双语:李克强总理达沃斯论坛答问及同代表对话实录

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摘要

Transcript of Premier Li’s Dialogue with WEF Chief and Representatives of International Business, Financial, Academic and Media Communities at the Annual Meeting of the New Champions 2019

李克强在2019年夏季达沃斯论坛开幕式发表特别致辞后答问以及同各界代表对话交流实录

李克强在2019年夏季达沃斯论坛开幕式发表特别致辞后回答问题以及同国际工商、金融、智库、媒体界代表对话交流实录

Transcript of Premier Li Keqiang’s Dialogue with WEF Chief and Representatives of International Business, Financial, Academic and Media Communities at the Annual Meeting of the New Champions 2019

 

2019年7月2日上午,国务院总理李克强在大连国际会议中心出席2019年夏季达沃斯论坛开幕式并发表特别致辞后,回答了世界经济论坛主席施瓦布的提问。当日下午,李克强在大连国际会议中心同出席2019年夏季达沃斯论坛的国际工商、金融、智库、媒体界代表对话交流。有关问答和对话交流实录如下:

 

On the morning of 2 July 2019, following his address at the Opening Ceremony of the Annual Meeting of the New Champions 2019 held in Dalian, Premier Li Keqiang of the State Council took a question from Executive Chairman of the World Economic Forum Klaus Schwab. In the afternoon, Premier Li sat down for a dialogue with representatives of the international business, financial, academic and media communities attending the Annual Meeting. Below is a transcript of these interactions:

 

Klaus Schwab: Thank you, Mr. Premier, for your great address, particularly for highlighting the new champions. We have established such a gathering of dynamic companies here at the Summer Davos. In the end, many of them will become big multinationals of tomorrow. Let me highlight what you just told us - the reform and opening-up process will be continued. I’m happy to hear it. The dynamics of the Chinese economy are still in place. China, when we speak about its 6% growth, still leads the economies of G20 countries. My question is, if the global economy worsens, what measures will the Chinese government undertake to maintain stable growth?

 

施瓦布:尊敬的李总理,感谢您的精彩致辞。您强调了新领军者的重要作用,夏季达沃斯将全世界新领军者聚在一起进行交流。我相信,今天这里的新领军者明天会成为跨国企业家,我很高兴听到中国继续推进改革开放,中国经济依然充满活力。在二十国集团中,中国6%的经济增速是非常高的。我的问题是,当前世界经济减速的背景下,中国如何保持经济增长活力?

 

李克强:刚才我在致辞中已经讲到中国经济保持稳,实际上是稳中有进。因为我们是在高水平上的增长,今年6%-6.5%的增长目标实现了,实质上就是进,是不小的进。习近平主席前不久在二十国集团领导人大阪峰会上,进一步深刻阐述了中国关于经济全球化的立场和主张,再次表明愿与国际社会一道引导经济全球化朝正确方向发展。我刚才又讲到,大家都在一条船上,现在世界经济有放缓趋势,这就会对中国经济稳中有进造成新的压力。中国经济本身也有需要解决的内在问题,这些都需要我们采取积极的应对措施,而不是、也不可能像民间俗语所说的“站在西瓜皮上,滑到哪儿是哪儿”。中国有近14亿人口,我们要努力实现经济持续发展和民生不断改善。所以,今年年初我们已经制定了应对复杂局面的措施,包括我刚才讲的,在连续几年减税的基础上实施更大规模的减税降费措施,法定的税和费全年要减近2万亿元人民币,也就是说3000亿美元。这给企业会减轻很大负担。而且据我了解,很多企业把减税的钱不是用来发工资、搞福利,而是用来研发投入,来推动企业未来有更大的发展空间。当然,随着发展,员工的收入也会逐步提高。

 

Premier Li Keqiang: As I said in my speech, the Chinese economy maintaining stable growth is in itself progress, as it is growth at a higher level and achieving the target of a growth rate between 6% and 6.5% this year would be no small feat.

