双语:李克强总理达沃斯论坛答问及同代表对话实录

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摘要

Transcript of Premier Li’s Dialogue with WEF Chief and Representatives of International Business, Financial, Academic and Media Communities at the Annual Meeting of the New Champions 2019

中国平安集团联席CEO陈心颖:尊敬的克强总理,您好,我代表大会国际金融行业问一个金融开放方面的问题。您今天上午在讲话中也谈到中国的金融业将不断开放,我们一方面已经看到中国的银行业、保险业,以及您上午提到的证券业,外资准入门槛不断降低,您上午也提到了一些领域的开放时间会提前到2020年。但是另一方面,中国金融业对内开放的步伐也越来越快,特别是对民间资本的开放,同时我们也注意到有一些网络公司的不当行为导致了包括不少小型投资者在内的投资方的损失,中方将采取什么措施,加强金融监管,切实保护国内外投资者的利益?

 

Jessica Tan, Co-CEO of Ping An Group: I would like to ask a question about openness of the financial sector on behalf of the international financial industry attending the Annual Meeting. You mentioned this morning that China will continue to open up its financial services industry, in fact, faster than expected in 2020. On the one hand we see the restrictions on various foreign investments in banking, insurance, and securities are being lifted and these sectors are increasingly open. On the other hand, we also see the liberalization of the financial service sector internally being promoted, particularly on private investments. However, there have been some Internet finance companies who have done some wrongdoings, leading to significant losses for investors, many of them small ones. So how would China strengthen the financial services regulation, particularly protecting the interests of investors both at home and overseas?

 

李克强:要保护国内外投资者的利益,更要保护消费者的权益。中国政府在不断加强监管,当然是公正的监管,这其中就有一些大的前提。首先还是要保持金融稳定。在中国经济遇到新的下行压力的情况下,我们没有超发货币,始终注意保持货币政策的稳健运行,保持人民币汇率在合理均衡水平上的基本稳定。其中一个重要原因就是防止投机炒作,防止投资者和消费者的合法权益受到损失,更重要是保持经济稳定运行,给市场和企业一个向好的预期。

 

Premier Li: In order to protect the interests of investors at home and abroad and the rights and interests of consumers, the Chinese government has intensified fair and impartial regulation in the broader context of ensuring financial stability. Despite the new downward pressure on the economy, the Chinese government has not resorted to excessive money supply. We have pursued a prudent monetary policy and kept the RMB exchange rate basically stable at an adaptive and equilibrium level. This is to prevent speculation and protect the lawful rights and interests of investors and consumers. More importantly, this is aimed to maintain the steady growth of the economy and provide positive expectations for the market and businesses.

 

当然,我们说稳定金融,保持货币政策的稳健,并不是说没有预调微调。比如,这几年来我们多次适时降低存款准备金率,加大定向降准的力度。最近我们又研究要采取一系列措施,包括运用一些中长期的融资工具来支持中小银行向中小企业、民营企业贷款,并且降低实际利率。我们扩大开放,实际上不仅给外资进入中国市场以机会,也是推动我们金融业自身在公平竞争的环境下升级,提升运行的质量。

 

Maintaining financial stability and keeping to a prudent monetary policy does not mean that no anticipatory adjustments or fine-tuning will be made when necessary. The fact is, over the past years, we have lowered the required reserve ratio several times as necessary and intensified targeted cuts in the required reserve ratio. More recent measures include using some medium and long-term financing instruments to support small and medium-sized banks in lending to small and medium-sized enterprises and private companies, and reducing real interest rates. Further opening China’s financial sector to foreign investors not only generates opportunities for them to enter the Chinese market, but also helps the Chinese financial sector to upgrade and run at a higher standard on a level playing field.

 

在实施合理的调整政策举措的同时,我们要加强监管。因为金融业面向市场有更多的开放,必须保护消费者的权益。最基本的一条,就是依法监管,把合法经营和违法违规经营区别开来。这样监管就可以有效,还不会留下空白。我们既要管好持牌金融机构,也要加强对“无照驾驶”行为的监管。

 

While adjusting policies and measures as appropriate, we are also intensifying financial regulation. As we make the financial sector more open, we will see to it that the rights and interests of consumers are effectively protected. A fundamental principle that applies here is to conduct regulation and supervision in accordance with the law. A clear line must be drawn between what is lawful and what is not. And the government should then exercise effective regulation accordingly and leave no gaps in such regulation. We must exercise effective oversight over properly licensed financial institutions and step up regulation against unlawful operations which are like driving without a license.

 

一段时间以来,我们采取了许多措施来治理影子银行风险,打击非法集资,这些都是保护消费者的权益,也保护那些合法投资者的机会。我们还建立了存款保险制度,最近发挥效应了。个别中小银行出现风险,我们运用存款保险制度来进行风险处置。首先是保障存款人,也就是消费者的合法权益,应该说是有效果的。中国的金融业会逐步扩大开放,越来越开放,中国的金融监管也会越来越规范、越来越有效,中国的经济、金融会长期稳定向好。

 

Over a period of time, we have been taking measures to tackle shadow banking and illegal fund-raising to effectively protect the rights and interests of consumers and opportunities for lawful investors. We have put in place a deposit insurance regime which has played its role in handling risks associated with small and medium-sized banks that have run into difficulties. This regime has worked effectively in protecting, first and foremost, the lawful rights and interests of depositors, namely consumers. Going forward, we will further open China’s financial sector in a step-by-step manner and enhance the quality and effectiveness of financial regulation. This way, we will ensure the long-term steady growth of the Chinese economy and its financial sector.

