双语:消除贫困,促进人权

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Full Text: Eradicating Poverty, Promoting Human Rights

周平剑大使在尼日利亚《人民报》发表题为《消除贫困,促进人权》的署名文章

2019年10月17日,尼日利亚主流媒体《人民报》在国际消除贫困日之际发表驻尼日利亚大使周平剑题为《消除贫困,促进人权》署名文章。全文如下:

 

On October 17, 2019, Nigerian newspaper Peoples Daily published an article written by Ambassador of China to Nigeria Dr. Zhou Pingjian. The full text goes as follows:

 

消除贫困,促进人权

Eradicating Poverty, Promoting Human Rights

 

10月17日是国际消除贫困日。

 

Today, October 17, is the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty.

 

联合国秘书长古特雷斯在2019年国际消除贫困日致辞中表示,消除极端贫困是全球实现可持续发展目标、为所有人建设可持续未来的核心,必须首先帮助深度贫困者脱贫,否则不让一个人掉队的目标就无法实现;鉴于今年是联合国《儿童权利公约》通过30周年,今年国际消除贫困日纪念活动以“共同行动,实现儿童家庭社区赋权,消除贫困”为主题。

 

In his message for the Day 2019, the Secretary-General of the United Nations Antonio Guterres stresses, “Ending extreme poverty is at the heart of the world’s efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and build a sustainable future for all. But success in leaving no one behind will remain elusive if we do not target the people who are farthest behind first.”

 

国际消除贫困日纪念活动可以追溯到1987年10月17日。当时,10多万人聚集在1948年《世界人权宣言》的签署地巴黎特罗卡岱罗广场,以纪念极端贫困、暴力和饥饿的受害者。集会者们宣称,贫穷是对人权的侵犯,并申明需要团结起来,确保这些权利得到尊重。联合国大会在1992年12月22日通过的第47/196号决议中宣布10月17日为国际消除贫困日,吁请各国在这一天酌情根据本国的情况,开展和推动开展消除贫穷和匮乏的具体活动。

 

According to the UN Secretary-General, this year’s observance focuses on “acting together to empower children, their families and communities to end poverty”, as we mark the 30th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.

 

The observance of the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty can be traced back to October 17, 1987. On that day, over a hundred thousand people gathered at the Trocadéro in Paris, where the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was signed in 1948, to honour the victims of extreme poverty, violence and hunger. They proclaimed that poverty is a violation of human rights and affirmed the need to come together to ensure that these rights are respected.

 

Through Resolution 47/196 adopted on December 22, 1992, the UN General Assembly declared October 17 as the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty and invited all States to devote the Day to presenting and promoting, as appropriate in the national context, concrete activities with regard to the eradication of poverty and destitution.

 

1949年10月1日中华人民共和国成立时,中国是世界上最贫困落后的国家之一。新中国成立以来,中国共产党带领人民持续向贫困宣战。过去70年里,中国国内生产总值在前30年年均增长4.4%,后40年年均增长9.5%,数亿计贫困人口摆脱贫困。

 

China was one of the poorest and most backward countries in the world when the People’s Republic of China (PRC) was founded on October 1, 1949. Since the founding of the PRC, the Communist Party of China has led the people in fighting poverty. Over the past 70 years, China’s GDP has averaged an annual growth rate of around 4.4% for the first three decades and 9.5% for the last four decades, lifting hundreds of millions people out of poverty.

