双语:乐玉成在第八届世界和平论坛午餐会上的演讲

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摘要

Speech by Vice Foreign Minister Le Yucheng at the Lunch Meeting of the 8th World Peace Forum

乐玉成出席第八届世界和平论坛午餐会并致辞

大变局中的中国外交:使命与担当

China’s Foreign Policy in a Fast-Changing World: Mission and Responsibility

 

——在第八届世界和平论坛午餐会上的演讲

– Speech by at the Lunch Meeting of the Eighth World Peace Forum

 

外交部副部长 乐玉成

Le Yucheng, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs

 

2019年7月8日

8 July 2019

 

尊敬的陈旭主任,

尊敬的各位嘉宾,

女士们,先生们,朋友们,

 

Professor Chen Xu, Chairperson of the Tsinghua University Council,

Distinguished Guests,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

 

很高兴再次出席世界和平论坛,与各位新老朋友相聚一堂。本届世界和平论坛的主题是“稳定国际秩序:共担、共治、共享”。我依然清晰记得,去年,也是在这里,我们纵论天下大势和中国外交,大家对形势最突出的感受是“三不”:不确定、不稳定、不可预测。遗憾的是,一年过去了,国际局势依然乱变交织、阴云密布,各种不稳定不确定因素还在蔓延,世界仍面临着何去何从的艰难选择。

 

It gives me great pleasure to come back to the World Peace Forum and share my thoughts with so many friends, old and new. The theme this year for the Forum, namely, “Stabilizing the World order: Common Responsibilities, Joint Management, and Shared Benefits” reminded me of our discussions here last year on the international situation and China’s foreign policy. The general feeling then was that international developments could be characterized by three words starting with “u”: uncertain, unstable and unpredictable. Unfortunately, as we meet again one year later, the situation has remained in a flux. Dark clouds have not cleared away, and destabilizing factors and uncertainties continue to widen. Some hard choices are yet to be made about where our world will be headed.

 

人类对于未来的选择,总是基于对过去的理解。回首100年前,一战的硝烟刚刚散去就建立了以国际联盟为支柱的凡尔赛体系,以期“开辟永久和平”。然而,“理想很丰满,现实很骨感”,仅仅20年,第二次世界大战就爆发了。凡尔赛体系未能有效制止战争的一个重要原因是,有关国家唯本国利益至上,甚至相互以邻为壑,竞相转嫁危机。国联形同虚设,多边协调失效。教训极其深刻。

 

The choices humankind makes about the future are usually based on its understanding of the past. A hundred years ago, in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, the Versailles System with the League of Nations as its pillar was established to create “durable peace”. Yet we all know what happens to ideals when they confront the reality. Just 20 years later, the Second World War broke out. An important reason why the Versailles System failed to prevent the war was that countries concerned put their own interests above those of others, or even took a beggar-thy-neighbor approach to shift the crisis onto others, which made it next to impossible for the League of Nations and multilateral coordination to function properly. These lessons were learned the hard way.

 

今天,世界又一次面临乱变交织的危机和挑战。我们该如何应对?上世纪凡尔赛体系失败的教训殷鉴不远。我们不能再重蹈历史的覆辙,不能再上演单边主义和保护主义的老剧本。更何况我们已经生活在各国相互依存不断加深的全球化时代,人类已经形成休戚与共的命运共同体。如果把世界多年形成的网络化联系和产业链协同当作威胁的武器,国家间大搞关税战、贸易战,甚至金融战、科技战,那就是开历史的倒车,后果极其危险。我们切不可因一时的短视而犯下不可挽回的历史性错误,将人类带入灾难的深渊。

 

Today, our world is once again confronted with crises and challenges brought by disorder and change. How should we respond? The failure of the Versailles System is not far behind us. We cannot let history repeat itself or witness a replay of the old script of unilateralism and protectionism, particularly when we now live in a globalized world where countries are increasingly interdependent and the entire humanity belongs in one community with a shared future. If countries allow the networks and the collaborative industrial chain that have been formed over the years to be turned into weapons against each other, or if more tariff wars, trade wars, or even financial and technology wars were to break out, our world would regress to the bad old ways with extremely dangerous consequences. We should never be blinded by myopia and make irreversible mistakes leading to catastrophes.

