main economic indicators were kept within an appropriate range. Gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 6.6 percent, exceeding 90 trillion yuan. Economic growth matched electricity consumption, freight transport, and other indicators. Consumer prices rose by 2.1 percent. In the balance of payments a basic equilibrium was maintained. A further 13.61 million new urban jobs were added, and the surveyed unemployment rate remained stable at a comparatively low level of around 5 percent. As a big developing country with a population close to 1.4 billion, we have attained relatively full employment.

 

——经济结构不断优化。消费拉动经济增长作用进一步增强。服务业对经济增长贡献率接近60%,高技术产业、装备制造业增速明显快于一般工业,农业再获丰收。单位国内生产总值能耗下降3.1%。质量和效益继续提升。

 

Economic structure was further improved. Consumption continued to play an increasing role in driving economic growth. The service sector’s contribution to growth approached 60 percent. Growth in high-tech industries and equipment manufacturing outstripped that of other industries. Harvests were again good. Energy consumption per unit of GDP fell by 3.1 percent. The quality and returns of growth continued to improve.

 

——发展新动能快速成长。嫦娥四号等一批重大科技创新成果相继问世。新兴产业蓬勃发展,传统产业加快转型升级。大众创业万众创新深入推进,日均新设企业超过1.8万户,市场主体总量超过1亿户。新动能正在深刻改变生产生活方式、塑造中国发展新优势。

 

New growth drivers grew rapidly. A number of major scientific and technological innovations were made, like the Chang’e-4 lunar probe. Emerging industries thrived and traditional industries saw faster transformation and upgrading. Business startups and innovation continued to surge nationwide, with an average of over 18,000 new businesses opening daily and the total number of market entities passing the 100 million mark. New growth drivers are now profoundly changing our mode of production and way of life, creating new strengths for China’s development.

 

——改革开放取得新突破。国务院及地方政府机构改革顺利实施。重点领域改革迈出新的步伐,市场准入负面清单制度全面实行,简政放权、放管结合、优化服务改革力度加大,营商环境国际排名大幅上升。对外开放全方位扩大,共建“一带一路”取得重要进展。首届中国国际进口博览会成功举办,海南自贸试验区启动建设。货物进出口总额超过30万亿元,实际使用外资1383亿美元、稳居发展中国家首位。

 

New breakthroughs were made in reform and opening-up. Institutional reforms of both the State Council and local governments were implemented smoothly. New progress was made in reform in key fields. The negative list system for market access was put fully into effect. Reforms to streamline administration and delegate power, improve regulation, and upgrade services were intensified, and our business environment rose significantly in international rankings. Opening-up was expanded on all fronts, and joint efforts to pursue the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) made significant headway. The first China International Import Expo was a success. Work began on building the China (Hainan) Pilot Free Trade Zone. China’s total volume of trade in goods exceeded 30 trillion yuan, and its utilized foreign investment totaled US$138.3 billion, ranking China first among developing countries.

 

——三大攻坚战开局良好。防范化解重大风险,宏观杠杆率趋于稳定,金融运行总体平稳。精准脱贫有力推进,农村贫困人口减少1386万,易地扶贫搬迁280万人。污染防治得到加强,细颗粒物(PM2.5)浓度继续下降,生态文明建设成效显著。

 

The three critical battles got off to a good start. We forestalled and defused major risks. The macro leverage ratio trended toward a stable level; the financial sector was generally stable. Precision poverty alleviation made significant progress, with the rural poor population reduced by 13.86 million, including 2.8 million people assisted through relocation from inhospitable areas. Pollution prevention and control was strengthened, and PM2.5 concentrations continued to fall. Marked achievements were made in ecological conservation.

 

——人民生活持续改善。居民人均可支配收入实际增长6.5%。提高个人所得税起征点,设立6项专项附加扣除。加大基本养老、基本医疗等保障力度,资助各类学校家庭困难学生近1亿人次。棚户区住房改造620多万套,农村危房改造190万户。城乡居民生活水平又有新提高。

 

Living standards continued to improve. Per capita disposable personal income grew by 6.5 percent in real terms. The threshold for individual income tax was raised and six special additional deductions were created. Support for basic elderly care and basic health care was strengthened. Close to 100 million payments were made to assist students from families in financial difficulty, covering all school types. More than 6.2 million housing units were rebuilt in rundown urban areas and 1.9 million dilapidated rural houses were renovated. Urban and rural living standards continued to rise.

 

我们隆重庆祝改革开放40周年,深刻总结改革开放的伟大成就和宝贵经验,郑重宣示在新时代将改革开放进行到底的坚定决心,激励全国各族人民接续奋斗,再创新的历史伟业。

 

We solemnly commemorated the 40th anniversary of reform and opening-up, thoroughly reviewed its great achievements and the valuable experience gained in its pursuit, and pledged our resolve to see reform and opening-up through in the new era, thus galvanizing the Chinese people of all ethnic groups to continue their hard work to make new historic achievements.

 

回顾过去一年,成绩来之不易。我们面对的是深刻变化的外部环境。经济全球化遭遇波折,多边主义受到冲击,国际金融市场震荡,特别是中美经贸摩擦给一些企业生产经营、市场预期带来不利影响。我们面对的是经济转型阵痛凸显的严峻挑战。新老矛盾交织,周期性、结构性问题叠加,经济运行稳中有变、变中有忧。我们面对的是两难多难问题增多的复杂局面。实现稳增长、防风险等多重目标,完成经济社会发展等多项任务,处理好当前与长远等多种关系,政策抉择和工作推进的难度明显加大。经过全国上下共同努力,我国经济发展在高基数上总体平稳、稳中有进,社会大局保持稳定。这再次表明,在中国共产党领导下,中国人民有战胜任何艰难险阻的勇气、智慧和力量,中国的发展没有过不去的坎。

 

Looking back at the past year, we can see that our achievements did not come easily.

