双语:阿祖莱总干事2020年世界逻辑日致辞

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Message by UNESCO DG Audrey Azoulay on World Logic Day 2020

World Logic Day 2020

Message from Ms. Audrey Azoulay, Director-General of UNESCO, on the Occasion of World Logic Day

教科文组织总干事奥德蕾·阿祖莱世界逻辑日致辞

 

14 January 2020

2020年1月14日

 

In his novel Nouvelles nourritures, André Gide said that “the fear of stumbling makes the mind hold tightly onto the handrail of logic”. This brief metaphorical statement sums up logic’s crucial role in the development of human thought.

 

“因为担心失衡跌倒,我们的思想紧紧抓住逻辑这个扶手。”这一精练的比喻摘自安德烈·纪德的《新粮》,它形象地概括了逻辑对于人类思想发展的重要作用。

 

Logic is the essence of logos, a Greek term which means, variously, “speech”, “language” and “reasoning”. It is thus, to use Kant’s definition, a science which meticulously sets out and rigorously demonstrates the formal rules of all thought.

 

逻辑是“逻各斯”(logos)的精髓,这个希腊词同时具有“话语”“语言”和“推理”的意思,因此借用康德的定义,逻辑学是“一门详细阐释和严格证明所有思想的形式规则的科学”。

 

We can see it in the treatises of Aristotle, Euclid, Leibniz and Spinoza; it is evident in the founding texts of Mohist philosophy in China and of the Nyaya school in India: the study of logic has interested countless philosophers and mathematicians throughout the centuries.

 

不论是从亚里士多德或欧几里得、莱布尼茨或斯宾诺莎的著述中,还是从中国墨家学派到印度正理学派创始人们的典籍中,我们都能看到,逻辑研究千百年来一直吸引着数不胜数的哲学家和数学家。

 

It is because of its multiple practical applications – perhaps especially because of them – that logic has been studied so extensively. To be sure, logic has been a key element in the development of science and engineering, cognitive psychology, linguistics and communication. A wellspring of innovation, logic has always been a veritable catalyst for change.

 

逻辑之所以得到如此广泛的研究,也得益于并且可能主要得益于它具有多方面实际应用功能。逻辑在科学与工程学、认知心理学、语言学、传播学的发展中发挥了重要作用;逻辑也切实推动了思想变革,并且是许多创新的源泉。

 

In the twenty-first century – indeed, now more than ever – the discipline of logic is a particularly timely one, utterly vital to our societies and economies. Computer science and information and communications technology, for example, are rooted in logical and algorithmic reasoning.

 

特别是在当今二十一世纪,对我们的社会和经济而言,逻辑学比以往任何时候都更为切合时宜且不可或缺。例如,计算机科学和信息与通信技术都来源于逻辑和算法推理。

 

Artificial intelligence (AI), the unprecedented developments in which constitute a technological and even anthropological revolution, is itself an innovation founded on logical reasoning. In that connection, through the first global standard-setting instrument concerning the ethical principles of AI, UNESCO will soon be establishing an ethical framework for this innovative product of logic.

 

人工智能前所未有的发展构成了一场技术革命乃至人类学革命,而人工智能本身就是一种基于逻辑推理的创新。对此,教科文组织将通过拟定世界上第一部关于人工智能伦理原则的准则性文书,为这一逻辑学创新制定一个伦理框架。

 

Logic is ever-present: when you use AI software, when you turn on your computer, when you develop an argument. Logic is a contemporary universal.

 

当我们在使用人工智能软件、在启动一台计算机,或提出一个论断的时候,我们都是在与逻辑打交道。逻辑是当代的普遍现象。

 

Yet despite being surrounded by logic, we remain quite unaware of its ubiquity. We often apply logic without knowing that we are doing so.

 

我们被逻辑包围,但却很少意识到其存在——我们经常在不知不觉中应用逻辑。

 

Thus, to draw attention to the importance of logic, UNESCO has proclaimed 14 January World Logic Day. This date was chosen in honour of two great logicians of the twentieth century: Kurt Gödel and Alfred Tarski. Gödel, who died on 14 January 1978, established the incompleteness theorem, which transformed the study of logic in the twentieth century. Tarski, who was born on 14 January 1901, developed theories which interacted with those of Gödel.

 

因此,为了提高人们对逻辑的重要性的认识,教科文组织宣布1月14日为“世界逻辑日”。之所以特地选择1月14日,是为了纪念二十世纪的两位逻辑学巨匠:库尔特·哥德尔,去世于1978年1月14日,其不完全性定理改变了二十世纪逻辑研究的面貌;阿尔弗雷德·塔斯基,出生于 1901年1月14 日,其理论与哥德尔的理论形成了对话。

 

The first edition of World Logic Day will provide an opportunity for numerous debates – at universities, research institutes, foundations and associations – on the significance of logic in the twenty-first century. Together with the International Council for Philosophy and Human Sciences (CIPSH) and all its partners, UNESCO applauds the organization of such events and extends its wishes for their success.

 

值此首个世界逻辑日,相关大学、研究机构、基金会和协会将开展多项倡议活动,探讨逻辑在二十一世纪的重要性和作用。教科文组织与国际哲学与人文科学理事会及其所有合作伙伴一道,欢迎这些倡议并祝愿活动圆满成功。

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