双语:美国痼疾难除的枪支暴力严重践踏人权

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Full Text: The Long-Lasting Unsolved Problem of Gun Violence in the United States Has Aggressively Trampled on Human Rights

中国人权研究会发文揭露美国枪支暴力严重践踏人权

美国痼疾难除的枪支暴力严重践踏人权

The Long-Lasting Unsolved Problem of Gun Violence in the United States Has Aggressively Trampled on Human Rights

 

中国人权研究会

China Society for Human Rights Studies

 

2019年8月

August 2019

 

近日,美国连续发生多起严重枪击案,引发美国及国际舆论广泛关注。2019年8月3日,一位名叫帕特里克·克鲁修斯的犯罪嫌疑人端着AK-47步枪进入得克萨斯州埃尔帕索的一家沃尔玛商店,向购物民众疯狂射击,造成22人死亡、20余人受伤。8月4日凌晨,在俄亥俄州代顿市密布酒吧、餐馆和剧院的俄勒冈区,24岁的白人青年康纳·贝茨手持装有100发子弹的AR-15步枪,向街道上的行人射击,造成9人死亡、27人受伤。这两起枪击案再次凸显了美国枪支泛滥的严重后果,折射出美国政治和社会制度的深刻危机,反映了“美式人权”的根本缺陷。

 

Recently, a number of deadly mass shootings have taken place in the United States, which have caused widespread concern in the United States and the international community. On August 3, 2019, El Paso shooter Patrick Krusius with an AK-47 rifle in hand went on a shooting spree in a busy Walmart store located in El Paso, Texas, killing 22 people and wounding more than 20. In the early morning of August 4, the Oregon District, a lively area full of bars, restaurants, and theaters in Dayton, Ohio, became a grisly crime scene, when the 24-year-old Caucasian Connor Betts shot at the pedestrians on the streets with an AR-15-style rifle loaded with 100 bullets, killing 9 people and wounding 27. These two mass shootings have once again exposed the grave consequences of the proliferation of guns in the United States. They have reflected the profound crisis in the US political and social systems and highlighted the United States’ hypocrisy on human rights.

 

一、美国枪支泛滥、枪支暴力严重

Part 1 The Proliferation of Guns and the Serious Problem of Gun Violence in the United States

 

美国是全世界私人拥有枪支最多的国家,民间枪支数量庞大,且呈现出不断增加的趋势。2000年美国私人拥枪数量为2.59亿支,目前美国私人拥枪数量已超过美国人口数。根据盖洛普民调机构2011年的调查,47%的美国成年人自报拥有枪支。美国南部成人拥枪率高达54%。一方面,对暴力威胁的担忧导致许多人为求自保纷纷购枪,另一方面,枪支泛滥又是造成暴力犯罪居高不下的重要原因。大量枪支散布在民间,使得美国成为枪击案件频发、枪击伤亡数量惊人的国家。美国疾病防治中心2014年报告称,由于普遍存在校园霸凌现象,美国约有20万到25万名中学生携带武器上学。据统计,8.6%受欺凌的学生带过武器上学,4.6%即使没受欺凌的学生也带过武器上学。

 

The United States has the largest number of privately-owned guns in the world, and this number, which is large already, is continuously increasing. In 2000, there were 259 million guns in private hands in the United States. By now, the number of privately-owned guns in the United States has already exceeded the number of US residents. According to a Gallup survey conducted in 2011, 47 percent of US adults reported that they had guns, and in the southern United States, 54 percent of adults had guns. On the one hand, concerns about the threat of violence have led many US people to buy guns for self-protection. On the other hand, the proliferation of guns has increasingly become an important cause of violent crime. Since a large number of guns are privately held across the country, the United States has seen frequent shooting cases and an alarming number of shooting casualties. According to the 2014 report of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), because of the widespread school bullying phenomena, about 200,000 to 250,000 middle school students in the United States carried weapons to school, and according to statistics, 8.6 percent of the students who had been bullied before took weapons to school, and 4.6 percent of the students who had never been bullied also took weapons to school.