 

What we faced was profound change in our external environment. Setbacks in economic globalization, challenges to multilateralism, shocks in the international financial market, and especially the China-US economic and trade frictions, had an adverse effect on the production and business operations of some companies and on market expectations.

 

What we faced were severe challenges caused by the growing pains of economic transformation. An interlacing of old and new issues and a combination of cyclical and structural problems brought changes in what was a generally stable economic performance, some of which caused concern.

 

What we faced was a complicated terrain of increasing dilemmas. We had multiple targets to attain, like ensuring stable growth and preventing risks; multiple tasks to complete, like promoting economic and social development; and multiple relationships to handle, like that between short-term and long-term interests. And the difficulty of making policy choices and moving work forward increased markedly.

 

With the concerted efforts of the whole country, the Chinese economy, from a larger base, achieved generally stable growth while making further progress; and social stability was ensured. This once again shows that the Chinese people, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, have the courage, vision, and strength to prevail over any difficulty or obstacle. There is no difficulty that cannot be overcome in China’s pursuit of development!

 

一年来,我们深入贯彻以习近平同志为核心的党中央决策部署,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,统筹稳增长、促改革、调结构、惠民生、防风险,稳妥应对中美经贸摩擦,着力稳就业、稳金融、稳外贸、稳外资、稳投资、稳预期,主要做了以下工作。

 

Over the past year, we fully implemented all major policies and plans made by the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core. We followed the general principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability, and worked holistically to maintain stable growth, advance reform, make structural adjustments, improve living standards, and guard against risks. We handled economic and trade frictions with the United States appropriately. We worked to ensure stable employment, a stable financial sector, stable foreign trade, stable foreign investment, stable domestic investment, and stable expectations. Our main work of the past year was as follows.

一是创新和完善宏观调控,经济保持平稳运行。面对新情况新变化,我们坚持不搞“大水漫灌”式强刺激,保持宏观政策连续性稳定性,在区间调控基础上加强定向、相机调控,主动预调、微调。坚持实施积极的财政政策,着力减税降费、补短板调结构。下调增值税税率,扩大享受税收优惠小微企业范围,出台鼓励研发创新等税收政策。全年为企业和个人减税降费约1.3万亿元。优化财政支出结构,盘活财政存量资金,重点领域支出得到保障。坚持实施稳健的货币政策,引导金融支持实体经济。针对融资难融资贵问题,先后4次降低存款准备金率,多措并举缓解民营和小微企业资金紧张状况,融资成本上升势头得到初步遏制。及时应对股市、债市异常波动,人民币汇率基本稳定,外汇储备保持在3万亿美元以上。

 

First, we developed new ways to improve macro regulation and ensured a generally stable economic performance.

 

Facing new circumstances and developments, we were firm in choosing not to adopt a deluge of strong stimulus policies, and we maintained the continuity and consistency of macro policies. As we conducted regulation to keep main economic indicators within an appropriate range, we also improved targeted and well-timed regulation, and carried out anticipatory adjustments and fine-tuning.

 

We continued to pursue a proactive fiscal policy, focusing on cutting taxes and fees, strengthening areas of weakness, and promoting structural adjustment. We reduced VAT rates and expanded the coverage of tax relief for small businesses with low profits, and introduced preferential tax policies to encourage R&D and innovation. Over the year, the tax and fee burden on enterprises and individuals was thus reduced by around 1.3 trillion yuan. We improved the composition of budgetary spending, put idle budgetary funds to use, and ensured spending in key areas.

 

We maintained a prudent monetary policy and encouraged financial support for the real economy. In response to the difficulties and high costs of financing, we reduced required reserve ratios four times, and applied a combination of measures to ease funding shortages faced by private enterprises and small and micro businesses. Initial success was thus made in curbing the rising cost of financing.

 

We promptly responded to abnormal fluctuations in the stock and bond markets, and kept the RMB exchange rate basically stable. China’s foreign exchange reserves were maintained at over US$3 trillion.

 

二是扎实打好三大攻坚战,重点任务取得积极进展。制定并有序实施三大攻坚战三年行动方案。稳步推进结构性去杠杆,稳妥处置金融领域风险,防控地方政府债务风险,改革完善房地产市场调控机制。深入推进精准脱贫,加强扶贫力量,加大资金投入,强化社会帮扶,贫困地区自我发展能力稳步提高。全面开展蓝天、碧水、净土保卫战。优化能源和运输结构。稳妥推进北方地区“煤改气”“煤改电”。全面建立河长制、湖长制。化肥农药使用量实现双下降。加强生态环保督察执法。积极应对气候变化。

 

Second, we took solid action in the three critical battles and made good progress in carrying out key tasks.

 

We drew up and began the systematic implementation of a three-year action plan for the three critical battles.

 

We made steady progress in structural deleveraging, handled risks in the financial sector prudently and appropriately, prevented and controlled local government debt risks, and reformed and improved mechanisms for conducting regulation over the real estate market.

 

We made further progress in precision poverty alleviation. We strengthened poverty relief capacity, increased budgetary input, and encouraged society to assist poverty alleviation. The self-development capacity of poverty-stricken areas was steadily enhanced.

 

We launched an all-out fight to keep our skies blue, our waters clear, and our land pollution-free. Energy and transportation structures were upgraded. The replacement of coal with natural gas and electricity in North China was steadily advanced. The system of river chiefs and lake chiefs was established across the country. The use of both chemical fertilizers and pesticides was reduced. Inspections and law enforcement for environmental protection were strengthened. And we took active steps to respond to climate change.