 

At the recently concluded G20 Osaka Summit, President Xi Jinping further elaborated on China’s position and propositions on economic globalization and reaffirmed China’s readiness to work with the international community in steering economic globalization in the right direction. And as I explained just now, we are like passengers in the same boat. The slowing global economy has put new pressure on the steady and sound growth of the Chinese economy, which already faces its own issues. All this requires us to take the initiative to respond. We can never sit idly by when things keep sliding on a piece of watermelon skin, as a Chinese saying goes.

 

In a country with nearly 1.4 billion people, we are working hard to grow the economy and improve people’s livelihood. To this end, the Chinese government formulated measures earlier this year to cope with the complex situation. As I mentioned in my speech, on the basis of tax cuts for several years in a row, we have been implementing larger-scale cuts in taxes and fees, which will reduce statutory taxes and fees by close to two trillion RMB yuan, or about 300 billion US dollars, for the whole year. This will significantly lighten the burden on businesses. To my knowledge, many businesses have spent the money thus saved not on wages or welfare for their employees, but more on research and development. This will give them greater space for future growth and allow for gradual increases in the income of their employees.

 

昨天我见到一些企业家,他们说,几乎所有企业反映更大规模减税降费,是他们感受到的最公平、最直接、最有效的措施。但是,现在政府财政收支矛盾确实凸显,我们今年下半年要做到的就是坚决兑现减税降费承诺。让人民过好日子,政府当然要过紧日子,我们有办法。我刚才讲到让政府过紧日子,人民过好日子,不少人鼓掌。看来你们的确希望继续过好日子,政府理所应当过紧日子,把自身开支扣得紧一点。让人民过好日子,就要让企业、市场主体有一个更好发展的环境、营商的环境,让他们可以更好发挥市场主体的创造力,所以我们第一个重要措施就是推进“放管服”改革,打造市场化、法治化、国际化的营商环境,这是我们今年重点工作之一。刚才我已经解释了,不多说。

 

In my meeting with some business leaders yesterday, they told me that almost all the businesses they knew saw the deeper tax and fee cuts as the fairest, and most direct and effective measure. Yet this means greater pressure on the government’s fiscal balance. In the second half of this year, the Chinese government is resolute in following through on all the tax and fee cuts. To deliver a better life for the people, the government will have to tighten its belt. And we will see that our goals will be achieved. The warm round of applause just now tells me that the audience agrees that for people to live a better life, it is natural for the government to tighten its belt, and we will do so.

 

We are working hard to deliver a better life for our people. For that we need to foster a more enabling environment for businesses and other market entities, so as to boost their creativity. To make this happen, our first priority task this year is to continue to delegate powers, improve compliance oversight, and deliver better services in order to create a world-class, market-oriented business environment governed by a sound legal framework. I will not go into details, as I elaborated on this point just now.

 

要在民生需求当中寻找投资和消费的热点,让我们扩大有效投资和消费的举措最终或者更直接适应民生需求,让民生不断改善,这正是中国巨大市场潜力所在。13年前在这里举办夏季达沃斯论坛的时候,谁能想到,中国今天能发展到有13亿部手机?那个时候大概只有1亿部,这么快的速度,而且手机都是个人的,这一个例子就能说明中国人蕴藏的消费潜力有多大。所以说,稳定中国经济,顶住下行压力并且实现稳中有进、稳中向好,关键还在于激发1.1亿市场主体的活力,挖掘近14亿人市场消费等诸多方面的潜力,这是中国经济长期向好的支撑。谢谢!

 

We need to identify the key areas of investment and consumption to match people’s needs for a better life. We will make sure that our measures to boost such investment and consumption will either directly or ultimately go into improving people’s well-being, wherein lies the huge market potential in China. When the Summer Davos Forum was inaugurated here 13 years ago, there were only about 100 million cell phones in China. Who would have imagined that the number would jump to 1.3 billion for individual users today? That is a telling example of the great market potential in China.

 

In a word, to ensure steady and sound economic development amid the downward pressure, the key is to boost the dynamism of the 110 million market players and unlock the consumption potential of nearly 1.4 billion Chinese people. This will help us realize sustained economic growth in the long run. Thank you.