 

中国农村贫困人口按照2010年贫困标准由1978年的7.7亿人减少至2018年的1660万人,贫困发生率由1978年的97.5%下降至2018年的1.7%。2012年至2018年,中国每年有1000多万人稳定脱贫。中国社会保障不断加强,织就了全世界最大的民生安全网,基本养老保险覆盖超过9亿人,医疗保险覆盖超过13亿人。中国成为世界上减贫人口最多的国家,是第一个完成联合国千年发展目标减贫目标的发展中国家,对全球减贫贡献率超过70%。到2020年,中国现行贫困线以下的人口都将脱贫,稳定实现农村贫困人口“两不愁、三保障”,同时实现贫困地区农民人均可支配收入增长幅度高于全国平均水平、基本公共服务主要领域指标接近全国平均水平。

 

Between 1978 and 2018 the number of rural poor fell from 770 million to 16.6 million calculated against China’s poverty line set in 2010, and the incidence of poverty in rural areas dropped from 97.5 percent to 1.7 percent. More than 10 million people rose and remained above the poverty line every year from 2012 to 2018. China has built the world’s largest social security system, with the basic old-age pension covering more than 900 million people and medical insurance covering over 1.3 billion people. With the highest number of people moving out of poverty, China was the first developing country to realize one of the UN Millennium Development Goals for poverty reduction. This achievement represented 70 percent of the global poverty reduction effort.

 

By 2020, all people in China living below the current poverty line will be taken out of poverty, i.e., the rural pool will be guaranteed food, clothing, compulsory education, basic medical care, and safe housing; in poverty-stricken areas, the growth rate in rural per capita disposable income will surpass the national averaged growth rate, and major indicators of basic public services will approach the national average.

 

可以说,中国70年来取得了减贫巨大成就,成功走出了一条中国特色扶贫开发道路。正如习近平主席指出,“这个成就,足以载入人类社会发展史册,也足以向世界证明中国共产党领导和中国特色社会主义制度的优越性。”

 

It is fair to say that China has actively explored a poverty reduction path with Chinese characteristics and scored remarkable achievements in poverty reduction during the past seven decades. As Chinese President Xi Jinping once remarked, “This achievement deserves to be recorded in the annals of human social development, and it proves the worth of the CPC’s leadership and Chinese socialism.”

 

中国减贫事业有哪些主要做法?为什么能够创造出人间奇迹?

 

What are China’s major efforts in poverty reduction? Why they work wonders? I would like to share China’s practices with Nigerian friends from four aspects.

 

一是坚持立足基本国情,充分发挥制度优势。发展是中国共产党执政兴国的第一要务,是解决中国所有问题的关键。中国充分发挥政治优势和制度优势,通过“党委领导、政府主导、社会参与”的工作机制,形成跨地区、跨部门、跨行业、全社会共同参与多元主体的社会扶贫体系。

 

First, proceeding from the prevailing national conditions and exploiting its institutional advantages. Development is the paramount task of the ruling CPC in governing and rejuvenating China, which is essential to addressing the country’s existing problems. By exploiting its political and institutional advantages, China has formed a trans-regional, trans-departmental, and trans-industrial poverty reduction process to which all social sectors contribute through the mechanism of “Party leadership, government guidance and social participation.”

 

二是坚持加快发展经济,扎实推进减贫事业。将减贫作为发展经济的一项重要内容,以发展经济促进减贫,发挥扶贫开发与经济社会发展相互促进作用,把扶贫开发作为经济社会发展规划的主要内容,推动减贫和人权保障领域各项工作统筹兼顾、协调发展,实现扶贫减贫规划、国家经济社会发展规划与国家人权行动计划有机联动。

 

Second, accelerating economic development and promoting poverty reduction. Taking poverty reduction as a major element of economic development, China promotes poverty reduction alongside economic growth, combines development-oriented poverty alleviation and socio-economic development, treats poverty alleviation through development as the main focus of the economic and social development plan.