 

三是深化供给侧结构性改革,实体经济活力不断释放。加大“破、立、降”力度。推进钢铁、煤炭行业市场化去产能。实施稳投资举措,制造业投资、民间投资增速明显回升。出台促进居民消费政策。全面推进“互联网+”,运用新技术新模式改造传统产业。深入推进简政减税减费。取消一批行政许可事项,“证照分离”改革在全国推开,企业开办时间大幅压缩,工业生产许可证种类压减三分之一以上。“双随机、一公开”监管全面实施。清理规范各类涉企收费,推动降低用能、用网和物流等成本。深化“互联网+政务服务”,各地探索推广一批有特色的改革举措,企业和群众办事便利度不断提高。

 

Third, we deepened supply-side structural reform and steadily unleashed the dynamism of the real economy.

 

We strengthened work to cut ineffective supply, foster new growth drivers, and reduce costs in the real economy.

 

We made progress in using market mechanisms to cut capacity in the steel and coal industries.

 

Measures were implemented to ensure stable investment; as a result, investment in manufacturing and private investment rebounded markedly. Policies were adopted to stimulate consumer spending. Internet Plus initiatives were advanced across the board, and new technologies and models were used to transform traditional industries.

 

We deepened efforts to streamline government functions and cut taxes and fees. A number of government permits were abolished, the reform separating permits from the business license was implemented nationwide, the time needed to start a business was considerably shortened, and the types of industrial production permits were cut by over a third. Oversight conducted through the random selection of both inspectors and inspection targets and the prompt release of results was implemented nationwide.

 

We overhauled the charges and fees levied on businesses, and encouraged cuts in the cost of energy, broadband services, and logistics. We advanced the Internet Plus Government Services initiative, the local authorities explored and extended a number of distinctive reform measures, and both businesses and the public now enjoy increasingly better access to government services.

四是深入实施创新驱动发展战略,创新能力和效率进一步提升。大力优化创新生态,调动各类创新主体积极性。深化科技管理体制改革,推进关键核心技术攻关,加强重大科技基础设施、科技创新中心等建设。强化企业技术创新主体地位,将提高研发费用加计扣除比例政策扩大至所有企业。制定支持双创深入发展的政策措施。技术合同成交额增长30%以上。科技进步贡献率提高到58.5%。

 

Fourth, we continued to implement the innovation-driven development strategy and further increased innovation capacity and performance.

 

We greatly improved the innovation ecosystem to keep innovators of all kinds fully motivated. The reform of the management system for science and technology was deepened, steps were taken to achieve breakthroughs in core technologies for key fields, and the building of major science and technology infrastructure and innovation centers was stepped up.

 

We strengthened the principal position of enterprises in technological innovation, and extended the policy on raising the proportion of additional tax-deductible R&D costs to cover all enterprises.

 

We developed policies and measures to support innovation and business startups. The volume of contracted technology transactions grew by over 30 percent. The contribution of technological advances to economic growth has risen to 58.5 percent.

 

五是加大改革开放力度,发展动力继续增强。深化国资国企改革,国有企业优化重组、提质增效取得新进展。针对民营企业发展遇到的困难和问题,千方百计帮助解忧纾困。推进财税体制改革,预算绩效管理改革全面启动。改革金融监管体制,完善利率、汇率市场化形成机制。农业农村、社会事业、生态环保等领域改革不断深化。推出对外开放一系列重大举措。共建“一带一路”引领效应持续释放,同沿线国家的合作机制不断健全,经贸合作和人文交流加快推进。出台稳外贸政策,货物通关时间压缩一半以上。下调部分商品进口关税,关税总水平由9.8%降至7.5%。新设一批跨境电商综合试验区。复制推广自贸试验区改革经验。大幅压缩外资准入负面清单,扩大金融、汽车等行业开放,一批重大外资项目落地,新设外资企业增长近70%。

 

Fifth, we intensified reform and opening-up and continued to strengthen the momentum of development.

 

We deepened reforms of state capital and state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and made new gains in upgrading and restructuring SOEs and in improving their quality and performance. In addressing difficulties and issues encountered by private enterprises, we used every feasible means to help them overcome problems and concerns.

 

We advanced the reform of the fiscal and tax systems, and launched performance-based budget management reform across the country. We reformed the financial regulatory system and improved the mechanisms through which interest rates and exchange rates are set by the market. Steady progress was made in reforms related to agriculture, rural affairs, social programs, and environmental protection.

 

In opening-up, we introduced a series of major moves. Joint efforts to pursue the Belt and Road Initiative are producing a pace-setting effect, cooperation mechanisms for countries along its routes are steadily improving, and economic cooperation, trade, and cultural and people-to-people exchanges under the Initiative have gathered momentum.

 

We launched policies to ensure steady growth in foreign trade, and cut the time needed for customs clearance by more than half. Import tariffs on some goods were lowered, and the overall tariff level was reduced from 9.8 to 7.5 percent.

 

A number of new integrated pilot zones for cross-border e-commerce were established. Reform measures proven to work in pilot free trade zones were replicated and applied elsewhere. We shortened significantly the negative list for foreign investment, opened up sectors like finance and automobiles wider to foreign competition, and sped up the implementation of a number of major foreign investment projects. The number of new foreign enterprises grew by nearly 70 percent.

