双语:乐玉成副部长在第七届世界和平论坛午餐会上的演讲

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摘要

Speech by Chinese Vice FM Le Yucheng at the Luncheon of the 7th World Peace Forum

外交部副部长乐玉成在第七届世界和平论坛午餐会上发表演讲

共应世界大变局  共建命运共同体

A Joint Response to the Big Change of the World and a Joint Effort to Build a Community with a Shared Future

 

——在第七届世界和平论坛午餐会上的演讲

– Speech at the Luncheon of the Seventh World Peace Forum

 

外交部副部长 乐玉成

H.E. Le Yucheng, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs

 

2018年7月14日,北京

Beijing, 14 July 2018

 

尊敬的陈旭主任,

各位嘉宾,

女士们,先生们,朋友们:

 

Madame Chen Xu, Chairperson of Tsinghua University Council,

Distinguished guests,

Ladies and gentlemen,

Friends,

 

很高兴应邀出席第七届世界和平论坛,同各位新老朋友共商世界和平发展大业。在座各位都是富有卓识远见的政治家、战略家和国际问题专家,相信有你们贡献经验、学识和智慧,本届论坛一定会收获丰硕成果!

 

It gives me great pleasure to join so many friends, old and new, at the seventh World Peace Forum to discuss the way forward for the noble cause of global peace and development. With your experience, knowledge and wisdom as visionary statesmen, strategists and leading academics on international studies, I have full confidence that we will have a highly productive forum this year.

 

作为外交官,我经常同来访的政要学者就国际问题讨论交流,相互启发。最近我发现,大家谈及国际局势使用最多的词就是不确定、不稳定、不可预测,形象一点说,就是“黑天鹅”满天飞,“灰犀牛”遍地跑。大家有一个共同的感觉:那个熟悉的地球村正离我们远去,民粹主义、保护主义、单边主义在全球范围内沉渣泛起,自由贸易和经济全球化逆风劲吹,地区热点、恐怖主义、难民移民等问题和挑战此起彼伏。人们无所适从,忧心忡忡,对未来更感迷茫。

 

As a diplomat, I often discuss international issues with visiting political figures and academics, and find such exchanges of ideas informing and inspiring.

 

My recent discovery is that as “black swan” and “gray rhino” incidents happen all too often, words like “uncertain”, “unstable” and “unpredictable” have become most used in characterizing our world today. It feels like we do not know the planet where we live any more, when populism, protectionism and unilateralism resurge worldwide, when free trade and economic globalization encounter strong headwinds, and when regional flashpoints, terrorism and issues like refugees and migration flare up one after another. Living in such a world, people cannot help but feel worried and disoriented, at a loss about where the future lies.

 

我们又一次站在了历史的十字路口。人类历史潜流深沉,关键的转折却往往只有几步。升起“吊桥”还是放下“吊桥”?单打独斗还是携手合作?以邻为壑还是互利共赢?我想,面对乱云飞渡的世界,我们尤其需要保持定力,把握潮流,看清主流,抵制逆流,做出符合时代要求的选择。

 

We have once again come to a crossroads of history. In the sweeping arc of human history, the critical moments of choice are but a few. Now is a moment of truth: do we raise or lower the drawbridge, do we walk alone or join hands, do we take a “beggar-thy-neighbor” or win-win approach? When facing a fluid situation, it is all the more imperative that we stay clear-eyed about the underlying trend, maintain strategic focus and resist misguided policies. In a word, we must make the right choice that meets the call of our times.

 

透过世界乱象,我们不难发现,和平、发展、合作、共赢的时代潮流更加强劲,世界多极化、经济全球化的世界大势不可阻挡。世界已经形成你中有我、我中有你的地球村,各国利益交融,命运与共,保护主义保护不了自己,单边主义更是缘木求鱼。全球产业链断不开,各国利益关联分不开,经济全球化进程挡不住。在各国相互依存不断加深的今天,谁搞霸权主义、损人利己,终将不会得逞,只会搬起石头砸自己脚。

 

The truth is, amidst the shifting dynamics in the international landscape, peace, development and win-win cooperation remain the growing call of the times, and the trend toward a multipolar world and economic globalization is unstoppable. Our world has become a global village where our interests and futures are closely entwined. Protectionism could not protect and unilateralism would lead to nowhere. In a globalized economy, no one can break apart the global industrial chain or the closely linked interests among countries. In a world of growing interdependence, the practice of hegemony or pursuit of one’s interests at the expense of others’ would not succeed but boomerang on oneself.

