双语:关于2016年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况与2017年国民经济和社会发展计划草案的报告

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Full Text: Report on China’s Economic, Social Development Plan

Report on China’s Economic, Social Development Plan 2017

关于2016年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况与2017年国民经济和社会发展计划草案的报告

Report on the Implementation of the 2016 Plan for National Economic and Social Development and on the 2017 Draft Plan for National Economic and Social Development

 

——2017年3月5日在第十二届全国人民代表大会第五次会议上

Delivered at the Fifth Session of the Twelfth National People’s Congress on March 5, 2017

 

国家发展和改革委员会

National Development and Reform Commission

 

各位代表:

 

Esteemed Deputies,

 

受国务院委托,现将2016年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况与2017年国民经济和社会发展计划草案提请十二届全国人大五次会议审议,并请全国政协各位委员提出意见。

 

The National Development and Reform Commission has been entrusted by the State Council to submit this Report on the Implementation of the 2016 Plan and on the 2017 Draft Plan for National Economic and Social Development to the Fifth Session of the Twelfth National People’s Congress (NPC) for your deliberation and for comments from the members of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).

 

一、2016年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况

I. Implementation of the 2016 Plan for National Economic and Social Development

 

去年以来,国内外环境复杂严峻,世界经济艰难复苏,国内经济下行压力依然较大。在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,各地区各部门坚持稳中求进工作总基调,坚持新发展理念,认真执行十二届全国人大四次会议审议批准的2016年国民经济和社会发展计划,落实全国人大财政经济委员会的审查意见,以推进供给侧结构性改革为主线,适度扩大总需求,坚定推进改革,妥善应对风险挑战,引导形成良好社会预期,扎实做好各项工作,经济社会保持平稳健康发展,“十三五”实现良好开局,计划执行情况总体是好的。

 

Last year, conditions both at home and abroad were complex and challenging; the global economic recovery struggled to take effect while downward pressure on China’s economy remained significant. However, under the firm leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, all regions and departments continued to follow the general principle of making progress while keeping performance stable, upheld the new development philosophy, earnestly implemented the 2016 plan approved at the Fourth Session of the Twelfth NPC, and acted in line with the review of the plan by the NPC’s Financial and Economic Affairs Committee. In accordance with the keynote of advancing supply-side structural reform, we appropriately increased aggregate demand, advanced reform with determination, responded effectively to risks and challenges, guided public expectations to ensure they remained positive, and worked hard to deliver a good performance in all areas of work. As a result, economic and social development remained stable and healthy, the 13th Five-Year Plan got off to a good start, and implementation of the 2016 Plan for National Economic and Social Development was successful overall.

 

(一)创新和加强宏观调控,经济运行保持在合理区间。在区间调控基础上,加强定向调控、相机调控,积极的财政政策力度加大,稳健的货币政策灵活适度,确保经济平稳运行。国内生产总值达到74.41万亿元,增长6.7%,符合预期。

 

1. We developed new and better ways of conducting macro regulation to keep the economy operating within an appropriate range.

 

On the basis of range-based regulation, we strengthened targeted and well-timed regulation and pursued a more proactive fiscal policy as well as a prudent monetary policy that retained an appropriate degree of flexibility so as to ensure that economic performance was stable. China’s gross domestic product (GDP) rose to 74.41 trillion yuan, an increase of 6.7%, meeting our projected target.

 

一是消费基础作用进一步增强。促进消费带动转型升级的行动方案出台,“十大扩消费行动”全面推进。促进绿色消费、实体零售创新转型、交通物流融合发展的政策出台实施。进一步扩大旅游文化体育健康养老教育培训等领域消费的意见发布实施,服务消费蓬勃兴起,汽车等实物消费扩大升级。激发重点群体活力带动城乡居民增收的实施意见出台,居民消费能力持续提升。社会消费品零售总额增长10.4%。消费在经济增长中发挥主要拉动作用,贡献率达到64.6%,消费和投资的比例关系进一步改善。

 

1) Consumption played a more fundamental role.