 

六是统筹城乡区域发展,良性互动格局加快形成。乡村振兴战略有力实施,粮食总产量保持在1.3万亿斤以上。新型城镇化扎实推进,近1400万农业转移人口在城镇落户。推进西部开发、东北振兴、中部崛起、东部率先发展,出台一批改革创新举措。京津冀协同发展取得明显进展,长江经济带生态优先、绿色发展格局不断巩固。粤港澳大湾区规划建设迈出实质性步伐,港珠澳大桥建成通车。加大对革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区、贫困地区改革发展支持力度。新增高速铁路运营里程4100公里,新建改建高速公路6000多公里、农村公路30多万公里。城乡区域发展协调性持续增强。

 

Sixth, we pursued balanced development across rural and urban areas and regions and sped up the formation of a pattern of positive interplay.

 

The rural revitalization strategy was implemented with vigor; grain output was kept above 650 million metric tons. Solid progress was made in the pursuit of new urbanization, and close to 14 million people originally from rural areas gained permanent urban residency.

 

A full range of reforms and innovative measures were introduced to advance development in the western region, revitalize the northeast, energize the central region, and support the eastern region in spearheading development.

 

Major progress was made in boosting the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Along the Yangtze Economic Belt, efforts to prioritize ecological conservation and boost green development were strengthened.

 

Substantive steps were taken in the planning and building of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, and the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was opened to traffic.

 

We expanded support for reforms and development in old revolutionary base areas, areas with large ethnic minority populations, border areas, and poor areas.

 

Another 4,100 kilometers of high-speed railways opened to traffic, and over 6,000 kilometers of expressways and more than 300,000 kilometers of rural roads were built or improved.

 

With all this, the balance in development between rural and urban areas and between regions has continuously improved.

 

七是坚持在发展中保障和改善民生,改革发展成果更多更公平惠及人民群众。针对外部环境变化给就业带来的影响,及时出台稳就业举措。大力推动义务教育教师工资待遇政策落实,加强乡村小规模学校和乡镇寄宿制学校建设,促进高等教育内涵式发展。建立企业职工基本养老保险基金中央调剂制度,提高退休人员基本养老金,城乡居民基础养老金最低标准从每月70元提高到88元。继续提高优抚、低保等标准,残疾人“两项补贴”惠及所有符合条件人员。加强退役军人服务管理工作,维护退役军人合法权益。深化医疗、医保、医药联动改革。稳步推进分级诊疗。提高居民基本医保补助标准和大病保险报销比例。加快新药审评审批改革,17种抗癌药大幅降价并纳入国家医保目录。加快推进文化惠民工程,持续加强基层公共文化服务。全民健身蓬勃开展,体育健儿在国际大赛上再创佳绩。

 

Seventh, we continued to ensure and improve living standards in the course of pursuing development and enabled the people to share more fully and fairly in the benefits of reform and development.

 

We took prompt steps to ease the impact of changes in the external environment on employment.

 

We made strong moves to ensure the implementation of policies on pay packages of teachers in compulsory education, stepped up the development of small rural schools and boarding schools in towns and townships, and fostered development of substance in higher education.

 

We established a system for the central government to allocate nationwide enterprise employees’ basic aged-care insurance funds, raised retirees’ basic pensions, and increased the minimum basic aged-care pension benefits for rural and non-working urban residents from 70 to 88 yuan per person per month.

 

We continued to increase benefits for entitled groups and subsistence allowances, and ensured that all people with disabilities who are eligible can access living allowances and nursing care subsidies.

 

For demobilized military personnel, we improved service provision and management and protected their lawful rights and interests.

 

Coordinated medical service, medical insurance, and pharmaceutical reforms continued. We made steady progress in developing the tiered diagnosis and treatment model. We raised the level of government subsidies for rural and non-working urban residents’ basic medical insurance and the reimbursement rate of their serious illness insurance.

 

The reform for evaluation and approval of new medicines was stepped up; the prices of 17 cancer drugs were slashed and these drugs were included in the national medical insurance catalog.

 

We sped up the implementation of cultural projects designed to benefit the people, and continued to strengthen public cultural services at the community level. Fitness-for-All activities flourished. Chinese athletes excelled themselves in international competitions.

八是推进法治政府建设和治理创新,保持社会和谐稳定。提请全国人大常委会审议法律议案18件,制定修订行政法规37部。改革调整政府机构设置和职能配置。深入开展国务院大督查,推动改革发展政策和部署落实。发挥审计监督作用。改革完善城乡基层治理。创新信访工作方式。改革和加强应急管理,及时有效应对重大自然灾害,生产安全事故总量和重特大事故数量继续下降。加强食品药品安全监管,严厉查处长春长生公司等问题疫苗案件。健全国家安全体系。强化社会治安综合治理,开展扫黑除恶专项斗争,依法打击各类违法犯罪,平安中国建设取得新进展。

 

Eighth, we made progress in building a rule of law government and pursuing innovation in governance and ensured social harmony and stability.

 

We submitted 18 legislative proposals to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress for deliberation, and formulated or revised 37 sets of administrative regulations. We reformed and adjusted the composition and responsibilities of government bodies. The State Council conducted major accountability inspections to ensure the implementation of reform and development policies and plans. We made full use the role of auditing in oversight.

 

We reformed and improved urban and rural governance at the primary level. New approaches were adopted to address public complaints. We reformed and strengthened emergency management, responded swiftly and effectively to major natural disasters, and achieved a continued reduction in both the total number of workplace accidents and the number of serious and major accidents.

 

We strengthened oversight over food and drug safety and investigated and took stern action in defective vaccines cases like that involving Changchun Changsheng.

 

We improved the national security system. We strengthened comprehensive measures to maintain law and order, launched a campaign to combat organized crime and root out local mafia, and cracked down on crime and other legal violations in accordance with law. Further headway was made in carrying out the Peaceful China initiative.

