双语:王毅外长在2016年国际形势与中国外交研讨会开幕式上的演讲

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摘要

Speech by Foreign Minister Wang Yi at the Opening of the Symposium on International Developments and China’s Diplomacy in 2016

Speech by Wang Yi at the Opening of the Symposium on International Developments and China’s Diplomacy in 2016

在2016年国际形势与中国外交研讨会开幕式上的演讲

Speech at the Opening of the Symposium on International Developments and China’s Diplomacy in 2016

 

外交部部长  王毅

Foreign Minister Wang Yi

 

2016年12月3日

3 December 2016

 

各位专家,各位朋友:

 

Distinguished experts,

Dear friends,

 

大家好。

 

Good morning!

 

时间过得真快,一年又过去了。记得我在去年的研讨会上讲,2016年将是国际格局在新起点上加快调整变化的一年。今天看来,这个判断总体是准确的,甚至一些调整和变化还超出了各方预期。世界经济低迷不振,英国脱欧始料不及,中东乱局交替升温,逆全球化暗流涌动。因此,我认为今年的国际形势可以用两个字来概括,一个是“变”,一个是“乱”。这种既乱又变的形势,给世界带来了很大的不确定和不稳定性,引起国际社会普遍担忧。但另一方面,我们也要看到,这种变和乱实际上是国际格局重组变革的必然过程,其中除了各种新的挑战,也蕴含着不少新的机遇。对于各国来说,关键是如何抓住机遇,克服挑战,努力推动国际格局朝着和平、稳定、公正,更加有利于世界发展繁荣的方向演进。

 

Before we even notice it, we are now approaching the end of 2016. I still remember that I said at last year’s symposium that 2016 would see accelerated adjustment and transformation of the international architecture from a new starting point. Looking back today, that assessment has been proven correct on the whole, with some changes even more dramatic than expected. The world economy remains sluggish. Brexit has caught everyone by surprise. The Middle East is mired in aggravating tension. And there is growing backlash against globalization. All these taken into account, I would encapsulate the world situation in 2016 with two words, “volatility” and “turbulence”. We are seeing a more volatile and turbulent world, one with greater uncertainty and instability that the international community finds deeply unsettling. On the other hand, we must also recognize that this is the unavoidable result of the realignment and transformation of the international architecture. It brings about not just new challenges, but also new opportunities. For countries around the world, what matters most is how to seize the opportunities, overcome challenges and make the international architecture more peaceful, stable and equitable, and better serve development and prosperity of our world.

 

2016年的中国外交,如果用一句话来概括,我认为,是攻坚开拓的重要一年。面对复杂多变的国际形势,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,我们按照中央确定的对外方针政策,攻坚克难,开拓进取,不仅在世界形势乱局中有力维护了我国发展的良好外部环境,并且还在国际体系变局中全面提升了我国的地位影响和制度性权利。总体而言,2016年的中国外交更加主动,更加进取,更加自信,更加成熟。中国特色大国外交全方位推进,取得了一系列让国人自豪,令各方钦佩的重要成果。

 

For China’s diplomacy, 2016 can be summed up as an important year in which China has blazed new paths and made new progress. Facing the complex and fast-changing international situation, under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as its core and guided by the foreign policy it sets out, we have forged ahead and overcome various difficulties. We have secured a sound external environment conducive to China’s development amidst the grim world situation, and elevated China’s standing, influence, and institutional rights in the changing international system. In 2016, China is more proactive, more enterprising, more confident and more mature in the diplomatic arena. It has made steady progress in developing a distinctive diplomatic approach befitting China’s role as a major country with a series of important achievements that have made the Chinese people proud and also won international admiration.

 

一是勇于担当,引领全球治理体系变革。

First, we have demonstrated a keen sense of responsibility in shaping the reform of global governance system.

 

近年来,世界经济尤其是发达国家经济持续低迷不振,而中国经济依然保持中高速稳定增长。因此,各方日益把期待的目光投向中国,希望我们为推动世界经济复苏增长、促进全球治理体系变革发挥更大的作用。面对这样的期待,以习近平同志为核心的党中央着眼国内和国际两个大局,高度重视,主动谋划。中央政治局在不到一年时间两次围绕全球治理进行集体学习,提出要抓住机遇、顺势而为,推动国际秩序朝着更加公正合理的方向发展。

 

Over the last couple of years, economic growth in the world, advanced countries in particular, has remained anemic. Yet all this while, the Chinese economy has maintained a steady medium-high growth rate. Therefore, more people are looking to China to play a greater role in driving the recovery and growth of the world economy and moving forward the reform of global governance system. Bearing in mind China’s domestic and international interests, the leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as its core has worked earnestly and proactively to live up to these expectations. The Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee has had two group study sessions on global governance in less than 12 months, and decided to act along the trend and seize the opportunity to help shape the international order toward greater justice and equity.