 

The action plan to stimulate industrial transformation and upgrading through increased consumption was formulated, and the Ten Initiatives for Boosting Consumer Spending were implemented. We implemented the policies for promoting green consumption, transformation of physical retail businesses through innovation, and integrated development of transportation and logistics. The guidelines on further boosting consumer spending in tourism, culture, sports, health, elderly care, education, and training services were promulgated and implemented; the consumption of services flourished; and consumer spending on automobiles and other physical goods was increased and upgraded. We formulated the guidelines on providing incentives to key groups to promote an overall increase in urban and rural incomes, and people’s ability to consume continued to increase. Total retail sales of consumer goods for the year rose by 10.4%. Consumption served as a major driver of economic growth, making a 64.6% contribution. And there was a further improvement in the ratio between consumption and investment.

 

二是投资保持稳定增长。围绕补短板、调结构、增供给,努力扩大合理有效投资。中央预算内投资结构继续优化,政府投资项目储备库和三年滚动投资计划初步形成,重大工程建设加快推进。着力调动民间投资积极性,制定促进民间投资“26条”政策,加大政府和社会资本合作(PPP)模式推广力度。全社会固定资产投资增长7.9%,民间投资占固定资产投资(不含农户)比重为61.2%。

 

2) Investment sustained steady growth.

 

Strengthening areas of weakness, making structural adjustment, and increasing supply were our primary focus in working to increase rational and effective investment. We further improved the structure of investments falling within the central government budget, took initial steps to set up the reserve of government investment projects and formulate the three-year rolling investment plan, and stepped up the construction of major projects. We channeled great energy into stimulating private investment, formulated a 26-point policy to ensure its sound development, and worked to expand the application of public-private partnership (PPP) models. Total fixed-asset investment for the year rose by 7.9%, of which 61.2% came from nongovernmental sources (excluding rural households).

 

三是就业形势总体较好。基层就业社保服务设施和公共实训基地建设加快推进,高校毕业生和化解过剩产能职工就业服务工作力度加大,支持农民工等人员返乡创业试点持续推进。全年城镇新增就业1314万人,年末城镇登记失业率4.02%。

 

3) The overall employment situation remained positive.

 

We sped up efforts to develop community-level facilities providing employment and social security services and to establish public vocational training centers, provided better services to college graduates as well as to workers laid off due to the scaling-down of overcapacity, and continued to advance pilot projects to support rural migrant workers returning home to set up businesses. An additional 13.14 million urban jobs were created over the year, and the registered urban unemployment rate stood at 4.02% at the end of 2016.

 

四是价格总水平基本稳定。大宗商品价格调控进一步强化,生猪价格调控有效开展,汛期、重点节假日蔬菜等重要商品价格监测预警和调控监管加强。价格监管和反垄断执法强力推进,先后查处了数起反垄断案件。全年居民消费价格上涨2.0%。

 

4) Overall prices were generally stable.

 

We increased regulation over commodity prices, effectively carried out regulation over the price of hogs, and strengthened monitoring, early warning, regulation, and oversight over the prices of major commodities such as vegetables during the flood season and major holidays. Oversight over pricing was tightened up and law enforcement efforts to counter monopolistic pricing intensified with numerous cases being investigated and dealt with. The consumer price index (CPI) for the year rose by 2.0%.

 

五是各类风险挑战得到妥善应对。加强对外投资活动真实性审查,引导对外投资健康有序发展。按照市场化、法治化原则防范化解债券违约风险。因城因地施策,分类调控房地产市场。防范应对部分地区特别是长江流域发生的严重洪涝等灾害,及时有力开展抢险救灾,最大限度降低了灾害损失,恢复重建有序进行。

 

5) Risks and challenges were handled appropriately.

 

We stepped up reviews to verify the authenticity of outbound investment projects and worked to ensure the sound and orderly development of overall outbound investment. We employed market-oriented, law-based measures to guard against and defuse bond default risks. Policies tailored to local conditions were implemented to regulate the real estate market on a per-category basis. We worked to guard against and deal with severe flooding in some regions, particularly the Yangtze basin, as well as other natural disasters, and acted quickly to provide effective rescue and relief so as to minimize damage, and ensure recovery and reconstruction efforts proceeded in an orderly manner.