 

认真贯彻党中央全面从严治党战略部署,加强党风廉政建设。推进“两学一做”学习教育常态化制度化。严格落实中央八项规定及其实施细则精神,坚定不移纠正“四风”。严肃查处各类违法违规行为,惩处腐败分子,反腐败斗争取得压倒性胜利。

 

We fully implemented the Party Central Committee’s strategic decision on enforcing full and strict discipline over the Party, and intensified efforts to improve Party conduct and build a clean government. We moved to ensure that all Party members, on a regular and institutionalized basis, work to gain a good command of the Party Constitution, Party regulations, and General Secretary Xi Jinping’s policy addresses and to meet Party standards.

 

We acted in strict accordance with the central Party leadership’s eight-point decision on conduct and the rules for its implementation. We took stern action against formalities performed for formalities’ sake, bureaucratism, hedonism, and extravagance. Activities of various types in violation of laws or regulations were severely punished or prosecuted. Steps were taken to bring the corrupt to justice, and the fight against corruption was a resounding success.

 

过去一年,中国特色大国外交取得新成就。成功举办博鳌亚洲论坛年会、上合组织青岛峰会、中非合作论坛北京峰会等重大主场外交活动。习近平主席等国家领导人出访多国,出席亚太经合组织领导人非正式会议、二十国集团领导人峰会、金砖国家领导人会晤、亚欧首脑会议、东亚合作领导人系列会议等重大活动。同主要大国关系总体稳定,同周边国家关系全面发展,同发展中国家团结合作纽带更加牢固。推动构建新型国际关系,推动构建人类命运共同体。坚定维护国家主权、安全、发展利益。经济外交、人文交流成果丰硕。中国致力于促进世界和平与发展,作出了世人共睹的重要贡献。

 

Over the past year, we attained new achievements in pursuing diplomacy with our own characteristics as a major country. We successfully hosted major diplomatic events such as the Boao Forum for Asia annual conference, the Qingdao Summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation. President Xi Jinping and other Chinese leaders visited many countries and attended major international events, including the APEC Economic Leaders Meeting, the G20 Leaders Summit, the BRICS Leaders Meeting, the Asia-Europe Meeting, and the East Asian leaders’ meetings on cooperation.

 

China’s relations with other major countries remained generally stable, our relations with neighboring countries saw all-round growth, and our bond of unity and cooperation with other developing countries grew stronger.

 

We promoted the development of a new type of international relations and a human community with a shared future, and resolutely protected China’s sovereignty, security, and development interests. Our pursuit of economic diplomacy and cultural and people-to-people exchanges yielded rich fruit. China endeavored to promote world peace and development and made important contributions recognized around the world.

 

各位代表!

 

Fellow Deputies,

 

过去一年取得的成绩,是以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导的结果,是习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想科学指引的结果,是全党全军全国各族人民团结奋斗的结果。我代表国务院,向全国各族人民,向各民主党派、各人民团体和各界人士,表示诚挚感谢!向香港特别行政区同胞、澳门特别行政区同胞、台湾同胞和海外侨胞,表示诚挚感谢!向关心和支持中国现代化建设的各国政府、国际组织和各国朋友,表示诚挚感谢!

 

We owe our achievements of the past year to the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, to the sound guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and to the concerted efforts of the Party, the military, and the people of all ethnic groups in China. On behalf of the State Council, I express sincere thanks to the people of all our ethnic groups, and to all other political parties, people’s organizations, and public figures from all sectors of society. I express sincere appreciation to our fellow countrymen and women in the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions, in Taiwan, and overseas. I also express our sincere gratitude to the governments of other countries, international organizations, and friends from all over the world who have shown understanding and support for China in its endeavor to achieve modernization.

 

思危方能居安。在充分肯定成绩的同时,要清醒看到我国发展面临的问题和挑战。世界经济增速放缓,保护主义、单边主义加剧,国际大宗商品价格大幅波动,不稳定不确定因素明显增加,外部输入性风险上升。国内经济下行压力加大,消费增速减慢,有效投资增长乏力。实体经济困难较多,民营和小微企业融资难融资贵问题尚未有效缓解,营商环境与市场主体期待还有较大差距。自主创新能力不强,关键核心技术短板问题凸显。一些地方财政收支矛盾较大。金融等领域风险隐患依然不少。深度贫困地区脱贫攻坚困难较多。生态保护和污染防治任务仍然繁重。在教育、医疗、养老、住房、食品药品安全、收入分配等方面,群众还有不少不满意的地方。去年还发生了多起公共安全事件和重大生产安全事故,教训极其深刻。政府工作存在不足,一些改革发展举措落实不到位,形式主义、官僚主义仍然突出,督查检查考核过多过频、重留痕轻实绩,加重基层负担。少数干部懒政怠政。一些领域腐败问题仍然多发。我们一定要直面问题和挑战,勇于担当,恪尽职守,竭尽全力做好工作,决不辜负人民期待!

 

Only alertness to danger will ensure safety. While fully recognizing our achievements, we must also be clear about the problems and challenges our country faces in its development.

 

Growth in the global economy is slowing, protectionism and unilateralism are mounting, and there are drastic fluctuations in the prices of commodities on the international market. Instability and uncertainty are visibly increasing, and externally-generated risks are on the rise.

 

Downward pressure on the Chinese economy continues to increase, growth in consumption is slowing, and growth in effective investment lacks momentum. The real economy faces many difficulties. The difficulties that private firms and small and micro businesses face in accessing affordable financing have not yet been effectively solved. The business environment still falls far short of market entities’ expectations.

 

Our capacity for innovation is not strong, and our weakness in terms of core technologies for key fields remains a salient problem. Budgetary deficits in some localities are quite large. There are still many risks and hidden dangers in the financial and other sectors. In deeply impoverished areas, we still face many difficulties in the fight against poverty. Ecological conservation and pollution prevention and control continue to be a weighty task.