 

世界向何处去?我们应该建设一个什么样的世界?中国国家主席习近平多次提出要推动构建人类命运共同体,携手建设持久和平、普遍安全、共同繁荣、开放包容、清洁美丽的世界。这不是空泛的口号,不是虚无飘渺的乌托邦,这是习近平主席把握历史规律和时代潮流,着眼人类共同和长远利益,为人类未来擘画的美好蓝图,是中国面对世界大变局,向国际社会提出的中国方案。人类命运共同体思想植根于中华文明基因中的“天下观”与“和文化”,继承并发展了和平共处、和平发展、和谐世界等中国和平外交理念,顺应时代要求与世界发展大势,契合各国人民对和平发展的共同诉求,受到国际社会高度重视和广泛赞誉,显现出强大生命力。我们有信心同国际社会齐心协力,将人类命运共同体宏伟目标变成现实。

 

Where is the world heading? What kind of world should we shape? In answering these questions, Chinese President Xi Jinping put forward the initiative of jointly building a community with a shared future for mankind and an open, inclusive, clean and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security and common prosperity.

 

This initiative is not an empty slogan, nor an illusionary utopia. It is a blueprint President Xi drew up for mankind’s future based on a keen understanding of history and the trend of times, in line with the long-term and shared interests of mankind. It is China’s proposal to the international community in response to the major changes in today’s world.

 

This proposal is inspired by the global vision and the commitment to peace and harmony inherent in Chinese civilization. It builds on China’s philosophies of peace emphasizing peaceful coexistence, peaceful development and a harmonious world. It meets the need of our times and the trend of the world, and responds to the common aspiration for peace and development of people worldwide. The proposal has hence received high recognition and acclaim from the international community, and shown strong vigor and vitality. We are confident that with the concerted efforts of the global community, the vision of building such a community for mankind will be translated into reality.

 

女士们、先生们、朋友们,

 

Ladies and gentlemen,

Friends,

 

今年是中国改革开放40周年。时间是最伟大的检验者。经过40年的砥砺奋进,中国发生了翻天覆地的变化,书写了国家和民族发展的壮丽史诗。40年改革开放的成就举世瞩目,无需我在这里赘述,但我要强调的是,这些伟大成就绝不是窃取来的,更不是别人赐予的,而是中国人民用自己的双手创造出来的,是中国人民含辛茹苦干出来的。中国的开放也绝不是什么笑话,而是一个现实的神话,是当代的人间奇迹!

 

This year marks the 40th anniversary of China’s reform and opening-up policy. Time is the ultimate arbiter of any endeavor. The transformative change and tremendous progress taking place in this country in the past four decades show that China has stood this ultimate test. I see no need to enumerate China’s achievements here. I just wish to emphasize that these achievements are neither stolen from others nor bestowed upon us. Instead, they are created by our hard-working people with their own hands. China’s opening-up is no “joke” but a miracle in the modern world.

 

40年改革开放,中国不仅自己发展了进步了,而且也为世界带来福祉,作出力所能及的贡献。大家应该记得,在亚洲金融危机横行时,中国坚持人民币不贬值,与周边国家同舟共济,为缓解危机作出了重要贡献。国际金融危机爆发以来,中国不仅向国际货币基金组织投入资金,向面临困难的国家伸出援手,还以自己坚实稳定的增长,与新兴市场国家一道,支撑起全球经济复苏的希望。过去近10年,中国对世界经济增长的贡献率年均在30%以上。

 

In its forty years of reform and opening-up, China has not only achieved its own development, but also contributed to global wellbeing to the best of its ability. You may recall how hard China worked to shore up its currency in the raging times of the Asian financial crisis, and how China stuck together with its neighbors in face of the difficulties, making a major contribution to easing the crisis.

 

In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, China scaled up its financial contributions to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and extended a helping hand to countries in distress. With its solid and stable growth, China, together with other emerging market economies, bolstered the hope of a global economic recovery. Since then, China has contributed no less than 30 percent to global growth on average each year.