 

我们成功主办二十国集团领导人杭州峰会。时值世界经济、全球治理、二十国集团机制本身发展的关键时刻,习近平主席主持的这次G20杭州峰会被国际社会寄予厚望。作为东道主,中方推动各方把创新和结构性改革作为开创世界发展新局的主线,扩大了中国五大发展理念的国际影响,提升了中国改革开放的世界意义,引领了世界经济和全球治理的前进方向。面对制约世界经济增长的根源性问题,我们开出标本兼治、综合施策的“中国药方”,为推进全球增长注入强劲动力。同时,在中方精心设计和全力打造下,杭州峰会成为G20历史上发展中国家参与最广泛、发展特色最鲜明、发展成果最突出的一次峰会。峰会首次把创新作为核心成果,首次把发展议题置于全球宏观政策协调的突出位置,首次形成全球多边投资规则框架,首次发布气候变化问题主席声明,首次把绿色金融列入二十国集团议程。峰会达成的29项重要成果,在G20进程中留下深刻中国印记,成为G20发展史上一座里程碑。

 

We have successfully hosted the G20 Hangzhou Summit. The Summit, chaired by President Xi Jinping, took place at a critical moment for the world economy, global governance and institution-building of the G20 itself, hence was looked upon with high hopes by the international community. As the host, China actively encouraged parties to make innovation and structural reform the new pathway to re-energize the world economy. This has increased the international visibility of China’s vision for innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared development, enhanced the relevance of China’s reform and opening-up experience to other countries, and pointed the way forward for the world economy and global governance. For the underlying problems holding back global growth, we offered a multi-pronged “Chinese prescription” that addresses both the short-term and long-term issues, injecting strong momentum into global growth.

 

Under China’s thoughtful and diligent presidency, the Hangzhou Summit has set a record in the G20 history in terms of the number of participating developing countries and the distinctly pro-development agenda and outcomes. For the first time in the G20 history, innovation features as a core outcome; development takes a prominent place in global macro policy coordination; a framework for multilateral global investment rules is established; a presidency statement on climate change is issued; and green finance is put on the G20 agenda. The Summit has produced 29 important outcomes, leaving an indelible China mark in the G20 process and a milestone in its history.

 

在亚太经合组织利马会议上,习近平主席直面“逆全球化”、保护主义、区域合作碎片化等重大问题,站立历史潮头,发出时代强音,强调要反对一切形式的保护主义,用行动表明亚太对经济全球化决心不变、信心不减,同时引领经济全球化进程向更加包容普惠的方向发展;呼吁各方把共识转化为行动,早日建成亚太自贸区,促进经济一体化,促进互联互通,促进改革创新,促进合作共赢。习主席提出的重要主张同APEC北京会议共识和G20杭州峰会成果一脉相承,在国际上起到稳定人心、提振信心、凝聚共识的重要作用。在中方引领推动下,利马会议专门通过了《亚太自贸区利马宣言》,确立了推进亚太自贸区的指导原则、重点领域、评估机制和基本框架,不仅保持了亚太自贸区建设势头,更为这一进程注入了新的动力。

 

At the APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting (AELM) in Lima, President Xi directly addressed such major challenges as anti-globalization, protectionism and fragmentation of regional cooperation. With a keen understanding of the historical trend and speaking for the urgent need of the times, President Xi underscored the importance of rejecting all forms of protectionism, demonstrating with concrete actions the Asia-Pacific’s unwavering commitment to and confidence in economic globalization and steering economic globalization toward greater inclusiveness and shared benefits. He called on all parties to translate consensus into action, realize the Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP) at an early date, deepen economic integration, enhance connectivity, support reform and innovation, and strengthen cooperation for win-win results. President Xi’s important views are consistent with the consensus of the AELM in Beijing and the outcomes of G20 Summit in Hangzhou and instrumental in calming nerves, boosting confidence and building consensus in the world. China has championed and worked for the adoption of the Lima Declaration on FTAAP at the AELM in Peru. The document established the guiding principles, key areas, reporting mechanism and basic framework for FTAAP. It not only helped maintain the momentum of FTAAP but also injected fresh vitality to the process.

