双语:傅聪在莫斯科防扩散大会关于伊核问题的专题发言

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摘要

Remarks by Fu Cong on “JCPOA: Possible Steps to Prevent Further Escalation and Sustain the Deal” at the 2019 Moscow Nonproliferation Conference

傅聪司长在2019年莫斯科防扩散大会上就伊朗核问题做专题发言

外交部军控司司长傅聪在莫斯科防扩散大会关于伊核问题的专题发言

Remarks by H.E. Mr. Fu Cong, Director-General of the Department of Arms Control of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China, on “JCPOA: Possible Steps to Prevent Further Escalation and Sustain the Deal” at the 2019 Moscow Nonproliferation Conference

 

2019年11月9日,莫斯科

Moscow, 9 November 2019

 

各位嘉宾,

女士们,先生们:

 

Excellencies,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

 

几天前,伊朗方面宣布了第四阶段减少履行伊核全面协议义务的措施,包括限制国际原子能机构对伊监督核查。中方注意到不少国家都对此表达了关切,同时也提请各方正视两点基本事实:

 

Several days ago, the Iranian government announced the fourth step of scaling down its commitments under the JCPOA. While noting that many countries have expressed concerns on Iran’s latest moves, the Chinese side reminds all parties to keep the following two fundamental points in mind.

 

第一,当前伊核紧张局势归根到底是美国极限施压所致。伊核问题本无事。美国恢复对伊单边制裁,并通过“长臂管辖”阻碍他国执行全面协议,导致伊方无法享有全面协议赋予的经济红利,被迫减少履行义务。这是伊核危机的逻辑所在。

 

First, the root cause of the current tension of the Iranian nuclear issue lies with the US policy of maximum pressure against Iran. The situation was originally calm until the US reimposed unilateral sanctions on Iran and impeded implementation of the JCPOA by others through long-arm jurisdiction. As a result, Iran is forced to reduce its nuclear commitments since it cannot enjoy the economic benefits embedded in the nuclear deal. This is the logic behind the Iranian nuclear crisis.

 

第二,伊朗减少履约举措不具有实质性核扩散风险。伊朗仍在履行《不扩散核武器条约》,执行全面保障监督协定,并且一直强调只要其经济利益得到保障,可随时恢复履行全面协议。

 

Second, Iran’s reduction of its commitments under the JCPOA does not pose substantial nuclear proliferation risk. Iran is still fulfilling its NPT full-scope Safeguards obligations, and has repeatedly reiterated its readiness to reverse course at any time once the economic benefits are guaranteed.

 

当前,伊核形势正在朝着危险的方向发展。国际社会应共同努力,推动伊核问题的政治外交解决进程。

 

Having said that, one cannot fail to recognize that the current situation of the Iranian nuclear issue is heading towards a dangerous direction. And therefore, the international community should make concerted efforts to seek a political and diplomatic solution. In this regard, China wishes to make the following points:

 

一是坚持维护多边主义的根本原则。全面协议由各方谈判达成,经安理会第2231号决议核可,是多边主义的重要成果。维护全面协议,就是维护多边主义,维护安理会权威,维护以国际法为基础的国际秩序。在9月伊核外长会上,协议各方重申了完整、有效执行全面协议的承诺。

 

First, the fundamental principle of multilateralism should be upheld. The JCPOA is a hard-won victory of multilateral diplomacy, reached through negotiations and endorsed by the UN Security Council. Preserving the JCPOA serves the good purpose of safeguarding multilateralism, the authority of the UN Security Council, and the international order based on international law. In this connection, I wish to recall that at the Foreign Ministers’ Meeting in September, all the remaining parties reaffirmed their commitment to the full and effective implementation of the JCPOA.