 

Klaus Schwab: Your Excellency Premier Li Keqiang, what a pleasure to have you back here for more intense dialogue with the participants. I have to say your speech this morning had a great impact. I had the reaction of the participants. But I know already now we have over 1,000 news stories around the world and all major media referred to your speech. There was particular interest for your laying out further reform processes, particularly also access for the securities market. And I think your speech this morning helped to ensure that there is continued confidence in China’s growth and development potential.

 

I now call on the participants to raise questions.

 

施瓦布:尊敬的李克强总理,非常感谢您参加与各界代表对话会。您上午的致辞产生很大的影响,现场我们已经感受到观众的热烈反响,在您致辞之后全球主要媒体已经发布一千多条报道,重点关注深化改革政策,中国证券市场的进一步开放等。您的特别致辞让我们对中国经济增长和未来发展有了新的信心。下面请与会代表提问。

 

Patrice Tlhopane Motsepe, Founder and Chairman of African Rainbow Minerals: Thank you very much for the excellent speech at the opening session this morning. China has been a trustworthy and loyal business and trading partner to the developing world, Africa, and the rest of the world. We are committed to ensuring that the win-win trading and business partnerships continue for the benefit of the people of China, Africa and the rest of the world. Now the Foreign Investment Law of the People’s Republic of China was promulgated by the National People’s Congress this March and will come into effect next year. According to official explanation, the Foreign Investment Law emphasizes the promotion and protection of foreign investment which will improve openness, transparency and predictability of China’s investment environment as you emphasized this morning. As a foreign company that has invested and has been operating in China for many years, we pay close attention to this law. I would like to ask what fundamental changes this law will bring to China’s business environment? And also, how does China ensure that this law is implemented in real earnest across your country?

 

非洲彩虹矿业公司创始人及董事会主席帕特里斯·莫特赛比:首先感谢李总理今天上午的精彩致辞。我们知道中国是非洲等发展中世界以及世界各国可信赖的贸易伙伴,我们希望能够进一步推进同中国互利双赢的贸易伙伴关系,为中国和非洲乃至全世界人民带来更大的福祉。我的问题是关于《外商投资法》,我们知道《中华人民共和国外商投资法》已于今年3月经全国人民代表大会通过,并将于明年实施。《外商投资法》强调对外商投资的促进和保护,提高中国开放的透明度、开放度和关注度,您今天上午的讲话也强调这一点。作为在中国投资多年的外资企业,我们非常关注,想问该法将对中国的营商环境带来哪些根本变化,中国如何确保该法在全国各地切实执行?

 

李克强:中国和非洲同属发展中国家行列,我们之间有着互补优势,在平等合作的基础上完全可以实现互利共赢。

 

Premier Li: China and African countries all belong to the developing world. We have much to offer each other. By pursuing cooperation on an equal footing, we can continue to achieve win-win results.

 

今年3月中国全国人大通过的《外商投资法》,首先是表明中国改革开放40多年来,我们曾经出台的、有利于外商投资中国市场的三部法律的开放原则将继续坚持,它是在三部法律合一的基础上形成的,表明了我们对外开放的连续性。

 

The Foreign Investment Law adopted by the National People’s Congress in March this year demonstrates the firm commitment of the Chinese government to opening up, which was embodied in the three laws governing foreign investment that have been in force in the past 40-plus years of reform and opening-up. The Foreign Investment Law has consolidated the previous three laws. It shows the Chinese government’s consistent position on opening up.

 

第二,它显示了新的更加开放的理念,那就是要对外商投资实行准入前负面清单。最近我们刚刚发布2019年版外商投资准入负面清单,将来负面清单的特别管理措施只会越来越减少,开放度会进一步扩大,而且本着“非禁即入”的原则。

 

Second, the Foreign Investment Law demonstrates a new, more open attitude, which is reflected by a negative list approach to foreign investment. We have just issued the 2019 edition of the negative lists. We will continue to make the lists shorter and open more areas to foreign investment according to the principle that areas that are not on the lists will all be deemed fully open.