 

中方高度重视气候变化这一全球性问题,习主席派特使出席《巴黎协定》高级别签署仪式,将中国的引领态势从巴黎延伸到纽约联合国总部。中美元首在杭州峰会期间共同交存《巴黎协定》批准书,彰显了大国担当。李克强总理在联大主持召开可持续发展主题座谈会,率先发布中国落实2030年可持续发展议程国别方案,首次提出应走出一条经济繁荣、社会进步、环境优美的可持续发展之路,对世界各国落实2030年可持续发展议程起到了引领作用。

 

Climate change, an issue of global nature, is something China takes seriously. With President Xi sending his special envoy to a high-level signing ceremony of the Paris Agreement, China has played a pioneering role all the way from Paris to the UN Headquarters in New York. On the sidelines of the G20 Hangzhou Summit, the presidents of China and the US deposited the instruments of joining the Paris Agreement, thus demonstrating the leadership of the two countries on climate change. While attending this year’s UNGA session, Premier Li Keqiang chaired a roundtable on sustainable development, where he released China’s national plan on the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, making China the first country to do so. Premier Li also envisioned for the first time a path of sustainable development featuring economic prosperity, social progress and sound environment, setting an example for the implementation of the 2030 Agenda by individual countries.

 

二是抓住机遇,维护周边稳定合作大局。

Second, we have seized opportunities to maintain stability and promote cooperation in our neighborhood.

 

今年我们在周边方向最引人瞩目的一项成果毫无疑问就是中菲关系实现转圜。前几年由于菲律宾前政府在对华交往上采取对抗做法,使中菲关系跌入谷底,不仅不符合菲律宾人民的利益,也干扰了地区各国致力于和平稳定的努力。今年杜特尔特总统就任后,首次对东盟以外的国事访问就选择了中国,选择了对华友好。中国也向菲律宾人民张开友谊之臂,伸出合作之手。习近平主席热情接待了杜特尔特总统,双方就全面改善发展中菲关系达成重要共识。中菲关系的这一华丽转身,标志着南海问题重回对话协商解决的正确轨道,意味着有关国家利用南海问题搅乱地区的图谋彻底破产,也为中国与东盟国家进一步深化合作扫除了障碍。

 

When it comes to our neighborhood, the most notable achievement we have made this year is without doubt the turnaround in China’s relations with the Philippines. The confrontational approach taken by the previous Philippine government in the last couple of years on its relations with China has plunged the bilateral ties to rock bottom, which is not in the Philippine people’s interest. It also hampered the efforts of the countries in this region to maintain peace and stability. After assuming office, President Rodrigo Duterte chose China as the destination of his first state visit to a non-ASEAN country, demonstrating his commitment to growing friendly relations with China. China also responded with open arms for friendship and cooperation with the Philippine people. President Xi warmly received President Duterte and the two sides reached important agreement on improving and growing bilateral ties in all respects. This commendable turnaround in China-Philippines ties marks the return of the South China Sea issue to the right track of dialogue and consultation and the complete failure of certain countries’ ruse to make use of the issue to mess up the region. It has also removed stumbling blocks to deeper cooperation between China and ASEAN countries.

 

今年,我们加强了同周边重要邻国的交往与合作。习主席成功访问柬埔寨,谱写了中柬友谊的历史新篇章。柬埔寨国家虽小,但不畏强权压力,主持公道正义,坚持对华友好。我们重视并珍惜这份沉甸甸的情谊。习主席的金边之行,对外发出了中国力挺老朋友的清晰信号,必将产生超越中柬双边关系的积极和广泛影响。习主席访问孟加拉国,是我国元首30年来首次到访,将中孟互信和务实合作提升到更高水平,中国成为孟加拉国选择的第一个战略伙伴。李克强总理对老挝进行正式访问,巩固了战略互信,深化了传统友谊。我们及时做缅甸新政府和各方工作,在缅甸政局发生剧烈变动情况下迅速实现中缅关系的平稳过渡。缅大选后新政府接待的第一个外长是中国外长,昂山素季就任国务资政后出访的第一个东盟以外国家是中国。斯里兰卡政局变化后,新政府认识到中国是斯里兰卡国家发展进步不可或缺的真诚伙伴,双方就加强互利合作达成更坚实共识,两国重要合作项目陆续排除障碍、重回正轨。