 

枪支泛滥必然带来枪支暴力。美国是世界上枪支暴力最严重的国家。2018年美国共发生涉枪案件57103件,导致14717人死亡、28172人受伤,其中未成年人死伤3502人。《赫芬顿邮报》网站2018年12月6日报道,对美国2000年至2016年枪支致死官方数据的分析发现,枪支暴力导致美国人均预期寿命减少近2.5岁,其中非洲裔减少4.14岁。美国的枪击案件造成大量人员伤亡,恶性枪杀案件更是形成对公众安全的重大威胁。枪支暴力严重践踏人权,特别是直接侵犯了美国民众的生命权。

 

The proliferation of guns will inevitably lead to gun violence. The United States is the country with the most gun violence in the world. In 2018, a total of 57,103 gun cases occurred in the United States, resulting in 14,717 deaths and 28,172 injuries, including 3,502 deaths and injuries of minors. The Huffington Post website reported on December 6, 2018, that an analysis of official data on gun deaths from 2000 to 2016 in the United States found that gun violence caused the average life expectancy of people in the US to drop nearly 2.5 years, with African-Americans decreasing by 4.14 years. Recurrent shooting cases have caused a large number of casualties in the United States, and deadly mass shootings have already become a major threat to public safety. Gun violence has severely violated human rights in the United States, especially the US people’s right to life.

 

美国枪支暴力痼疾难除。据统计,在美国非正常死亡人群中,枪杀是仅次于交通事故的第二大死因,平均每年有1.5万人左右遭到枪杀。根据美国联邦调查局2016年秋季发布的年度《统一犯罪报告》的统计,发生在美国的谋杀案件中有71.5%使用了枪支,抢劫案件中有40.8%使用了枪支,严重暴力袭击案件中有24.2%使用了枪支。自1972年以来,美国平均每天有80多人因枪杀案毙命,其中约12人为儿童。在枪支暴力事件的发生数量上,美国远远超过其他发达国家。美国人口仅占全球总人口的5%,发生在公共场所的大规模枪击事件却占到全球的31%。

 

Gun violence is a long-lasting unsolved problem in the United States. According to statistics, among the non-natural causes of death in the United States, shootings are the second-leading cause of death after traffic accidents, with an average of 15,000 people being shot every year. According to the Uniform Crime Report (UCR) released by the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the fall of 2016, in the United States, 71.5 percent of the murder cases, 40.8 percent of the robbery cases, and 24.2 percent of serious violent attacks have involved guns. Since 1972, in the United States, more than 80 people on average, including about 12 children, have been killed by gunshots per day. No other developed country has seen so many gun violence incidents occur within its borders as the United States has. At present, the US population accounts for only 5 percent of the world’s population, yet 31 percent of the world’s mass shooting incidents in public places have happened in this country.

 

频繁发生的恶性枪击事件已成为美国标志性特征。美国发生的严重枪击案件不时会上新闻媒体的头版头条。在电影院和校园等人员密集场所发生的枪击案常常造成严重伤亡。2017年10月1日晚,64岁的白人男子史蒂芬·帕多克在拉斯维加斯从曼德勒海湾宾馆32层的房间向楼下露天演唱会2万多名观众开枪扫射。枪击持续了10至15分钟,造成近60人死亡、500余人受伤。这是美国现代史上最为严重的枪击案。事后,警察在其酒店房间与家中共搜出42支枪、数千发子弹及爆炸物。

 

Recurrent deadly shooting cases have become a hallmark feature of the United States. Serious shooting incidents in the United States frequently make headlines on different media around the world. The mass shootings that have happened in crowded public places, such as cinemas and schools, have often caused serious casualties. On the evening of October 1, 2017, the 64-year-old Caucasian Stephen Paddock indiscriminately fired rifle rounds from the 32nd floor of the Mandalay Bay Hotel in Las Vegas at more than 20,000 spectators at the outdoor concert downstairs. The shooting lasted for 10 to 15 minutes, killing nearly 60 people and injuring more than 500 people. This incident is by far the deadliest mass shooting in modern American history. After the incident, the police found 42 guns, thousands of bullets, and explosives in the shooter’s hotel room and home.

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