 

中国积极参与国际人道主义救助,哪里有危难,哪里就有中国。2015年西非埃博拉疫情爆发,中国政府启动了建国以来最大规模对外人道主义救援行动。于是出现了这样一幕:当人们都急切逃离西非疫区时,中国医护人员却冒着生命危险义无反顾奔赴疫区,先后有1000多人次。中国外长王毅也是第一个赶赴疫区的大国外长。我们向疫区国家提供了7.5亿元人民币紧急人道主义援助和大批急需医疗物资。利比里亚的最后一名埃博拉患者就是从中国的诊疗中心走出来的。

 

As an active participant in international humanitarian assistance, China does its best to help whenever and wherever needed. When the Ebola epidemic hit west Africa in 2015, the Chinese government initiated a massive program of humanitarian assistance, the largest of its kind in the history of New China.

 

Hence came what was seen in the affected region: when others scrambled to leave, Chinese medical workers numbering over 1,000 rushed to help at the risk of their own lives.

 

Among the foreign ministers of major countries, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi was the first to visit the region.

 

Emergency humanitarian aid worth 750 million RMB yuan was provided and much needed medical supplies were flown in from China.

 

In fact, the last Ebola patient in Liberia was saved and cured in the local Chinese treatment center.

 

今天的中国,已经成为130多个国家的最大贸易伙伴,还是世界上增长最快的主要出口市场、最被看好的主要投资目的地之一。未来5年,中国将进口8万亿美元商品,吸收6000亿美元外来投资,中国对外投资总额将达到7500亿美元。中国中等收入群体已经有3亿多人,过几年就可能达到4亿、5亿甚至更多。中国毫无疑问将成为世界上最大的市场,而且这个市场的门槛越来越低,容量越来越大,需求越来越强劲。习近平主席在今年博鳌亚洲论坛上宣布的中国主动扩大开放的一系列重大举措已经或即将落地。1500种消费品关税大幅下调,进口汽车的关税已从25%降到15%,28种抗癌药从5月1日起实施零关税。就在上月底,中国政府发布了外商投资准入新的负面清单,市场准入大幅放宽,在汽车、船舶、飞机等22个领域推出取消外资股比限制等进一步的重大开放措施。我这两天从新闻里看到,一些世界级的大公司已经跃跃欲试、捷足先登。希望全球商界抓住机遇,更多投资中国。

 

Today’s China is the largest trading partner of over 130 countries, the fastest growing major export market and one of the most popular investment destinations.

 

Estimates suggest that in the coming five years, China will import US$8 trillion of goods, attract US$600 billion of foreign investment and invest US$750 billion overseas.

 

China now has a 300-million-strong middle-income group. The figure may well surge to 400 million, 500 million and even more in just a few years. That will undoubtedly make China the biggest market in the world, a market with better access, greater capacity and stronger consumer demand.

 

Some of the major opening-up steps President Xi Jinping announced at the Boao Forum for Asia have already been delivered; the rest are in the pipeline. Tariffs on 1,500 types of consumer goods have been lowered considerably. The import tariff on automobiles has been cut from 25 percent to 15 percent. And the tariff on 28 types of anti-cancer drugs were eliminated starting from last May.

 

The revised negative list for foreign investment released late last month substantially eased market access restrictions for foreign investors. The foreign ownership limits in 22 sectors including automobiles, shipping and aircraft have been lifted. I have read in the news that some world-class companies are planning to act quickly to reap the benefit. I wish to encourage the business community to seize the opportunity and invest more in China.

 

我昨天还碰巧看到几个有意思的数字,愿同大家分享。中国一天有8万多辆汽车销售一空,8000多万个快递包裹流动传递,全国各地放映22万场电影,4200列高速列车奔驰在中国大地上,40多万吨粮食被消费。这仅仅是关于中国一天的数字,大家不难发现其中蕴含的巨大商机。中国这样一个大市场,必将是世界经济增长的动力所在、稳定所在、活力所在!

 

A few numbers about China I saw yesterday may be of interest to you. On an average day in this country, some 80,000 automobiles are sold; over 80 million packages are handled and delivered; movies are shown on 220,000 cinema screens, 4,200 high-speed trains are running, and more than 400,000 tons of grains are consumed.

 

These figures are what happens in just one day, yet they speak volumes for the enormous business opportunities in China. With such a huge market, China will remain a source of growth, stability and vitality for the global economy.

