双语:谱写国际人权交流合作新篇章

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摘要

Writing a New Chapter of International Human Rights Exchanges and Cooperation

谱写国际人权交流合作新篇章

Writing a New Chapter of International Human Rights Exchanges and Cooperation

 

李保东

Li Baodong

 

I

 

当前,国际风云激荡,以习近平同志为核心的党中央洞察大势,运筹帷幢,作出系列全局性、战略性、前瞻性部署,实现外交大发展、大跨越、大提升。作为总体外交重要组成部分,中国人权国际交流合作成绩斐然,开创了中国特色社会主义人权外交新局面。

 

Facing profound transformation in the international environment, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has made insightful observations of the trends of the times and drawn up and implemented comprehensive, strategic and forward-looking plans, and as a result, great progress and development have been achieved in China’s diplomacy. As an important part of China’s diplomatic endeavors, international exchanges and cooperation on human rights have also registered remarkable achievements, opening up a new vista for human rights diplomacy with Chinese characteristics.

 

第一,参与国际人权治理有新突破。过去5年,中国积极参与国际人权治理,推动建立公平正义、合理有效的国际人权体系。中国连续打造人权主场外交,成功举办“北京人权论坛”、纪念《发展权利宣言》通过30周年国际研讨会、“南南人权论坛”、第16次亚欧非正式人权研讨会等。习近平总书记向“北京人权论坛”等致贺信,指出“人权保障没有最好,只有更好。”“中国坚持把人权的普遍性原则同本国实际相结合,走出了一条适合中国国情的人权发展道路。”“中国将坚定不移走和平发展道路、坚定不移推进中国人权事业和世界人权事业”,为中国人权事业发展指明方向,为中国全面参与国际人权治理提供基本遵循。

 

First, we have made new breakthroughs in international human rights governance. Over the past five years, China has taken an active part in international human rights governance and worked for the establishment of a fair, just, reasonable and effective international human rights system. China has hosted a series of human rights related events, including the Beijing Forum on Human Rights, the International Seminar on the 30th Anniversary of the Declaration on the Right to Development, the South-South Human Rights Forum and the 16th Informal ASEM Seminar on Human Rights. In his congratulatory letter to the opening of the Beijing Forum on Human Rights, President Xi Jinping noted that “there is always room for improvement when it comes to human rights protection”, “China has embarked on a path for human rights development suited to its reality through combining the universality of human rights with China’s specific conditions”, and “China will unswervingly stay on the path of peaceful development and steadfastly advance human rights development both in China and in the wider world”. These remarks chart the course for China’s human rights development and provide guidance for China to fully participate in international human rights governance.

 

中国借助人权理事会等联合国平台,将“人类命运共同体”等我国重大理念纳入人权理事会决议,广泛宣介“一带一路”倡议;推动通过“公共卫生”以及“发展促进人权”等决议;多次代表140余国就“加强人权合作”、“落实发展权”、“共建人类命运共同体”等作共同发言;多次举办“以减贫促人权”、“中国人权成就”等为主题的人权边会和展览。我主动作为,扩大影响,不断将治国理政理念转化为国际共识,将中国人权实践打造为国际合作范例,提升了中国在国际人权领域的软实力和影响力。

 

Through the Human Rights Council and other UN platforms, China has incorporated important concepts such as “a community of shared future for mankind” into Human Rights Council resolutions, and raised the visibility of the Belt and Road Initiative. China has worked for the adoption of resolutions entitled “Promoting the Right of Everyone to the Enjoyment of the Highest Attainable Standard of Physical and Mental Health through Enhancing Capacity-Building in Public Health”, and “The Contribution of Development to the Enjoyment of All Human Rights”, delivered joint statements on behalf of over 140 countries on “Enhancing Dialogue and Cooperation to Protect and Promote Universally Recognized Human Rights”, “Realizing Development for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights” and “Promote and Protect Human Rights, Build a Community of Shared Future for Mankind”, among others, and held side-events and exhibitions, including those themed “Promotion of Human Rights: Role of Poverty Reduction” and “Progress of China’s Human Rights”. These proactive efforts have helped to enhance China’s soft power and influence in international human rights arena by translating domestic governance philosophies into international consensus, and highlighting China’s human rights practices as fine examples of international cooperation.