 

There is still public dissatisfaction in many areas, such as education, healthcare, elderly care, housing, food and drug safety, and income distribution. Last year saw the occurrence of a number of public safety incidents and major workplace accidents. The lessons these incidents left us with should never be forgotten.

 

There is room for improvement in the work of government. Some measures and policies for reform and development have not been fully implemented. We still have a serious problem with pointless formalities and bureaucratism. Excessive and over-frequent inspections and evaluations and a focus on the superficial to the neglect of the substantive have increased the burden on officials working at the primary level. A small number of government employees lack drive. Instances of corruption still occur frequently in some sectors.

 

We must face the problems and challenges squarely, shoulder our responsibility, fully perform our duties, and do all we can to truly live up to people’s expectations.

二、2019年经济社会发展总体要求和政策取向

II. Economic and Social Development in 2019: Overall Requirements and Policy Directions

 

今年是新中国成立70周年,是全面建成小康社会、实现第一个百年奋斗目标的关键之年。做好政府工作,要在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,全面贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中全会精神,统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局,协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,坚持新发展理念,坚持推动高质量发展,坚持以供给侧结构性改革为主线,坚持深化市场化改革、扩大高水平开放,加快建设现代化经济体系,继续打好三大攻坚战,着力激发微观主体活力,创新和完善宏观调控,统筹推进稳增长、促改革、调结构、惠民生、防风险、保稳定工作,保持经济运行在合理区间,进一步稳就业、稳金融、稳外贸、稳外资、稳投资、稳预期,提振市场信心,增强人民群众获得感、幸福感、安全感,保持经济持续健康发展和社会大局稳定,为全面建成小康社会收官打下决定性基础,以优异成绩庆祝中华人民共和国成立70周年。

 

This year is the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China. It will be a crucial year for us as we endeavor to achieve the first Centenary Goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. To fulfill the work of government, under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, we must:

 

  • follow the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era;

 

  • implement fully the guiding principles of the Party’s 19th National Congress and the second and third plenary sessions of its 19th Central Committee;

 

  • pursue coordinated progress in the five-sphere integrated plan;

 

  • pursue balanced progress in the four-pronged comprehensive strategy;

 

  • adhere to the general principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability;

 

  • continue to apply the new development philosophy;

 

  • continue to work for high-quality development;

 

  • continue to pursue supply-side structural reform as our main task;

 

  • continue to deepen market-orientated reforms and expand high-standard opening-up;

 

  • work faster to modernize the economy;

 

  • continue the three critical battles;

 

  • invigorate micro entities;

 

  • explore innovations in and improve macro regulation;

 

  • make coordinated efforts to maintain stable growth, advance reform, make structural adjustments, improve living standards, guard against risks, and ensure stability;

 

  • keep major economic indicators within an appropriate range;

 

  • take further steps to ensure stable employment, a stable financial sector, stable foreign trade, stable foreign investment, stable domestic investment, and stable expectations;

 

  • boost market confidence;

 

  • enable people to feel more satisfied, happy, and secure; and

 

  • sustain healthy economic development and maintain social stability.

 

By doing the above, we will create the pivotal underpinning for completing the building of a moderately prosperous society and celebrate with outstanding accomplishments the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic.

 

综合分析国内外形势,今年我国发展面临的环境更复杂更严峻,可以预料和难以预料的风险挑战更多更大,要做好打硬仗的充分准备。困难不容低估,信心不可动摇,干劲不能松懈。我国发展仍处于重要战略机遇期,拥有足够的韧性、巨大的潜力和不断迸发的创新活力,人民群众追求美好生活的愿望十分强烈。我们有战胜各种困难挑战的坚定意志和能力,经济长期向好趋势没有也不会改变。

 

A full analysis of developments in and outside China shows that in pursuing development this year, we will face a graver and more complicated environment as well as risks and challenges, foreseeable and otherwise, that are greater in number and size. We must be fully prepared for a tough struggle. The difficulties we face must not be underestimated, our confidence must not be weakened, and the energy we bring to our work must not be allowed to wane.

 

China is still in an important period of strategic opportunity for development and has ample resilience, enormous potential, and great creativity to unleash. The longing of our people for a better life is strong. We have the unshakable will and the ability needed to prevail over difficulties and challenges of any kind, and our economic fundamentals are sound and will remain sound over the long term.

 

今年经济社会发展的主要预期目标是:国内生产总值增长6%-6.5%;城镇新增就业1100万人以上,城镇调查失业率5.5%左右,城镇登记失业率4.5%以内;居民消费价格涨幅3%左右;国际收支基本平衡,进出口稳中提质;宏观杠杆率基本稳定,金融财政风险有效防控;农村贫困人口减少1000万以上,居民收入增长与经济增长基本同步;生态环境进一步改善,单位国内生产总值能耗下降3%左右,主要污染物排放量继续下降。上述主要预期目标,体现了推动高质量发展要求,符合我国发展实际,与全面建成小康社会目标相衔接,是积极稳妥的。实现这些目标,需要付出艰苦努力。

 

With the above in mind, the main projected targets for economic and social development this year are set as follows:

 

  • GDP growth of 6–6.5 percent

 

  • Over 11 million new urban jobs, a surveyed urban unemployment rate of around 5.5 percent, and a registered urban unemployment rate within 4.5 percent

 

  • CPI increase of around 3 percent

 

  • A basic equilibrium in the balance of payments, and stable, better-structured imports and exports

 

  • A macro leverage ratio that is basically stable, and effective prevention and control of financial and fiscal risks

 

  • A reduction of over 10 million in the rural poor population

 

  • Personal income growth that is basically in step with economic growth

 

  • A further improvement in the environment

 

  • A drop of around 3 percent in energy consumption per unit of GDP

 

  • Continued reductions in the discharge of major pollutants

 

The above projected targets are ambitious but realistic – they represent our aim of promoting high-quality development, are in keeping with the current realities of China’s development, and are aligned with the goal of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects. But to realize these goals we need to redouble our efforts.