 

(二)扎实推进供给侧结构性改革,“三去一降一补”五大重点任务初见成效。加强政策引导和支持,建立工作推进机制,去产能、去库存、去杠杆、降成本、补短板取得初步成效。

 

2. We worked to secure solid progress in supply-side structural reform, achieving initial success in the five priority tasks of cutting overcapacity, reducing excess inventory, deleveraging, lowering costs, and strengthening points of weakness.

 

By enhancing policy guidance and support and establishing an effective work mechanism, we achieved preliminary progress in our efforts to carry out the five priority tasks.

 

一是去产能年度任务提前超额完成。《国务院关于钢铁行业化解过剩产能实现脱困发展的意见》(国发〔2016〕6号)和《国务院关于煤炭行业化解过剩产能实现脱困发展的意见》(国发〔2016〕7号)印发实施。组织开展了淘汰落后、违法违规建设项目清理、联合执法三个专项行动,严格控制新增产能,加快淘汰落后产能,有序引导过剩产能退出。积极做好职工安置和债务处置,推进企业兼并重组、转型升级和布局优化。及时妥善应对供需调整、价格波动影响。2016年退出钢铁和煤炭产能分别超过6500万吨和2.9亿吨,超额完成年度目标任务。钢铁、煤炭企业效益转好,拖欠减少,现金流紧张、安全投入欠账、工资欠发缓发等问题得到一定缓解,行业运行状况和市场预期有所改善。

 

1) Annual targets for cutting overcapacity were met ahead of schedule and were surpassed.

 

The State Council’s Guidelines on Addressing Overcapacity and Achieving a Turnaround in the Steel Industry (G.F. [2016] No. 6) and the State Council’s Guidelines on Addressing Overcapacity and Achieving a Turnaround in the Coal Industry (G.F. [2016] No. 7) were published and implemented. We launched three initiatives which focused on shutting down outdated production facilities, dealing with projects that violated laws and regulations, and carrying out coordinated law enforcement, thereby strictly controlling the expansion of production capacity, ensuring the shutting down of outdated production facilities was accelerated, and guiding the orderly elimination of overcapacity. We made appropriate arrangements to ensure that laid-off employees were resettled and provided employment and that enterprise debts were properly handled; and we encouraged businesses affected by overcapacity to merge, restructure, transform, and upgrade, or optimize business distribution.

 

We took timely and appropriate action in responding to the effects of adjustments in supply and demand and price fluctuations. In 2016, we reduced excess production capacity by over 65 million metric tons of steel and over 290 million metric tons of coal; both numbers surpassed the targets for the year. The steel and coal industries operated more efficiently: cases of companies being in arrears were reduced, cash-flow problems were eased, and problems of insufficient investment in workplace safety, overdue wages, and outstanding payments were alleviated to some extent. Overall, the performance of both industries as well as market expectations improved.

 

二是去库存加快推进。推动农业转移人口落户城镇,满足新市民住房需求,年末商品住宅待售面积比上年末减少4991万平方米。棚户区住房改造货币化安置比例进一步提高,全年货币化安置294万户,占全年棚改开工量的48.5%,比2015年提高18.6个百分点。

 

2) Work to cut excess inventory surged ahead.

 

We promoted the granting of urban residency to people who have moved to cities from rural areas and worked to ensure the housing needs of new urban residents were met, such that by the end of 2016, the area of commodity housing for sale was 49.91 million square meters less than it was at the end of 2015. We further expanded the use of direct monetary housing compensation for people displaced by the rebuilding of run-down urban areas. 2.94 million households received monetary housing compensation over the year, accounting for 48.5% of the year’s newly-commenced projects to rebuild run-down urban areas; this marked an increase of 18.6 percentage points over 2015.

 

三是去杠杆成效初步显现。《国务院关于积极稳妥降低企业杠杆率的意见》(国发〔2016〕54号)印发实施。采取兼并重组、市场化法治化债转股、发展股权融资等综合性措施,积极稳妥降低企业杠杆率。启动市场化银行债权转股权,截至2016年底,多家商业银行通过实施机构共选择了资产负债率偏高但具有发展前景的行业龙头企业20家,自主协商达成债转股框架协议,协议金额超过2500亿元。2016年末,全国规模以上工业企业资产负债率55.8%,同比下降0.4个百分点。

 

3) Efforts to deleverage delivered initial results.