 

This year, we have enhanced exchanges and cooperation with some of our major neighbors. President Xi’s successful visit to Cambodia has opened a new chapter in the history of friendship between China and Cambodia. Though small in size, Cambodia has defied power politics and pressure, upheld justice and stayed committed to friendship with China. We cherish and set great store by this valuable friendship. President Xi’s visit to Phnom Penh has sent a clear message of China’s full support for its old friend. It will have positive and far-reaching ramifications that go well beyond the bilateral scope. President Xi’s visit to Bangladesh, the first by a Chinese head of state in 30 years, has taken the mutual trust and practical cooperation between China and Bangladesh to a higher level and made China the first strategic partner Bangladesh has chosen for itself. Premier Li Keqiang’s official visit to Laos has consolidated the strategic trust and deepened the traditional friendship between China and Laos. Our proactive engagement with the new government and other parties in Myanmar has promptly ensured the stability of China-Myanmar relations amid drastic changes in Myanmar’s political landscape. The first visiting foreign minister received by the new government in Naypyidaw is from China, and the first non-ASEAN country State Counselor Aung San Suu Kyi visited is China. The new government in Sri Lanka has come to regard China as a sincere partner that is indispensable for its national development. The two sides have reached solid agreement on closer, mutually beneficial cooperation, thus removing obstacles one by one and bringing major cooperation projects back to the right track.

 

我们积极推动周边各种机制建设。习主席成功出席上合组织峰会,以上合组织成立15周年为契机,倡导各方弘扬“上海精神”,深化团结协作,推动上合组织发展进入新阶段。李克强总理成功出席东亚合作领导人系列会议,举行中国─东盟建立对话关系25周年纪念峰会,推出系列务实合作新举措,书写中国东盟关系新篇章。我们正式启动澜沧江—湄公河合作机制,与中日韩合作的重启一南一北,相互呼应,为东亚区域合作打造新的引擎。

 

We have worked to build various mechanisms in our neighborhood. President Xi attended the SCO summit and used the SCO’s 15th anniversary as an opportunity to call on all parties to promote the Shanghai spirit and take the SCO to a new stage of development with greater unity and coordination. Premier Li Keqiang attended the East Asian leaders’ meetings, including a commemorative summit on the 25th anniversary of China-ASEAN dialogue relations. At the commemorative summit, Premier Li outlined new steps for practical cooperation and opened a new chapter in China-ASEAN relations. We officially launched the Lancang-Mekong cooperation mechanism. This mechanism and the resumed China-Japan-ROK cooperation, covering the south and north of our region respectively, will work in parallel and create new engines for regional cooperation in East Asia.

 

我们还继续在周边热点问题上发挥建设性作用,尽力维护周边环境及地区局势的稳定。我们坚定推进朝鲜半岛无核化这一既定目标,同时坚持通过对话谈判解决核问题以维护半岛和平稳定。这一立场光明磊落,不可动摇。我们致力于打破半岛问题的负面循环,主动提出半岛无核化和停和机制转换“双轨并行”的解决方案,据此寻找恢复六方会谈的突破口,这一主张合情合理,无可置疑。我们坚定维护自身正当利益和战略安全环境,反对以核问题为借口在半岛部署“萨德”反导系统。我们坚定支持阿富汗推进国内政治和解,积极参与阿富汗问题伊斯坦布尔进程,通过自身渠道以及中美巴阿四方机制为此奔走斡旋。

 

We will continue to play our constructive role in hotspot issues in our neighborhood and do our best to maintain stability in our neighborhood and the whole region. We will stay committed to the goal of a denuclearized Korean Peninsula and stick to dialogue and negotiation as the way to solve the nuclear issue and maintain peace and stability on the Peninsula. This position is aboveboard and rock firm. Committed to breaking the vicious cycle on the Peninsula, we have proposed the dual-track approach of denuclearization on one hand and replacement of armistice with a peace treaty on the other, in the hope of finding a breakthrough to restart the Six-Party Talks. This suggestion makes every sense and can stand up to scrutiny. Being firm in safeguarding our legitimate interests and strategic security environment, we oppose the deployment of THAAD on the Peninsula under the pretext of the nuclear issue. We staunchly support political reconciliation in Afghanistan, take an active part in the Istanbul Process and work for the issue’s resolution through our own channels and the quartet mechanism involving China, the US, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

 

三是主动运筹,保持主要国家关系的稳定。

Third, we have made proactive efforts to ensure stability in major country relations.