 

事实上,面对前所未有的挑战,多边主义日益成为国际社会的广泛共识。刚刚结束的二十国集团领导人大阪峰会又一次发出了支持多边主义的主流声音。如何践行多边主义?我认为,首先要有制度保障。没有制度也就没有秩序。要维护以联合国为核心、以国际法为基础的国际体系,维护以世界贸易组织为核心、以规则为基础的多边贸易体制。现行的国际秩序虽然不尽完美,需要改革完善,但不能全盘推翻、各行其事、为所欲为,那样将会天下大乱。其次要有合作精神。全球性问题需要全球性合作应对,没有哪个大力士能够包打天下。必须同舟共济、共同划桨,才能乘风破浪到达彼岸。三是要有共赢意识。国际社会就是一个大家庭,应该有难同当、有福同享。零和博弈、赢者通吃行不通,追求利益最大化和本国利益至上的结果只能是冲突和战争。

 

Fortunately, in the face of unprecedented challenges, there is a growing consensus among the international community for upholding multilateralism. The just concluded G20 Osaka Summit, for example, sent a resounding message of supporting multilateralism. How, then, should we effectively put multilateralism to action? I think first and foremost, there needs to be a sound institutional basis, without which order would be elusive. We need to uphold the international system with the United Nations at the core and governed by international law, and uphold the rules-based multilateral trading system with the WTO at its center. Although it is far from perfect and requires reform and improvement, yet the existing international order should not be overturned. If each country takes things into its own hands, the world would be plunged into utter chaos. Secondly, we need a spirit of cooperation. Global issues require global responses. No country can go it alone, however mighty it may be. We must work together like rowers in the same boat in order to brave the waves and reach the shores of success. Thirdly, we need to follow a win-win approach. The international community needs to shoulder shared responsibilities and seek mutual benefits as members of a big family would do. Zero-sum games and the winner-take-all approach would lead nowhere. Trying to maximize one’s own interests and put them above those of others would only lead to conflict and war.

 

多边主义与习近平主席倡导的人类命运共同体内涵一致、理念相通,符合共商共建共享的全球治理观,有利于推动建设相互尊重、公平正义、合作共赢的新型国际关系。实践已经并将进一步证明,践行多边主义是人间正道,构建人类命运共同体是大势所趋。

 

There exists extensive commonality between the principles of multilateralism and President Xi Jinping’s call for building a community with a shared future for mankind. The values of multilateralism further accord well with the concept of global governance based on extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits and are instrumental to shaping a new type of international relations featuring mutual respect, fairness, justice and win-win cooperation. History has and will continue to prove that multilateralism points the right way forward and the building of a community with a shared future for mankind is an inexorable trend of our times.

 

女士们,先生们,朋友们,

 

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

 

中国讲究知行合一。中国始终是世界和平的建设者、全球发展的贡献者、国际秩序的维护者。过去一年,尽管自身遇到一系列难题和挑战,但中国外交致力于同各国加强互利合作的承诺没有变,维护世界和平、促进共同发展的使命担当没有变,而且更有作为,更有实效。

 

China is a country that always matches its commitments with actions. It has always been a promoter of world peace, a contributor to global development and an upholder of the international order. Over the past year, despite the difficulties and challenges China encountered, our commitment to enhancing mutually beneficial cooperation with all other countries has remained unchanged, so have our efforts to fulfill our responsibilities to world peace and common development. If anything, we have only done more and delivered greater results on both fronts.

 

我们坚定捍卫多边主义和自由贸易。面对逆全球化思潮上升、保护主义和单边主义蔓延的严峻挑战,习近平主席在二十国集团领导人峰会、亚太经合组织领导人非正式会议、首届中国国际进口博览会等场合,铿锵有力发出了中国坚定捍卫多边主义和自由贸易的时代强音,主动引领全球治理体系变革方向。积极推动合作共赢的经济全球化,建设开放型世界经济。携手各方落实2030年可持续发展议程和气候变化《巴黎协定》,谋求各国共同发展与繁荣。

 

We have firmly upheld multilateralism and free trade. Facing the growing backlash against globalization and the serious challenge of rising protectionism and unilateralism, President Xi Jinping sent out a clear and consistent message at the G20 Summit, the APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting, the first China International Import Expo and other occasions of China’s firm commitment to safeguard multilateralism and free trade and steer the reform of the global governance system in a proactive manner. President Xi called for actively promoting economic globalization based on mutually beneficial cooperation and the building of an open world economy. The Chinese side has further worked with all other parties to implement the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change to pursue development and prosperity for all countries.