 

第三,就是强调对外商投资者的合法权益,必须有效保护。这部法律里面贯穿了很多有关保护外商投资权益的内容,包括我们还将加大对知识产权保护的力度,对外商投资者,只要在中国注册,与中国企业一视同仁、平等对待。

 

Third, the Foreign Investment Law stresses the importance of effectively protecting the lawful rights and interests of foreign investors. Quite a portion of the law is devoted to the protection of their rights and interests, including stronger protection of intellectual property rights. It is also stipulated in the law that all foreign-invested companies registered in China will receive equal treatment as their Chinese counterparts.

 

这是一部显示原则理念的法律,也体现了对上世纪80年代制定的三部吸引外商投资的法律的继承和创新。中国政府正在制定有关配套的法规、规章,争取明年1月1日该法实施的时候一并出台,就是要给外商有一个稳定、透明、可预期的投资环境。中国很大,大家在投资过程中可能会遇到这样那样的问题,但是这部法律是保护合法投资者权益,是向外商更大力度开放。谢谢。

 

The Foreign Investment Law embodies continuity as it carries forward the principles and concepts developed in the three laws of the 1980s and it has added new and innovative provisions. We are drafting matching regulations and ordinances which will enter into force together with the law on 1 January next year. The goal is to foster a stable, transparent and predictable investment environment for foreign investors. Given the sheer size of China, foreign investors may still encounter some problems in their operations. But one thing remains clear, that is, we will protect the rights and interests of foreign investors and we will make the Chinese market more open.

 

Takeshi Niinami, CEO of Suntory: Since last year, some manufacturing companies have shifted their production from China to other countries, like Southeast Asia. As a matter of fact, we are in China and we are investing more. How will this trend impact your economy and what are your countermeasures?

 

日本三得利公司首席执行官新浪刚史:我的问题是,部分制造业企业将原来在中国的生产线转移到东南亚和其他国家,与此同时,我们公司继续在中国投资。我们想问一问,这种趋势对中国的经济发展会产生什么样的影响,中国有何应对措施?

 

李克强:来自日本的企业家用中文和英文两种语言提问,这本身就表明一种国际化的趋势。经济全球化进程当中,已经形成了一个在稳定的基础上不断改进的全球产业链,这也是各国比较优势和国际分工的必然结果。全球产业链必然会形成你中有我、我中有你。谁的优势强,就能让消费者有更多更好的选择。

 

Premier Li: The fact that the Japanese business leader asked the question in both Chinese and English shows the trend of internationalization. Economic globalization has shaped a global industrial chain that keeps improving itself on the basis of general stability. This is a natural result of different countries leveraging their comparative advantages and their positions in the international division of labor. The global industrial chain has closely connected countries’ economies and interests. Those with stronger competitiveness are able to offer more and better choices to consumers.

 

至于说产业转移,这从来就是一个伴随全球化竞争产生的现象,全球的产业在形成和发展过程中总是不断转移。就像你刚才提问中说,有的产业可能转到中国以外去了,有的产业选择留在中国。我相信你还会增加在中国的投资。

 

Industrial relocation has been a common phenomenon in globalized competition. Companies shift their production around the world in the course of industrial development. As you said in your question, while some companies relocated their production outside China, others have chosen to stay here. I trust you will invest more in China.

 

为什么这么说?因为在去年以来全球外国直接投资下降的情况下,中国的外商投资是增长的,今年前5个月制造业实际使用外资同比增长8%以上。这是因为中国拥有适应全球化需要的产业体系,更有巨大的、具有丰富潜力的市场。我相信,只要是按照自由贸易和市场原则、商业规则,中国在全球产业链中会有更强的竞争力。

 

Why do I say so? My comment is based on the fact that foreign investment has been increasing in China despite moderating foreign direct investment globally. In the first five months of this year, utilized foreign investment in the manufacturing sector grew by over eight percent year-on-year. This is because China has an industrial system that meets the needs of globalization and a huge market with tremendous potential. I am confident that China will become more competitive in the global industrial chain as long as there is free trade and market principles and commercial rules are followed.