 

中国高票当选2014-2016年度和2017-2019年度人权理事会成员,成为为数不多的四度当选国家。成功连任联合国非政府组织委员会成员,多名中国专家出任联合国经社文权利公约委员会、禁止酷刑委员会、消除种族歧视委员会和联合国人权理事会咨询委员会等多边人权机构委员。中国的人权事业成就进一步获得国际社会肯定,增强了中国在多边人权机构的影响,引导了相关国际人权机构及规则的发展方向。

 

China was re-elected to the Human Rights Council by an overwhelming majority for the years of 2014-2016 and 2017-2019, making China one of the few countries that have won the elections for four times. China was also re-elected as a member of the UN Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations. Several Chinese experts currently serve on multilateral human rights committees, including the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Committee against Torture, the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, and the Human Rights Council Advisory Committee. China’s human rights achievements have gained more international recognition, and strengthened its influence in multilateral human rights agencies and its ability to shape the development and the rules-making process of the relevant agencies.

 

第二,捍卫国家利益形象有新作为。多次挫败部分国家在人权理事会搞反华共同发言、干涉中国内政的图谋,成功推动人权理事会核可中国国别人权审查报告。建设性参与联大三委、人权理事会及其下属机制会议,坚决驳斥部分国家和反华敌对势力的无理指责,加强各方对中国人权事业的理解和支持。中国始终高举《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则的旗帜,熟练运用联合国议事规则,在与反华势力的斗争中牢牢占据道义高地和规则高地,维护自身利益,捍卫了国家主权、安全和尊严。

 

Second, we have taken new actions to uphold national interests and image. China has thwarted some countries’ attempts to deliver joint statements against China and interfere in China’s internal affairs in the Human Rights Council, and facilitated the adoption of its Universal Periodic Review report. China has played a constructive role in the meetings of the Third Committee, Human Rights Council and its affiliated mechanisms, resolutely refuted the unfounded accusations made by some countries and anti-China forces, and garnered greater understanding and support for China’s human rights endeavors. We have upheld the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and adeptly used UN rules and procedures to make sure that we hold the high ground of morality and rules compliance in fighting anti-China forces, thus safeguarding China’s national interests, sovereignty, security and dignity.

 

第三,履行国际人权义务有新成果。中国接受联合国人权理事会第二轮国别人权审查,全面介绍中国人权事业发展情况,与各国进行坦诚和建设性对话。审查中,虚心听取各国建议,接受254条建议中的204条,占建议总数的81%,体现了中国开放包容、积极认真态度,体现了中国促进和保护人权的政策、行动和举措。

 

Third, we have registered new progress in fulfilling international human rights obligations. China participated in the second cycle of the Universal Periodic Review at the Human Rights Council, during which China elaborated on its achievements in promoting human rights, held candid and constructive dialogue with other countries, listened to their suggestions with an open mind, and accepted 204 (81%) of the 254 recommendations they had raised. This demonstrated China’s open, inclusive and earnest attitude, and highlighted the policies, actions and measures carried out by the country to promote and protect human rights.

 

圆满完成《经济、社会和文化权利国际公约》第二次履约报告审议,被委员会誉为“履约审议典范”。本着积极、自信、包容、开放的态度接受《儿童权利公约》、《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》、《禁止酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》和《消除一切形式种族歧视国际公约》等履约审议,树立了以人为本、诚信履约、重视合作的大国形象。

 

China completed the second periodic review of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which was hailed as “an exemplary review” by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. In a positive, confident, inclusive and open spirit, China also received reviews on its implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, among others. In the process, China has established its reputation as a major country committed to improving people’s well-being, honoring acceded agreements, and enhancing international cooperation.

 

第四,开展对外人权交流有新举措。过去5年,中国同西方和发展中国家举行了50余次人权对话,积极稳妥同联合国人权机构开展合作。同美国、欧盟、英国、德国、瑞士、荷兰、澳大利亚、新西兰等西方国家举行了29次人权对话,并开展中美法律专家交流、中澳人权技术合作,促进了政府部门、司法机构、学术团体的深入交流,增进相互理解,有效管控分歧,对冲了美西方和反华势力利用人权问题对我的干扰。

 

Fourth, we have adopted new measures for international human rights exchanges. Over the past five years, China has conducted more than 50 human rights dialogues with Western and developing countries and actively and appropriately carried out cooperation with UN human rights agencies.