 

我们致力于高质量共建“一带一路”。坚持共商共建共享原则,践行开放、绿色、廉洁理念,努力实现高标准、惠民生、可持续目标。最近世界银行发布“‘一带一路’经济学”报告,认为“一带一路”交通项目全部完成后,沿线国家交通时间将减少12%,贸易增长2.8-9.7%,实际收入增长1.2-3.4%,760万人将摆脱极端贫困。这表明,“一带一路”有效促进了有关国家和地区经济增长、民生改善、基础设施联通,甚至改变了很多普通人的命运。在马拉维北部的齐姆科贝尔村,近一个世纪以来,村民们一直是头顶水桶到一公里外的水源打水。是中国工人来到该村修建起崭新的水井。在地下水涌出井口的那一刻,村民们激动地说“我们再也不用光着脚走山路了。”中国援建的马拉维600眼水井项目为当地6个地区15万人提供了清洁的饮用水。

 

We have advanced high-quality Belt and Road cooperation. Adhering to the principle of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, we have engaged in open, green and clean Belt and Road cooperation to deliver high-standard and sustainable outcomes beneficial to people’s livelihood. According to the recent World Bank report on Belt and Road economics, once the transport corridors are fully completed, travel time along the corridors will shrink by 12 percent, trade will be up by 2.8 to 9.7 percent, people’s real income will increase by 1.2 to 3.4 percent and 7.6 million people will be lifted out of extreme poverty in participating countries. This shows that Belt and Road cooperation is an effective contributor to the economic growth, higher living standards and infrastructure connectivity of countries and regions involved. It is changing the lives of many local people. For example, in a village called Chimkombero in northern Malawi, for nearly a century, people there had to walk with buckets on their heads for about a kilometer to a hand-dug shallow well to get drinking water. Then came Chinese workers who drilled a new borehole for them. The moment fresh water came gushing out of the borehole, the villagers were so excited that they said, “We no longer had to walk such a long distance on bare foot to get water.” The 600 boreholes China has helped to drill in Malawi are now providing clean drinking water to 150,000 people in six local districts.

 

我们开启中俄关系新时代。今年6月初,在中俄建交70周年的历史节点,习近平主席访问俄罗斯,实现两国元首6年来近30次会晤。此访为中俄关系确立新定位、实现新拓展、树立新目标。中俄宣布发展新时代全面战略协作伙伴关系,持续推进战略性大项目,扩大科技创新合作深度和广度,推动双边贸易额向2000亿美元迈进。中俄关系处于历史最好时期,政治互信和战略协作达到前所未有新高度。

 

We have ushered in a new era for China-Russia relations. This year being the 70th anniversary of China-Russia diplomatic ties, President Xi Jinping visited Russia in early June and met President Putin for nearly the 30th time in six years. President Xi’s visit set a new characterization of China-Russia relations, achieved new progress and set new targets for bilateral cooperation. China and Russia vowed to develop a comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination for a new era, advance cooperation on major strategic projects, expand and deepen cooperation on technological innovation, and work to increase two-way trade to US$200 billion. The China-Russia relationship is at its best in history, with political mutual trust and strategic coordination reaching a new high.

 

我们与欧洲合力应对全球性挑战。习近平主席将欧洲作为今年出访的首站,中法德欧领导人同台聚首,就全球治理、多边主义、自由贸易等问题达成广泛共识,一致同意加强在联合国框架内的协调合作,充分发挥二十国集团等多边机制的建设性作用,在推动政治解决国际争端、应对气候变化、促进可持续发展等方面积极担当有为。中欧领导人向世界发出了加强互信、深化合作、合力应对全球挑战的有力信号。

 

We have worked with Europe to address global challenges. President Xi Jinping chose Europe as the destination of his first overseas trip this year. He met with leaders from France, Germany and the EU, where they reached extensive consensus on global governance, multilateralism and free trade. They agreed to strengthen coordination and cooperation at the UN, fully leverage the constructive role of the G20 and other multilateral mechanisms to do more in seeking political settlement of international disputes, addressing climate change and promoting sustainable development. This sent out a strong signal at the leadership level of China and Europe working to enhance mutual trust, deepen cooperation and meet global challenges.