 

我知道有些人对中国的投资环境还不太满意,甚至有不少非议。我想指出,改革开放40年,中国政府持续下功夫改善投资环境,在市场准入、简政放权、反腐倡廉等方面做了大量工作。虽然还有不尽人意之处,但要看到,中国一直是全球吸引外资最多的发展中国家,去年吸引外资世界第二,仅次于美国。今年上半年新设外资企业近3万家,同比增长96.6%。如果投资环境不好,没有钱赚,投资是不会来的。

 

I recognize that not everyone is happy with China’s investment environment and some may be quite critical about it. To them I wish to say that the Chinese government is committed to improving the investment environment and has undertaken tremendous efforts in the past forty years of reform and opening-up toward better market access, administrative streamlining and clean governance.

 

Yes, there is still room for improvement, but it should also be noted that China has been the largest recipient of foreign investment among developing countries, with more FDI inflow than any other country but the US last year. In the first half of this year, foreign investors registered nearly 30,000 new companies in China, showing a 96.6 percent increase year on year. Capital won’t flow to a market with an unattractive investment environment and poor profit prospects.

 

有人抱怨同中国贸易一直不公平,做了亏本的买卖。我想指出,中国做国际贸易是后来者,贸易规则不是我们定,交易结算用的不是中国货币,加入WTO的条件也是被要求的。所以不公平的帽子无论如何扣不到中国头上。40年前,中国对外贸易总额是206亿美元,2017年仅货物贸易就达4.1万亿美元,靠的不是强买强卖,而是互利共赢。做生意的人都不傻,不会甘做40年亏本的买卖。

 

Some complain that they have been shortchanged by China’s unfair trading practices. To these people, I wish to point out that China was a latecomer to global trade: we did not make the rules, RMB is not the main settlement currency for transactions, and we were obliged to accept the WTO accession terms. If anybody is to be accused of unfair trading practices, China should be the last one.

 

Forty years ago, China’s foreign trade was merely US$20.6 billion. In 2017, trade in goods alone amounted to US$4.1 trillion. It is mutual benefit, not hard selling that has made such an enormous surge possible. No businessmen are foolish enough to have lived with loss-making deals for forty years.

 

还有人指责中国用多种手段“窃取知识产权”,这也是毫无依据的。中国对知识产权保护立场十分坚定,措施也在不断完善。去年中国对外支付知识产权使用费已达到286亿美元。最近我们又修订了《商标法》和《反不正当竞争法》,进一步加大知识产权保护力度。在中国外资管理相关规定里,不存在强制转让技术的要求。一些人不断指责中国政府强制外方企业向中方转让技术,可是却没有提供哪怕一个具体案例。至于企业通过商业合作获得技术,这是市场主体自愿交易的结果,与强制无关。

 

Still, some accuse China of so-called “intellectual property theft” through multiple means. This accusation too has no leg to stand on. To these people, let me say China is rock-firm in protecting intellectual property rights (IPR) and has been strengthening IPR enforcement.

 

China paid US$28.6 billion for intellectual property use last year and recently revised the Trademark Law and Law Against Unfair Competition to further strengthen IPR protection.

 

In China’s foreign investment regulations, there is no mandatory requirement on technology transfer. Those who repeatedly accuse the Chinese government of forced technology transfer have never presented a specific case, not even one, to substantiate their allegation. As for the technologies obtained through commercial cooperation, they are the outcome of voluntary deals between market entities, and have nothing to do with forced technology transfer.

 

在这里,我想提醒大家的是,中国的块头虽然变大了,但作为世界上最大的发展中国家这个国际地位没有变,我们同西方发达国家的差距依然很明显。中国经济总量上升到世界第二,但人均国内生产总值仅排在世界第71位,我们尚待脱贫的人口还有3000万左右,每年需要解决1500万人就业,还有8700万残疾人。基于中国的基本国情,外界向中国提要求时,一定要考虑到中国的发展中国家属性。要求我们的对外开放与发达国家完全对等也是不现实的,这就如同不能要求两个不同重量级的拳击手同台竞技,不能要求两辆不同排量的汽车在同一赛道比赛,否则就会导致最大的不公平。

 

Here, I wish to draw your attention to the fact that despite its growing economy, China remains the world’s largest developing country, and still lags notably behind the advanced Western countries.

 

China’s economy may have become the second largest in the world, yet its per capita GDP still ranks the 71st globally. Some 30 million people still live below the poverty line, 15 million urban jobs need to be added every year, and there are 87 million people with disabilities.

 

These are the basic conditions in China. China’s status as a developing country is something one cannot ignore before one makes demands on China. For instance, it would be unrealistic to demand absolute reciprocity in market access between China and developed countries, just as it would be most unfair to put boxers of separate weight classes in the same game or cars of different engine power in the same race.

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