要正确把握宏观政策取向,继续实施积极的财政政策和稳健的货币政策,实施就业优先政策,加强政策协调配合,确保经济运行在合理区间,促进经济社会持续健康发展。

 

We will ensure that the right direction is set for the pursuit of our macro policies. We will continue to pursue a proactive fiscal policy and a prudent monetary policy, implement an employment-first policy, and strengthen the coordination between these policies to keep major economic indicators within an appropriate range and sustain healthy economic and social development.

 

积极的财政政策要加力提效。今年赤字率拟按2.8%安排,比去年预算高0.2个百分点;财政赤字2.76万亿元,其中中央财政赤字1.83万亿元,地方财政赤字9300亿元。适度提高赤字率,综合考虑了财政收支、专项债券发行等因素,也考虑为应对今后可能出现的风险留出政策空间。今年财政支出超过23万亿元,增长6.5%。中央对地方均衡性转移支付增长10.9%。改革完善县级基本财力保障机制,缓解困难地区财政运转压力,决不让基本民生保障出问题。

 

We will pursue a proactive fiscal policy with greater intensity and enhance its performance. Deficit-to-GDP ratio this year is projected at 2.8 percent, a 0.2-percentage-point increase over that of last year. The budgetary deficit is projected at 2.76 trillion yuan, with a central government deficit of 1.83 trillion yuan and a local government deficit of 0.93 trillion yuan. In moderately increasing the deficit-to-GDP ratio, we have given full consideration to factors such as government revenue and expenditure and the issuance of special bonds; we have also taken into account the need to leave policy space to address risks that could arise in the future.

 

Government expenditure is budgeted at over 23 trillion yuan, a 6.5 percent increase. The central government’s transfer payments to local governments for equalizing access to basic public services will increase by 10.9 percent. We will reform and improve the mechanism for ensuring basic fiscal capacity at the county level, ease the pressure of budgetary constraints faced by some localities, and make certain that people’s basic living needs are met.

 

稳健的货币政策要松紧适度。广义货币M2和社会融资规模增速要与国内生产总值名义增速相匹配,以更好满足经济运行保持在合理区间的需要。在实际执行中,既要把好货币供给总闸门,不搞“大水漫灌”,又要灵活运用多种货币政策工具,疏通货币政策传导渠道,保持流动性合理充裕,有效缓解实体经济特别是民营和小微企业融资难融资贵问题,防范化解金融风险。深化利率市场化改革,降低实际利率水平。完善汇率形成机制,保持人民币汇率在合理均衡水平上的基本稳定。

 

Our prudent monetary policy will be eased or tightened to the right degree. Increases in M2 money supply and aggregate financing should be in keeping with nominal GDP growth to keep major indicators within an appropriate range.

 

In implementation, we will ensure the valve on aggregate monetary supply is well controlled and refrain from using a deluge of stimulus policies; but will also use flexibly a variety of monetary policy instruments to improve the transmission mechanism of monetary policy, maintain reasonably sufficient liquidity, effectively mitigate difficulties faced in the real economy, especially by private enterprises and small and micro businesses, in accessing affordable financing, and forestall and defuse financial risks.

 

We will deepen reforms to strengthen the market’s role in setting interest rates and lower real interest rates. We will improve the exchange rate mechanism and keep the RMB exchange rate generally stable and at an adaptive and balanced level.

 

就业优先政策要全面发力。就业是民生之本、财富之源。今年首次将就业优先政策置于宏观政策层面,旨在强化各方面重视就业、支持就业的导向。当前和今后一个时期,我国就业总量压力不减、结构性矛盾凸显,新的影响因素还在增加,必须把就业摆在更加突出位置。稳增长首要是为保就业。今年城镇新增就业要在实现预期目标的基础上,力争达到近几年的实际规模,既保障城镇劳动力就业,也为农业富余劳动力转移就业留出空间。只要就业稳、收入增,我们就更有底气。

 

An employment-first policy will be pursued with full force. Employment is the cornerstone of wellbeing, and the wellspring of wealth. This year, for the first time, we are elevating the employment-first policy to the status of a macro policy. This is to increase society-wide attention to employment and support for it. Both in the immediate future and for some time to come, the pressure on aggregate job creation will continue unabated, the related structural issues will become more pronounced, and new factors that affect employment will continue to grow. All this means we must give greater priority to increasing employment.

 

Maintaining stable growth, first and foremost, is to ensure employment. This year, on top of the urban job creation target, we will work to reach the actual employment figures of the past few years so as to ensure employment for the urban workforce while creating nonagricultural employment opportunities for the surplus rural workforce. With stable employment and increasing incomes, we can continue to be fully confident.

 

要继续坚持以供给侧结构性改革为主线,在“巩固、增强、提升、畅通”八个字上下功夫。更多采取改革的办法,更多运用市场化、法治化手段,巩固“三去一降一补”成果,增强微观主体活力,提升产业链水平,畅通国民经济循环,推动经济高质量发展。

 

We will continue to pursue supply-side structural reform as our main task, focusing on consolidating, strengthening, upgrading, and ensuring unimpeded flows: we will use more reforms and means in accordance with market principles and law to consolidate the gains made in the five priority tasks; to strengthen the dynamism of micro entities; to upgrade industrial chains; and to ensure unimpeded flows in the economy, thus moving toward high-quality development.

