双语:联合国妇女署执行主任恩格库卡2017年国际妇女节致辞

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摘要

International Women’s Day Message by UN Women’s Executive Director

International Women’s Day 2017

Women in the Changing World of Work: Planet 50-50 by 2030

不断变化的工作世界中的女性:到2030年实现全球性别平等

 

 – Message by UN Women Executive Director Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka on International Women’s Day

——联合国妇女署执行主任普姆齐莱·姆兰博-恩格库卡国际妇女节致辞

 

8 March 2017

2017年3月8日

 

Across the world, too many women and girls spend too many hours on household responsibilities – typically more than double the time spent by men and boys. They look after younger siblings, older family members, deal with illness in the family and manage the house. In many cases this unequal division of labour is at the expense of women’s and girls’ learning, of paid work, sports, or engagement in civic or community leadership. This shapes the norms of relative disadvantage and advantage, of where women and men are positioned in the economy, of what they are skilled to do and where they will work.

 

在世界各地,太多妇女和女童花在家庭责任上的时间太多——通常是男子和男童所花时间的两倍以上。她们照料弟妹和长辈,在家人生病时忙前忙后,还打理房屋。在许多情况下,这种不平等的分工牺牲了妇女和女童的自由时间,这些时间本可以用来学习、工作赚钱、运动或参与领导公民或社区活动。这形成了妇女和男子在相对劣势和优势、经济地位、擅长工作和工作地点的定式。

 

This is the unchanging world of unrewarded work, a globally familiar scene of withered futures, where girls and their mothers sustain the family with free labour, with lives whose trajectories are very different from the men of the household.

 

在世界各地,妇女和女童通过免费劳动来维持家庭,她们的生命轨迹与家中的男性大不相同,她们的未来黯淡无光。这种承担大量无偿劳动的局面仍未得到改变。

 

We want to construct a different world of work for women. As they grow up, girls must be exposed to a broad range of careers, and encouraged to make choices that lead beyond the traditional service and care options to jobs in industry, art, public service, modern agriculture and science.

 

我们想为妇女构建一个与今不同的工作世界。女童必须在成长过程中广泛地接触各种职业。我们鼓励女童走出传统服务和护理行业,进入工业、艺术、公共服务、现代农业和科学领域。

 

We have to start change at home and in the earliest days of school, so that there are no places in a child’s environment where they learn that girls must be less, have less, and dream smaller than boys.

 

我们必须从家庭和学校早期教育开始改变,以使孩子不会由于身边的生活氛围而认为女童必须比男童弱小,贫穷,缺乏梦想。

 

This will take adjustments in parenting, curricula, educational settings, and channels for everyday stereotypes like TV, advertising and entertainment; it will take determined steps to protect young girls from harmful cultural practices like early marriage, and from all forms of violence.

 

这需要在养育、课程、教育环境以及电视、广告和娱乐等塑造每日固式印象的渠道方面做出调整;还需要坚决采取措施来保护年轻妇女免遭早婚等有害文化习俗伤害并免遭各种形式暴力的伤害。

 

Women and girls must be ready to be part of the digital revolution. Currently only 18 per cent of undergraduate computer science degrees are held by women. We must see a significant shift in girls all over the world taking STEM subjects, if women are to compete successfully for high-paying ‘new collar’ jobs. Currently, just 25 per cent of the digital industries’ workforce are women.

 

妇女和女童必须做好投身数字革命的准备。目前,只有18%的计算机科学本科学位是女性获得的。如果妇女要成功争得高薪“新领”工作,那么我们必须看到世界各地在女童学习科学、技术、工程与数学科目方面的显著改变。目前,数字行业中仅25%的劳动力是女性。

 

Achieving equality in the workplace will require an expansion of decent work and employment opportunities, involving governments’ targeted efforts to promote women’s participation in economic life, the support of important collectives like trade unions, and the voices of women themselves in framing solutions to overcome current barriers to women’s participation, as examined by the UN Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Women’s Economic Empowerment. The stakes are high: advancing women’s equality could boost global GDP by US$12 trillion by 2025.

 

正如联合国秘书长增强妇女经济权能高级别小组所言,实现工作场所的平等需要扩大体面工作和就业机会,涉及政府促进妇女参与经济生活的针对性努力、工会等重要集体的支持和妇女自己在为女性参与的当前障碍制定解决方案中的声音。成效将是显著的:推动妇女平等可促进全球国内生产总值到2025年增加12万亿美元。

 

It also requires a determined focus on removing the discrimination women face on multiple and intersecting fronts over and above their gender: sexual orientation, disability, older age, and race. Wage inequality follows these: the average gender wage gap is 23 per cent but this rises to 40 per cent for African American women in the United States. In the European Union, elderly women are 37 per cent more likely to live in poverty than elderly men.

 

这还需要坚决地着力消除妇女在性别之外的性取向、残疾、老龄和种族等多重交叉方面面临的歧视。这些因素还导致工资不平等:工资的平均性别差异是23%,但是对在美国的非裔美籍女性而言,这一数字高达40%。在欧盟,老年妇女生活贫困的可能性比老年男子高37%。

 

In roles where women are already over-represented but poorly paid, and with little or no social protection, we must make those industries work better for women. For example, a robust care economy that responds to the needs of women and gainfully employs them; equal terms and conditions for women’s paid work and unpaid work; and support for women entrepreneurs, including their access to finance and markets. Women in the informal sector also need their contributions to be acknowledged and protected. This calls for enabling macroeconomic policies that contribute to inclusive growth and significantly accelerate progress for the 770 million people living in extreme poverty.

 

对于女性已经过多但是收入微薄,而且缺乏或没有社会保障的职位,我们必须提高女性的待遇。例如,建设满足妇女需要并聘用妇女从事有偿劳动的强大护理经济;制定女性有偿劳动和无偿劳动的平等条款和条件以及支持女企业家(包括获得融资和进入市场)。非正式经济部门的女性做出的贡献也需要得到认可和保护。这就需要采用赋能型宏观经济政策,以促进包容性增长,显著加快7.7亿赤贫人口的脱贫步伐。

 

Addressing the injustices will take resolve and flexibility from both public and private sector employers. Incentives will be needed to recruit and retain female workers; like expanded maternity benefits for women that also support their re-entry into work, adoption of the Women’s Empowerment Principles, and direct representation at decision-making levels. Accompanying this, important changes in the provision of benefits for new fathers are needed, along with the cultural shifts that make uptake of paternity and parental leave a viable choice, and thus a real shared benefit for the family.

 

解决不公平问题需要公共部门和私营部门的雇主下定决心并灵活处理。为了招聘和留住女性员工,我们需要采取激励措施:比如扩大支持妇女重返工作岗位的产假福利、落实《增强妇女权能原则》和实现女性直接参与决策。与此同时,新晋父亲的福利方面也需要重要改变,还要实现休陪产假和产假成为可行选择,从而成为家庭真正共享福利的文化转变。

 

In this complexity, there are simple, big changes that must be made: for men to parent, for women to participate and for girls to be free to grow up equal to boys. Adjustments must happen on all sides if we are to increase the number of people able to engage in decent work, to keep this pool inclusive, and to realize the benefits that will come to all from the equal world envisaged in our Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development.

 

除了这些复杂措施之外,还必须做出简单而重要的改变:男子参与养育工作、妇女参与经济生活、女童像男童一样自由成长。如果我们要让更多的人能够从事体面工作,保持体面工作的包容性并做到所有人均可获得《2030年可持续发展议程》所设想平等世界中的所有福利,那么各方必须共同努力做出改变。

 

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