 

二是坚持维护全面协议权利和义务的平衡。全面协议既有对伊核计划发展的限制,又有对伊经济红利的保障。美方退出协议和恢复制裁打破的平衡应该得到恢复。我们支持欧方推动“贸易结算支持机制”发挥实效,尽早覆盖能源等领域,并向非欧盟国家开放。我们也支持任何有利于维护全面协议的外交努力,包括法方的“信贷机制”方案。当务之急是推动美方解除或缓解对伊朗制裁,否则任何方案都难以落地。

 

Second, the balance between rights and obligations under the JCPOA should be maintained. The nuclear deal not only limits Iran’s nuclear program, but also guarantees Iran’s economic benefits. The balance disrupted by the US withdrawal from the deal and resumption of sanctions on Iran need to be restored. We encourage our European colleagues to make more efforts to ensure that the Instrument for Supporting Trade Exchanges (INSTEX) achieve tangible results, expand the coverage of INSTEX to energy fields and open it up to Non-EU countries at an early date. We also support any diplomatic effort conducive to safeguarding the JCPOA, including the Credit Line Mechanism proposed by France. The priority in this regard should be to push the US to lift or at least ease sanctions against Iran. Otherwise, no mechanism could get off the ground.

 

三是坚持对话协商化解分歧。各方应避免相互指责,坚持在联委会框架内处理履行全面协议问题,不能诉诸争端解决机制,更不能提交安理会,以防局势轮番升级。有关国家对协议“日落条款”、地区安全等问题有不同程度关切,各方应在维护全面协议前提下,搭建新的平台,开展平等对话,寻求长期解决方案。

 

Third, disputes should be resolved through dialogue and consultation. Instead of finger-pointing, all parties should seek to resolve issues related to JCPOA implementation within the framework of the Joint Commission, and refrain from resorting to the Dispute Settlement Mechanism, much less the Security Council. Otherwise, we may risk a spiral escalation. Regarding the concerns on “the sunset clause” of the JCPOA and regional security issues , a new platform could be set up to seek long-term solutions through dialogue on equal footing and on the basis of maintaining the integrity of the JCPOA.

 

四是坚持促进地区和平的基本方向。海湾地区局势与伊核问题相互交织,对国际能源供应和全球安全稳定具有重要影响。中方支持海湾地区国家停止敌对言行,就区域安全问题开展对话。同时,我们呼吁域外国家为地区恢复和平安宁注入“正能量”,帮助所有地区国家共享安全,而不是在地区制造对立、煽动对抗。

 

Fourth, peace in the region should be the overriding objective of all related efforts. The situation in the Gulf region and the Iranian nuclear issue are intertwined with each other, casting a long shadow on the global energy supply and international security and stability. China calls upon the countries in the Gulf region to refrain from hostile rhetorics and actions, and engage in dialogue on regional security issues. Meanwhile, we call upon countries outside the region to promote peace and stability, rather than inciting hostility and confrontation in that region.

 

中国是全面协议的谈判方和参与方,也是全面协议的坚定维护者和执行者。中方一直坚定维护与伊朗的正常经贸合作,甚至为此受到美方非法的单边制裁。阿拉克重水堆改造是全面协议的核心项目。中国作为改造工作组双组长之一,一直同英方双组长积极牵头推动改造进程。中国积极履行改造设计、首炉燃料、设备供应等阿堆改造主要职责,并取得有目共睹的进展。中方将继续根据全面协议及各方共识,推动改造取得更大进展,也希望各方积极参与,提供更大的支持和帮助。

 

As a party to and strong supporter of the JCPOA, China has taken a firm position in safeguarding its normal trade with Iran, despite the unilateral sanctions imposed by the US. The modernization of the Arak heavy-water reactor is a core project of the JCPOA. China, as one of the co-chairs of this project, together with the UK, has spared no effort in advancing the modernization process. China is also actively carrying out its commitments related to reactor design, fabrication of initial core load of fuel, and equipment supply, and remarkable progress has already been achieved in this regard. China will continue to push forward the project in accordance with the JCPOA and the consensus reached among the parties. Meanwhile, we hope that all parties concerned could play a more active role in this process and provide more concrete support to the project.

 

总之,伊核问题的解决并非一朝一夕之功,需要智慧和耐心。但我们相信,只要各方保持团结,维护和执行好全面协议,就一定能推动伊核问题的政治外交解决。

 

In conclusion, I would like to say that the Iranian nuclear issue cannot be resolved overnight. We need wisdom and patience, but we are confident that political and diplomatic solutions to the Iranian nuclear issue can be found, as long as all parties stay in unity and stick to preserving and implementing the JCPOA.

 

谢谢大家!

 

Thank you very much.

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