 

Flemming Besenbacher, Chairman of Carlsberg Group: Premier Li, thank you for your excellent speech this morning, a very interesting speech. As a university professor, now also a member of Chinese Academy of Sciences, I greatly admire China for your long-term investment in education and research and development. I think this is the only way to combat some of the grand challenges we are seeing in our society today like climate change, environmental change and change in biodiversity. I have two questions for you relating to the private enterprises. The Chinese government has been gradually implementing further tax and fee reduction policies and financial support policies in favor of enterprises, especially private ones. As the external environment today is worsening, will the Chinese government introduce more measures to help private enterprises survive and develop? The second question is, what measures will the government take to unlock the potential of this huge market?

 

嘉士伯集团主席弗莱明·贝森巴赫:尊敬的李总理,您好,非常感谢您今天上午精彩的致辞。我是来自大学的代表,我们和中国科学院有良好的合作。我一直感叹中国政府对教育和研发投入大量资金,也相信对教育和研发的投入是最佳的方式,能让我们去应对今天面临的挑战,包括气候变化、环境变化和生态多样性的挑战。我有两个问题,都是关于民营企业发展的,中国政府正在逐步落实进一步减税降费政策和金融支持政策,以推进企业特别是民营企业的发展。第一个问题是,中国经济的外部环境日趋不利,中国政府是否会出台更多措施帮助民营企业生存和发展?第二个问题是,中国政府将采取哪些措施释放中国这个大市场的潜力?

 

李克强:很高兴在这里见到来自大学的教授,我认为达沃斯论坛既是经济论坛,是商界朋友的聚会,也是学界人士参与的重要论坛。这样就可以显示这个论坛既是开放的,也是包容的。

 

Premier Li: I am happy to see a university professor here. I know the Davos Forum is not just an economic forum for gathering of business leaders, but also an important one for representatives from the academia. This shows that the Forum is both open and inclusive.

 

现在世界经济增长在放缓,保护主义在抬头,中国经济也面临新的下行压力,它比较直接的体现是对中国的中小企业、民营企业的发展,乃至于有些企业的生存产生影响,所以这是需要我们高度关注的。

 

In the face of slowing global growth and rising protectionism, China’s economy has also come under new downward pressure, which is reflected in how it has rather directly affected the development of small and medium-sized companies and private firms in China, and even the survival of some enterprises. So, we must pay very close attention to this development.

 

对经济发展来说,特别是对决策者来说,首要关注的还是就业,而中国的中小企业和民营企业支撑了中国80%以上的就业。他们是支撑中国就业的主要力量,他们创造的经济总量也占到60%以上,所以也是中国经济发展的重要支柱。考虑到中小企业面临的困难,我们在今年年初就出台了普惠性减税的措施,对中小企业,这里面主要是民营企业进行减税两千亿元人民币。此后,今年5月1日,我们对各类企业,特别是制造业企业采取减税的措施,全年总量是1万7千亿元人民币,大量的中小企业会从中受益。现在要把这个举措坚决兑现。

 

For decision makers in the economic domain, the top priority remains employment. Small and medium-sized companies and private enterprises contribute over 80% to employment in China. They are a key force supporting employment. These companies account for over 60% of GDP. Hence, they are also a key pillar for China’s economic development.

 

To address the difficulties facing small and medium-sized enterprises, at the start of this year, we introduced general-benefit tax cuts worth 200 billion yuan for small and medium-sized companies, most of which are private firms.

 

Starting from 1 May this year, we introduced tax cuts for enterprises of various types, especially manufacturing companies, to the tune of 1.7 trillion yuan for the whole year. A large number of small and medium-sized companies stand to benefit. What’s important now is to ensure full delivery of these measures.

 

但是我们也发现,仅靠财政政策是不够的。现在中小企业、民营企业还面临着融资难、融资贵的问题。而且一般来说,中小企业融资的成本都高于大企业,甚至是明显高于大企业。所以我们要采取措施,把中小企业、民营企业融资的实际成本降下来,而且要明显降下来。我们今年向降一个百分点的方向努力。

 

We have noted that fiscal measures alone are not enough. Small and medium-sized enterprises and private firms still face difficulties in accessing affordable financing. And the general situation is that these companies face a visibly higher borrowing cost than big companies. We must take measures to bring down the cost meaningfully, and work toward cutting it by one percentage point this year.