 

三是坚持多种形式减贫,注重提高实际效果。把发展作为消除贫困的根本途径,坚持开发式扶贫方针,注重扶贫先扶智,增强贫困人口自我发展能力,阻断贫困代际传递。坚持普惠政策和特惠政策相结合,在加大对农村、农业、农民普惠政策支持的基础上,对贫困人口实施特惠政策。把精准扶贫、精准脱贫作为基本方略,分类施策,重在精准,做到应扶尽扶、应保尽保。

 

Third, adhering to multi-form poverty reduction, and focusing on effect. Development is the fundamental approach to poverty eradication. China addresses poverty reduction by enhancing the skills of the impoverished population and improving their capacity for self-development, and acts to prevent the transfer of poverty across generations. The government adds preferential policies to its general welfare policy, devising preferential policies for the impoverished population on the basis of the general welfare policy for the rural areas, agriculture and farmers. It takes targeted poverty reduction and elimination as the basic strategy, with differentiated and targeted measures, and provides aid and guarantees for all those who qualify.

 

四是坚持社会公平公正,努力实现成果共享和共同富裕。以保障和改善民生为重点,创新制度安排,促进社会公平正义。建立以权利公平、机会公平、规则公平为主要内容的社会公平保障体系,用法治保证人民平等参与、平等发展权利,使全体人民共享改革发展成果,实现共同富裕。

 

Fourth, prioritizing social fairness and justice, and striving to bring benefits and common prosperity to all. Focusing on ensuring and improving public well-being, China encourages institutional and organizational innovation, and promotes social fairness and justice. It is establishing a social fairness guarantee system applying to rights, opportunities and rules, protecting the people’s right to equal participation and equal development with the rule of law, and bringing the benefits of reform and development as well as common prosperity to the whole population.

 

尽管取得了巨大成绩,中国脱贫攻坚形势依然严峻。为确保到2020年全面建成小康社会,中国仍面临着减贫一千多万贫困人口的艰巨任务。我们也清醒地认识到中国的发展存在不平衡、不充分问题,而且即使消除了绝对贫困,相对贫困仍将长期存在。

 

Despite the achievements we have made, there are still challenges ahead. To fulfill the commitment to build China into a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020, there are more than 10 million people still to be lifted out of poverty, and we are fully aware that our development is unbalanced and inadequate. Moreover, winning the war against absolute poverty doesn’t erase the fact that relative poverty will still exist for a long time.

 

中国的脱贫攻坚战已经进入进入决战决胜的冲刺阶段。我们正以更大的决心、更明确的思路、更精准的举措、超常规的力度,众志成城去实现脱贫攻坚目标,决不落下一个贫困地区、一个贫困群众。到2020年,所有贫困地区和贫困人口都将一道迈入全面小康社会,我们对此充满信心。

 

China’s battle against poverty has entered the final but the toughest stage. To win the battle, we are carrying on the fight with firmer resolve, clearer thinking, more targeted measures, unique intensity, and concerted action, leaving behind no single poverty-stricken area or individual. We have the full confidence to bring reasonable prosperity to all poverty-stricken areas and individuals by 2020.

 

布哈里总统上个月在纽约出席第74届联合国大会一般性辩论时强调,“无论从何种意义而言,贫困仍是当今世界面临的最主要的挑战之一。消除贫困是实现可持续发展的必要前提。”在今年6月的民主日讲话中,布哈里总统表示,“只要有坚强的领导和坚定的决心,尼日利亚能够在10年内消除1亿贫困人口。”我们高度赞赏尼日利亚致力为全球消除贫困事业作出更大贡献,相信尼日利亚能够实现自己的减贫目标。

 

As President Muhammadu Buhari points out in his statement delivered at the general debate on the theme of the 74th session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York last month, “Poverty in all its manifestations remains one of the greatest challenges facing our world. Its eradication is an indispensable requirement for achieving sustainable development.” President Buhari also said in his Democracy Day speech in June, “With leadership and a sense of purpose, we can lift 100 million Nigerians out of poverty in 10 years.”

 

We highly appreciate and commend Nigeria’s firm commitment to making greater contribution to the global cause of poverty eradication. Nigeria can do it.

 

中国愿同尼日利亚和国际社会一道,携手消除贫困,迈向共同繁荣。

 

China stands ready to work with Nigeria and the international community to promote the eradication of poverty and march ahead on the path to shared prosperity.

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