双语:奋力谱写新时代对外开放新篇章

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摘要

Writing a New Chapter in Opening Up

钟山在《求是》上发表署名文章《奋力谱写新时代对外开放新篇章》

奋力谱写新时代对外开放新篇章

Writing a New Chapter in Opening Up

 

钟山

Zhong Shan

 

今年是改革开放40周年。40年来的实践充分证明,对外开放是推动我国经济社会发展的重要动力。

 

The year 2018 marks the 40th anniversary of the launch of China’s reform and opening up drive. Our experience over the past 40 years has clearly proved that opening up provides an important impetus for economic and social development.

 

一、40年对外开放取得历史性成就

I. Historic achievements of 40 years of opening up

 

党的十一届三中全会作出改革开放的历史性决策,开启了对外开放波澜壮阔的进程。40年来,我国坚持打开国门搞建设,实现了从封闭半封闭到全方位开放的伟大转折。党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央准确判断国际形势新变化,深刻把握国内改革发展新要求,确立开放发展新理念,实施共建“一带一路”倡议,建设开放型世界经济,构建人类命运共同体,我国开放事业取得新的重大成就。

 

In 1978, the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee made the historic decision to initiate a policy of reform and opening up, sparking a process of tremendous momentum toward opening up. Over the past 40 years, we have pursued development with doors wide open, and made an impressive transition from being a largely closed society to one that is open to the world in all respects. Since the 18th National Congress of the CPC in 2012, China has established a new development philosophy based on the principle of openness, launched the Belt and Road Initiative, and worked to build an open world economy and a community of shared future for humanity. As a result, the national cause of opening up has achieved extraordinary new successes.

 

开放极大解放了社会生产力。40年来,我国坚持以开放促发展,促进国内外要素资源自由流动、高效配置,积极融入全球价值链,推动经济持续快速发展。1978—2017年,按照可比价格计算,我国国内生产总值年均增长约9.5%;以美元计算,对外贸易额年均增长14.5%,实际利用外资累计2万多亿美元,对外直接投资增长40余倍。党的十八大以来,我国成为全球第一贸易大国,利用外资、对外投资、外汇储备稳居世界前列,开放型经济发展水平不断提升。

 

1. Opening up has greatly unleashed productive forces.

 

Over the past 40 years, we have consistently promoted development through opening up, facilitated the free flow and efficient allocation of domestic and foreign production factors, and actively integrated into the global value chain, with the intent to achieve sustained and rapid economic development. From 1978 to 2017, China’s GDP grew at an average rate of 9.5% per year according to constant prices. In US dollars, foreign trade increased by 14.5% per year, utilized foreign investment totaled over 2 trillion dollars, and outward direct investment increased more than 40-fold. China has become the world’s largest trading nation, its levels of utilized foreign investment, outward investment, and foreign exchange reserves rank among the highest in the world, and its level of economic openness is continuously rising.

 

开放有力促进了社会主义市场经济体制完善。40年来,我国坚持以开放促改革,突破利益固化藩篱,不断革除阻碍发展的体制机制弊端。从改革外贸指令性计划管理,到加入世贸组织、对接国际经贸规则,再到建设统一开放的大市场,各类市场主体活力持续释放。党的十八大以来,我国加快构建开放型经济新体制,建设自贸试验区,实行准入前国民待遇加负面清单管理制度,形成大量制度创新成果,更好发挥了市场对资源配置的决定性作用。

 

2. Opening up has helped improve the socialist market economy.

 

Over the past 40 years, we have consistently promoted reform through opening up, dismantled barriers created by vested interests, and overcome institutional shortcomings that hinder development. From reforming foreign trade management in terms of mandatory planning, to entering the WTO and aligning with international economic and trade rules, and further still to developing a unified and open market, we have continuously liberated the forces of various market entities. In recent years, China has expedited the establishment of new systems for an open economy, constructed pilot free trade zones, and implemented a management system based on pre-establishment national treatment and a negative list. The substantial number of institutional innovations has allowed us to better exert the decisive role of the market in resource allocation.

 

开放显著提高了人民生活水平。40年来,我国坚持以开放惠民生,扩大社会就业,丰富居民消费选择,实现开放成果由全体人民共享。通过充分利用两个市场两种资源,推动人民生活从短缺走向充裕、从贫困走向小康。党的十八大以来,我国加大开放力度,降低日用消费品进口关税,发展跨境电商,促进区域协同开放,带动兴边富民,创造更多就业增收机会,更好满足人民美好生活需要。目前,对外贸易直接或间接带动就业人数达到1.8亿左右,约占全国就业总数的23%。

 

3. Opening up has raised living standards by a remarkable degree.

 

Through the opening up of the past 40 years, we have consistently improved people’s wellbeing, created more jobs, and enriched the choices for personal consumption, benefiting all Chinese people. By fully utilizing domestic and international markets and resources, we have lifted our people from lives of shortage and poverty to lives of abundance and modest prosperity. In recent years, China has increased efforts to open up to the outside world, lowered import tariffs on everyday consumer goods, developed cross-border e-commerce, promoted coordinated opening up on a regional level, worked to boost development and improve living standards in border regions, and created more opportunities for employment and income growth, all of which has helped better meet the people’s needs for a better life. Currently, foreign trade directly or indirectly creates jobs for around 180 million people, accounting for 23% of total employment in China.

 

开放持续推动了世界各国共同发展。40年来,我国坚持以开放促共赢,不断深化多双边经贸合作,与各国共享发展机遇。我国扩大开放不仅有利于自身发展,也为促进世界经济发展作出了贡献。党的十八大以来,我国对世界经济增长贡献率超过30%,成为世界经济主要稳定器和动力源。2013—2017年,我国累计进口商品约9万亿美元。目前我国已与24个国家和地区签署16个自贸协定,2017年与自贸伙伴贸易额(不含港澳台)占我国外贸总额的25.9%。“一带一路”经贸合作成效显著,对外援助综合效应不断提升,在世贸组织、二十国集团、亚太经合组织、金砖国家等国际舞台提出更多中国倡议、中国方案,为全球经济治理贡献了中国智慧。

 

4. Opening up has facilitated shared development of all countries.

 

Over the past 40 years, we have continuously pursued mutual benefit through opening up, deepened multilateral and bilateral economic and trade cooperation, and shared development opportunities with other countries. Opening up wider to the outside world has not only been advantageous for China’s own development, but has also contributed to world economic development. At present, China’s contribution rate to global economic growth surpasses 30%; we have become a major stabilizer and engine of the world economy. Between 2013 and 2017, the accumulated value of imported goods to China was approximately US$9 trillion. At the time of this article’s publication, China has signed 16 free trade agreements with 24 countries and regions. In 2017, the trade between China and its free trade partners (excluding Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan) accounted for 25.9% of its total trade volume. There have been notable achievements in economic and trade cooperation stemming from the Belt and Road Initiative, and the overall effects of China’s foreign aid provisions are on a consistently upward trajectory. In addition, China has offered further proposals and solutions on international platforms such as the WTO, the G20, APEC, and BRICS, contributing Chinese wisdom to global economic governance.

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