 

考虑到今年经济形势的复杂性,我们已经做了预判,所以适时出台了一系列措施,可以说当前财政方面减税的力度是空前的,而且这个措施是最公平、最直接、最有效的。货币政策我们在保持稳健的过程当中也注意适时适度地微调,应该说现在货币供应量总体上是合理充裕的,问题是在于怎么样通过有效的传导措施,让中小企业、民营企业到今年年底确实感觉到实际利率明显下降了。

 

We anticipated that the economic environment would be complex this year, and have rolled out a series of measures accordingly. The intensity of the current tax cuts on the fiscal front is unprecedented, and such measures are the fairest and most direct and effective. In terms of the monetary policy, we have taken care to keep it prudent and made appropriate fine-tuning when needed. We could say that the money supply is on the whole reasonably sufficient. The issue now is how to notably bring down real interest rates for small and medium-sized firms and private companies by the end of this year through effective transmission measures.

 

从宏观政策讲,我们有加大定向降准力度的工具,会适时运用。我们也还有融资的其他方面的工具,定向支持民营企业和中小企业。我认为现在的问题是要把这些政策举措能够有效地传导到企业身上。刚才你们问了很多问题,中国的理念是明确的,将坚持改革开放,打造市场化、法治化、国际化的营商环境。但是,由于各地情况不同,你们可能会碰到这样那样的问题,我们并不否认,也会积极努力去解决,包括提到的民营企业发展当中遇到的困难。我相信,困难在出现过程当中,只要正视它,不断解决它,经济的基本面就一定会保持向好,当然挑战从来都是难以避免的。

 

At the macro policy level, we have at our disposal such instruments as targeted cuts in the required reserve ratio and will use them when needed. We also have other financing support instruments targeting private companies and small and medium-sized firms. I believe the issue now is to make sure that these policy measures be effectively transmitted to companies.

 

In a nutshell, the answer to all the questions you asked is that China’s guiding principle is clear: we will keep to reform and opening-up, and foster a world-class, market-oriented business environment governed by a sound legal framework. Yet, given the varying realities across the country, you may encounter problems of one kind or another. We do not deny this, and will work actively to resolve problems, including the difficulties private companies face in their development as mentioned before. I am confident that when we face difficulties squarely as they arise and keep working to tackle them, the fundamentals of China’s economy will remain sound and continue to improve, though challenges would invariably arise along the way.

 

我同意你刚才所说,发展教育是基础。中国是大家都看得见的近14亿人的大市场,但是中国的发展韧性还在于现在有1亿7千万受过高等教育或职业教育的劳动力。如果我们的人均受教育年限在现在10.5年的水平上再提高1到2年,如果我们受过高等教育和职业训练的劳动力超过2亿乃至3亿,我相信它的创造力是难以估量的,它提供的市场潜力更是巨大的。中外企业的竞争会更加公平,各国之间互为发展的机遇。谢谢。

 

I agree with what you said that educational development is of fundamental importance. China is a big market of nearly 1.4 billion people for all to see, yet the resilience of the country’s development lies in the current 170-million-plus people who have received higher education or vocational education. If China’s average years of schooling of 10.5 years were to rise by one or two years, and if our population who has received higher education or vocational training would exceed 200 or even 300 million, that would mean immeasurable creativity and enormous market potential. Furthermore, this will contribute to fairer competition between Chinese and foreign companies and hence reinforce the development opportunities for all countries involved. Thank you.

 

Klaus Schwab: Thank you so much, Mr. Premier. Our business leaders here know how difficult it is to manage a company. Now just imagine to manage an economy with all its impact on society and on employment particularly. And then imagine to manage an economy of 1.4 billion people, and then imagine an economy where you have sometimes headwinds and disruptive surprises in the global environment. But I think your speech this morning and your very detailed, comprehensive responses to the questions raised, sometimes difficult questions, have shown us that the economy is in good hands, you have a good roadmap, and we can have confidence into the future of China. All our best wishes accompany you in your very difficult, challenging but very, very important task, not only for China but for the world.

 

施瓦布:非常感谢李总理阁下,您知道在座有很多都是工商界的领袖,他们理解管理一个公司的难处,我想请他们想象一下管理一个国家的经济,考虑到对社会和就业的影响,考虑到对14亿人口的责任,这是多么艰巨的一项任务。而且在经济的发展过程当中,可能会遇到逆风,可能会遇到全球环境颠覆性的突发事件、没有想象到的事件。但是在您今天上午的讲话和您刚才对5个问题细致的回答当中,我们能感受到中国经济有强有力的领导力,也有着一幅非常细致的路线图。我们对中国的未来也有信心,我们愿对您和中国政府在未来去承担充满挑战、但是极具重要意义的推动中国发展重要任务上给予更大力的支持和良好的祝愿。

 

李克强:谢谢施瓦布先生,也欢迎在场的外国朋友们,不管是商界的还是学界的,能够更深入地参与中国的改革开放和现代化进程。我们乐观地面向未来,但正视面临的挑战和困难。我们包容发展,互利共赢,为了中国,也为了世界。

 

Premier Li: Thank you, Mr. Schwab. All foreign friends present both from the business and academic communities are welcome to involve yourselves more deeply in China’s reform, opening-up and modernization process. We face the future with optimism, yet also confront challenges and difficulties squarely. We are for inclusive development and win-win. This is for China, and also for the world.

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