 

China has held 29 such dialogues with the European Union, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand and other Western countries. China-US Legal Exchange and China-Australia Human Rights Technical Cooperation were also carried out. These efforts have deepened exchanges among government departments, judiciaries and academic groups, enhanced mutual understanding, effectively managed disagreements and offset the disturbances inflicted by the US, other Western Countries and anti-China elements under the pretext of human rights.

 

同俄罗斯、埃及、南非、巴西、马来西亚、非盟、巴基斯坦、白俄罗斯、古巴、老挝、斯里兰卡、上海合作组织等10多个发展中国家或地区组织开展人权磋商,推动金砖国家驻日内瓦大使建立会晤机制,交流互鉴,深化合作,加强了发展中国家的团结协作,扩大了国际人权斗争统一战线,壮大了“朋友圈”。

 

China has held human rights consultations with over 10 developing countries or regional organizations such as Russia, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Malaysia, the African Union, Pakistan, Belarus, Cuba, Laos, Sri Lanka and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. China worked to put in place a regular meeting mechanism among BRICS countries’ permanent representatives in Geneva. Through mutual learning and closer cooperation, the unity and coordination among developing countries has been strengthened, the united front for human rights endeavors expanded and our friend circle enlarged.

 

继续同联合国日内瓦办事处、人权高专等保持建设性接触,鼓励其客观、公正履职,重视发展中国家关切。向发展权问题特别报告员捐款,邀请法律和实践中消除对妇女歧视问题工作组、外债问题独立专家、极端贫困与人权问题等3名特别报告员访华,接待禁止酷刑委员会委员、消除种族歧视委员会主席等来访,以我为主,展现姿态,增信释疑,引导国际人权机构公正客观看待中国人权进展。

 

China has maintained constructive contacts with the UN Office at Geneva, the High Commissioner for Human Rights and others, and encouraged them to perform their duties in an objective and just manner and attach importance to the concerns of developing countries. China contributed funds to the Special Rapporteur on the right to development, invited the Working Group on the Issue of Discrimination against Women in Law and in Practice, Independent Expert on the effects of foreign debt and three Special Rapporteurs including the one on extreme poverty and human rights to visit China, and received members of the Committee Against Torture, Chairperson of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and others. During these exchanges, China focused on its own agenda, demonstrated goodwill, enhanced trust, reduced misgivings, and helped international human rights agencies to view China’s progress in human rights endeavors impartially and objectively.

 

第五,提升人权话语权有新进展。以国家人权行动计划和人权白皮书为抓手,举办人权成就图片展、接受访谈、撰文、对外吹风等,全面立体宣传中国人权理念和成就。以人权理事会、联大三委等各重要国际场合为平台,旗帜鲜明反对将人权问题政治化,反对借人权问题干涉他国内政,为广大发展中国家仗义执言。以落实千年发展目标和2030年可持续发展议程为契机,积极开展对外援助。截至2016年,中国累计对外提供援款4000多亿人民币,为120多个发展中国家落实千年发展目标提供帮助。各方高度赞赏中方有关举措,认为这不仅是对国际和平与发展事业的支持,更是对全球人权事业的促进。

 

Fifth, we have made fresh headway in increasing our say on human rights issues. China has released the National Human Rights Action Plan and the White Paper on Human Rights, and employed multiple channels such as photo exhibitions, interviews, news articles and briefings to fully and faithfully present China’s understanding of and progress in human rights from different angles; China uses the Human Rights Council, the Third Committee of the UN General Assembly and other important international platforms to express its unequivocal opposition to politicizing human rights issues and interfering in other countries’ internal affairs under the pretext of human rights, and to speak up for developing countries; China takes the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development as an opportunity to actively engage in international assistance. By 2016, China has provided a total of over RMB 400 billion foreign assistance and supported more than 120 developing countries in their efforts to follow through on the MDGs. Parties involved highly commend China’s relevant measures and regard them as support for international peace and development and contribution to the global human rights cause.

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