 

要继续打好三大攻坚战,精准发力、务求实效。防范化解重大风险要强化底线思维,坚持结构性去杠杆,防范金融市场异常波动,稳妥处理地方政府债务风险,防控输入性风险。精准脱贫要坚持现行标准,聚焦深度贫困地区和特殊贫困群体,加大攻坚力度,提高脱贫质量。污染防治要聚焦打赢蓝天保卫战等重点任务,统筹兼顾、标本兼治,使生态环境质量持续改善。

 

We will continue the three critical battles and adopt precise measures to deliver solid outcomes.

 

To forestall and defuse major risks, we should be clear about potential dangers, continue structural deleveraging, forestall abnormal financial market fluctuations, deal prudently with local government debt risk, and guard against and control externally-generated risks.

 

We will intensify precision poverty alleviation efforts in accordance with current standards, with the focus on deeply impoverished areas and the most vulnerable groups to deliver solid outcomes.

 

In addressing pollution, we will focus on major priorities such as the fight to keep our skies blue, take a holistic approach, address both symptoms and root causes, and make continuous improvements to the environment.

 

做好今年政府工作,要注重把握好以下关系。一要统筹好国内与国际的关系,凝心聚力办好自己的事。我国仍处于并将长期处于社会主义初级阶段,仍是世界最大发展中国家。发展是解决我国一切问题的基础和关键,必须牢牢扭住经济建设这个中心,毫不动摇坚持发展是硬道理、发展应该是科学发展和高质量发展的战略思想,不断解放和发展社会生产力。在国际形势复杂多变的背景下,我们要保持战略定力,按确定的目标和部署推进工作,更好利用国际国内两个市场两种资源,敢于应对挑战,善于化危为机,牢牢把握发展主动权。二要平衡好稳增长与防风险的关系,确保经济持续健康发展。长期积累的诸多风险隐患必须加以化解,但要遵循规律,讲究方式方法,按照坚定、可控、有序、适度要求,在发展中逐步化解,坚决避免发生系统性、区域性风险。在当前经济下行压力加大情况下,出台政策和工作举措要有利于稳预期、稳增长、调结构,防控风险要把握好节奏和力度,防止紧缩效应叠加放大,决不能让经济运行滑出合理区间。同时,也不能只顾眼前,采取损害长期发展的短期强刺激政策,产生新的风险隐患。三要处理好政府与市场的关系,依靠改革开放激发市场主体活力。只要市场主体有活力,就能增强内生发展动力、顶住经济下行压力。要大力推进改革开放,加快建立统一开放、竞争有序的现代市场体系,放宽市场准入,加强公正监管,打造法治化、国际化、便利化的营商环境,让各类市场主体更加活跃。从根本上说,市场活力和社会创造力源于亿万人民积极性的发挥。要坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,尽力而为、量力而行,切实保障基本民生,推动解决重点民生问题,促进社会公平正义,让人民过上好日子。中国人民勤劳智慧,具有无限的创新创造潜能,只要充分释放出来,中国的发展就一定会有更为广阔空间。

 

For the government to deliver this year, we need to get the following relationships right.

 

First, we need to handle in a holistic way the relationship between domestic and international issues, and focus on running our own affairs well. China is still and will long remain in the primary stage of socialism; and it continues to be the world’s largest developing country. Development is the foundation of and key to solving all our country’s problems. We must pursue with dedication the central task of economic development, never falter in our commitment to the strategic thinking that development is of paramount importance and that it should be sound and of a high quality, and continue to unleash and develop productive forces.

 

Against the backdrop of a complex and fast-changing international environment, we must maintain strategic focus and carry out work in accordance with the goals and plans already set. We should make better use of both international and domestic markets and resources, face challenges squarely, turn risks into opportunities, and remain firm in our commitment to pursuing development.

 

Second, we need to achieve the right balance in the relationship between maintaining stable growth and guarding against risks, to ensure sustained, healthy economic development. The many risks and potential problems that have built up over the years demand stronger mitigating action, but in doing so we need to observe objective laws and take the right approach. Our approach must be firm, controllable, and systematic, and it should be applied with the right degree of intensity. We need to defuse risks step by step in the course of pursuing development and decisively forestall any systemic or regional risks.

 

Against the backdrop of mounting downward pressure on the economy, the policies and measures we adopt should ensure stable expectations, stable growth, and structural adjustments. In working to forestall and control risks, we need to get the pace and intensity right. We should see that the effects of tightening are not amplified, and we must never allow economic indicators to slide out of the appropriate range.

 

At the same time, we must not attend only to immediate concerns or adopt short-term strong stimulus policies that will end up undermining long-term development and generating new risks.

 

Third, we need to balance the relationship between government and market, and energize market entities through reform and opening-up. As long as market entities are energized, we can boost the internal forces driving development and withstand the downward pressure on the economy. We must work hard to advance reform and opening-up, speed up the establishment of a unified and open, competitive and orderly modern market system, relax restrictions on market access, ensure impartial regulation, and create a business environment based on rule of law that is internationalized and enabling, in order to energize market entities.

 

Ultimately, market vitality and social creativity stem from the initiative of hundreds of millions of people being put into action. We must stay true to the vision of people-centered development and do everything within our capacity to meet people’s basic needs, resolve key problems affecting living standards, promote social fairness and justice, and help our people achieve better lives.

 

The Chinese are an industrious and talented people and possess boundless potential for innovation and creativity. All we need to do is unleash that potential and the space for China’s development going forward will doubtless be vast.

三、2019年政府工作任务

III. Tasks for 2019

 

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