 

我们着力构建周边命运共同体。中国同日本、印度关系获得双提升。习近平主席出席二十国集团领导人大阪峰会期间同安倍晋三首相举行会晤,达成推动两国关系进一步发展的十点共识。安倍晋三首相邀请习近平主席明年春天对日本进行国事访问。中印领导人年内将举行非正式会晤,擘画中印关系新蓝图。中国—东盟战略伙伴关系进入成熟期,区域全面经济伙伴关系协定谈判驶入快车道,中日韩自贸协定谈判进程加快推进。上海合作组织影响持续扩大,成为团结互信、安危共担、互利共赢、包容互鉴的地区合作机制典范。

 

We have stepped up efforts to build a community with a shared future with neighboring countries. China has improved relations with both Japan and India. President Xi Jinping met with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe on the sidelines of the G20 Osaka Summit and reached a ten-point common understanding on further growing bilateral relations. Prime Minister Abe invited President Xi to pay a state visit to Japan in spring next year. President Xi and Prime Minister Modi will have an informal summit this year to chart the future course of China-India relations. The China-ASEAN strategic partnership is entering a mature phase. Negotiations on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership are being brought forward and those on a China-Japan-ROK free trade agreement are picking up pace. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization is expanding its influence and becoming a good example of regional cooperation featuring unity, mutual trust, shared security, mutual benefit and inclusiveness.

 

我们推动南南合作迈上新台阶。在去年9月举行的中非合作论坛北京峰会上,中非双方50多位领导人共聚一堂,共商中非合作大计,共度“中非友好黄金周”。峰会成果正在积极落实并呈现出“早见效、高标准、惠民生”的可喜态势。我们用铁一般的事实向世界证明,中非友谊牢不可破。依托77国集团加中国、金砖国家等重要的南南合作平台,中国同阿拉伯、拉美、南太等各地区发展中国家的友好合作不断获得新动力。

 

We have elevated South-South cooperation to a new height. In September last year, over 50 leaders from China and Africa gathered at the FOCAC Beijing Summit to discuss China-Africa cooperation and jointly celebrated “a golden week of China-Africa friendship”. Since then, the follow-up actions have been actively implemented, producing early and high-quality results and making a visible difference for the livelihood of local communities. With such iron-clad facts, we have demonstrated to the world that the friendship between China and Africa remains unbreakable as ever. Supported by key South-South cooperation platforms, including the G77+China and BRICS, China’s friendly relations and cooperation with developing countries in the Arab region, Latin America, the South Pacific and other regions are showing renewed momentum.

 

我们积极促进政治解决热点问题。习近平总书记、国家主席对朝鲜进行国事访问,是党的十八大以来中国最高领导人首次访朝,有力巩固和传承了中朝传统友谊,也为推动半岛问题政治解决进程、维护半岛和平稳定发挥了重要而独特的作用。我们坚定站在国际法和国际道义一边,坚定维护伊朗核全面协议,维护中东地区和平与稳定。我们还积极劝和促谈,推动缅北、阿富汗、叙利亚、巴以等问题政治解决进程。

 

We have actively promoted the political settlement of hotspot issues. General Secretary and President Xi Jinping’s recent state visit to the DPRK, the first visit to the country by China’s top leader after the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, has not only carried forward and cemented the traditional friendship between the two countries, but also played an important and unique role in advancing the political settlement of the Korean peninsula issue and maintaining peace and stability on the peninsula. On the Iranian nuclear issue, we stand firmly by international law and justice, and worked to uphold the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) and peace and stability in the Middle East. We have also actively facilitated peace talks and promoted the political settlement of such issues as northern Myanmar, Afghanistan, Syria and that between Palestine and Israel.

 

过去一年,中国一直坚定地与世界并肩前行,一直执着地与各国同心协力,直面变革与动荡的考验,培育和平与增长的力量,尤其是元首外交发挥了不可替代的战略引领作用。刚刚过去的6月,习近平主席前所未有地接连四次出访,出席双、多边峰会等各类活动上百场,为世界和平而奔波,为全球治理而操劳,以实际行动坚守中国外交的初心与使命,展现中国的大国责任与担当。

 

Over the past year, China has stayed firmly committed to the common good of the world and working with other countries in concert to face up to changes and turbulence and strengthen the force for peace and growth. In particular, the summit diplomacy provided an irreplaceable strategic guidance in this process. This June alone, President Xi Jinping made unprecedented four overseas trips and attended more than 100 bilateral and multilateral events, making selfless efforts for the cause of world peace and global governance. With concrete actions, President Xi has stayed true to the original aspiration and goals of China’s diplomacy and demonstrated China’s sense of responsibility and mission as a major country.

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