 

当然,这并不是说中国可以坐等外资的进入,我们还需要不断打造市场化、法治化、国际化的营商环境,进一步加大开放的力度,加大对外来投资者权益的有效保障。

 

That does not mean that China would sit idle and simply wait for more foreign investment to come in. We will continue to foster a world-class, market-oriented business environment governed by a sound legal framework, step up efforts for opening up, and more effectively protect the rights and interests of foreign investors.

 

我们都是合作伙伴,应当开展公平竞争。谢谢。

 

We are all cooperation partners. As such, we should go for fair competition. Thank you.

 

Kevin Sneader, Global Managing Partner of McKinsey & Company: I have two questions related to innovation, as it affects foreign-invested enterprises. I understand that at a State Council executive meeting in May, a number of measures were studied with regard to improving the innovation capacity of enterprises, specifically for example, increasing R&D investment, improving innovation mechanisms, opening innovation and making it more shareable, and tax incentives and other forms of support. Will these same measures be open and applicable to foreign-invested enterprises? How do you envisage foreign-invested enterprises’ participation in China’s innovation environment?

 

麦肯锡全球管理合伙人凯文·斯奈德:我有两个关于创新的问题,都是外资企业比较关心的。我们知道5月国务院常务会议研究如何促进企业提高创新能力的措施,确定了包括支持企业增加研发投入、完善创新体制、推动创新资源开放共享、提供税收优惠等措施。我的第一个问题是,这些支持举措是否适用于外商企业?第二个问题是,中方有何具体举措让外资企业融入中国的创新环境?

 

李克强:中国在发展和推动经济转型过程当中依靠创新,所以出台了一系列支持创新的政策,包括财政方面,对创新活动给予税收优惠;比如对研发投入,采取加计扣除的办法,下一步我们可能还会提高加计扣除的比例;在金融领域,我们支持创投风投的发展,并且为它们提供一系列支持。

 

Premier Li: Innovation is crucial to China’s pursuit of greater development and economic transformation. We have introduced an array of policies supporting innovation, including tax incentives, such as additional deductions for R&D spending, and the percentage of such deductions will continue to increase. In the financial sector, we are providing support for the development of venture capital.

 

至于你问到外国企业怎么能够获得中国政府在创新方面的支持?首先,只要在中国登记的企业,不管是外商,还是中国本土的企业,我们都一视同仁,都可以获得中国政府所有出台的创新支持优惠政策。如果哪家企业拿不到的话,可以向政府投诉,现在中国政府也开始接受网上投诉。

 

As to how foreign companies may access the innovation-supporting policies provided by the Chinese government, let me say that companies registered in China, be they foreign-invested or domestic, will be treated as equals and be eligible for all related policies. Foreign companies may file complaints if they are denied access. The Chinese government has opened online channels for receiving such complaints.

 

这个获得政策支持的问题很简单,因为我们在政策设计过程当中不管是税制,还是市场准入制度,都是很明晰的。所以只要有违背政策的情况,很快会查清。我们鼓励外国企业在中国投资以后不断推进创新,我们也支持外国企业在中国设立研发中心、创新平台。

 

Policy support issues would be simple to handle as there are clearly specified policies regarding taxation and market access. If violations do occur, we will be able to swiftly get to the bottom of the issues. And we encourage foreign investors to boost their innovation activities in China, for example, setting up R&D centers and innovation platforms.

 

创新合作应该是开放的,创新发展也需要开放的环境,中国会继续营造这个环境。为了营造这个环境,我们就必须更加严格地保护知识产权,不允许强制转让技术。企业之间的技术合作应该是自愿的,而且得到应得的利益。去年中国购买使用知识产权的费用比上一年增加了20%以上。

 

Cooperation in innovation should be open, and the development of innovation needs an open environment. China will continue to foster such an enabling environment. To this end, we must more stringently protect intellectual property rights. No forced transfer of technology will be allowed. Business cooperation in technology should be based on mutual agreement. And companies should get their due share of benefits in this process. Last year, royalty payments by Chinese companies for the use of intellectual property rights increased by more than 20% year on year.

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