 

The State Council’s Guidelines on Proactively Yet Prudently Lowering Enterprise Leverage Ratios (G.F. [2016] No. 54) were published and implemented. We encouraged business mergers and restructuring, promoted market-oriented and law-based debt-for-equity swaps, developed equity financing, and adopted other comprehensive measures so as to reduce business leverage ratios in an active yet prudent way. We launched an initiative for enterprises to engage in market-based debt-for-equity swaps with banks. By the end of 2016, a number of commercial banks had selected, via relevant agencies, 20 leading enterprises, which, despite having relatively high debt-to-asset ratios, had good prospects for development. Framework agreements on debt-for-equity swaps were drawn up with these enterprises on the basis of independent consultation, and are worth over 250 billion yuan. At the end of 2016, the debt-to-asset ratio of nationwide industrial enterprises with annual revenue from their main business operations of 20 million yuan or more was 55.8%, a year-on-year decrease of 0.4 percentage point.

 

四是降成本取得明显成效。《国务院关于印发降低实体经济企业成本工作方案的通知》(国发〔2016〕48号)印发实施。持续推进简政放权放管结合优化服务改革,降低制度性交易成本。全面推开营改增试点,阶段性降低“五险一金”缴费比例。实施煤电价格联动,推进输配电价改革,扩大电力直接交易规模,完善基本电价执行方式,降低企业用能成本。清理规范进出口环节、金融等领域涉企收费,推进铁路货运体制改革,开展物流业降本增效专项行动,印发实施推进物流大通道建设行动计划。2016年,规模以上工业企业每百元主营业务收入中的成本同比降低0.1元,利润率同比提高0.19个百分点。

 

4) Significant progress was achieved in reducing costs.

 

The State Council’s Circular on Publishing the Work Plan on Reducing the Costs of Enterprises in the Real Economy (G.F. [2016] No. 48) was published and implemented. We continued to promote the reforms to streamline administration, delegate more powers, improve regulation, and provide better services, thereby reducing transaction costs imposed by government. We extended trials of replacing business tax with value added tax (VAT) to all sectors and appropriately lowered the ratio of enterprise contributions for old-age insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, workers’ compensation, maternity insurance, and housing provident fund schemes for the current stage. We implemented the mechanism for coupling the price of coal with that of electricity, promoted price reform of electricity transmission and distribution, increased the number of direct sales by electricity generation companies to users, and improved the implementation of the basic electricity pricing scheme, so as to lower enterprise energy costs. We reviewed and standardized fees and charges levied on enterprises related to imports and exports and financial services, pushed forward in reforming the freight transportation system for railways, launched a cost-reduction and performance-improvement campaign within the logistics industry, and published and implemented an action plan to develop logistics channels.

 

In 2016, industrial enterprises with annual revenue from their main business operations of 20 million yuan or more reduced their costs by 0.1 yuan per 100 yuan of income from their main business operations and increased their profit rate by 0.19 percentage point on a year-on-year basis.

 

五是补短板力度加大。坚持既利当前又利长远,既重硬设施又重软能力,以市场化投融资方式带动银行贷款等资金投放,在脱贫攻坚、灾后水利恢复重建、社会事业、创新能力、新产业等关键领域和薄弱环节,抓好补短板建设。全年完成1000万以上农村贫困人口脱贫目标任务。

 

5) Efforts to strengthen points of weakness were intensified.

 

Keeping in mind the need to secure both short-term and long-term benefits and focusing on the development of both infrastructure and management and services, we pursued market-based investment and financing initiatives to stimulate bank loans and other forms of investment and worked to strengthen points of weakness in the key areas of poverty alleviation, post-disaster water conservancy restoration and reconstruction, social programs, innovation capacity-building, new industry, and other areas in need of attention. We achieved our target of helping more than 10 million rural residents lift themselves out of poverty over the course of the year.

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