 

今年是美国大选年。把一个什么样的中美关系带入未来,不仅中国关心,世界也高度关注。在美国国内对华疑虑上升、对华杂音增多背景下,习主席同奥巴马总统在杭州峰会期间再次聚首,继“庄园会晤”、“瀛台夜话”、“白宫秋叙”之后,展开“西湖长谈”,继续两国元首的坦诚交流和战略沟通,达到了增信释疑的积极效果。双方达成35项合作成果,对外彰显中美共同利益远远大于矛盾分歧、协调合作远远大于竞争摩擦,无论对于稳定中美关系,还是维护亚太乃至世界和平都产生了重要和积极影响。上个月利马APEC会议期间,习主席再次同奥巴马总统见面,两国元首回顾总结近年来中美关系的发展经验,一致同意确保中美关系继续沿着正确轨道健康稳定前行。美国大选结果公布后,习主席很快就同当选总统特朗普通了电话。习主席表示,作为最大的发展中国家和最大的发达国家,中美需要合作和可以合作的事情很多。中方愿与美方推进两国关系发展,实现不冲突、不对抗、相互尊重、合作共赢,更好造福两国人民和其他各国人民。特朗普表示,中国是一个伟大的国家,拥有巨大潜力和光明未来,相信美中两个伟大国家的关系会变得更好。这次通话是一个良好开端,为下一步中美关系发展发出十分积极的信号。

 

This year is a US election year. The implication of the elections on future China-US relations is a subject of intense interest not just in China but also in the global community. Amid heightened misgivings and growing noises on China in the US, President Xi and President Obama met again during the G20 Hangzhou Summit. Following their previous meetings at Sunnylands, Yingtai and Blair House, the two presidents had another long conversation by the West Lake to continue their candid exchange and strategic communication, which helped to increase trust and reduce misgivings. The two sides reached 35 outcomes of cooperation. The success of the meeting fully shows that the common interests between the two countries far outweigh their differences, and their coordination and cooperation is much more important than competition or friction. Moreover, it has exerted a far-reaching influence not only on greater stability in China-US relations, but also on peace in the Asia-Pacific and the world at large.

 

The two presidents met again during the APEC meeting in Lima last month, during which they reviewed the experience of China-US relations over the years, and agreed to ensure continued sound and stable development of China-US relations along the right track.

 

Soon after the result of the election came out, President Xi had a telephone conversation with President-elect Trump. President Xi highlighted the importance of cooperation between China and the US as the largest developing country and the largest developed country. He said that there are many areas where the two countries need to and can cooperate. China is ready to work with the US to advance bilateral relations toward no-conflict, no-confrontation, mutual respect and win-win cooperation, and bring more benefits to the two peoples and people of other countries. President-elect Trump said that China is a great country with enormous potential and bright prospect, and he believes that relations between the two great countries will get better and better. This conversation was a good beginning, and augurs well for the future development of China-US relations.

 

今年是《中俄睦邻友好合作条约》签署15周年。中俄元首年内实现5次会晤,对两国关系发展及时作出新的战略规划和部署。双方就加强全球战略稳定发表联合声明,围绕重大国际和地区问题保持密切协调,能源、航空等领域大项目合作稳中有进,远东开发合作进展顺利,“一带一路”与欧亚经济联盟对接合作有序推进,中俄全面战略协作伙伴关系迈向更高水平。近年来,中俄关系的高水平运行,双方各领域的全方位合作,不仅给两国及两国人民带来福祉,也为地区稳定与世界和平注入了强大正能量。中俄战略协作,远远超出了双边范畴,成为维护世界和平稳定的一块重要压舱石。

 

This year marks the 15th anniversary of the Treaty of Good-neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation Between the People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation. The Chinese and Russian presidents met five times this year, which enabled them to update their strategic planning for the development of bilateral relations in a timely way. The two sides issued a joint statement on strengthening global strategic stability, and maintained close coordination on major international and regional issues. Steady progress was made in cooperation on major projects in energy and aviation and on the development of the Russian Far East, and greater synergy is being forged between the Belt and Road Initiative and the Eurasian Economic Union. This has elevated the China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination to a higher level. Smooth progress in China-Russia relations and their all-round cooperation in recent years has not only brought benefits to the two countries and peoples, but also added strong positive energy to regional stability and world peace. China-Russia strategic coordination has gone far beyond the bilateral scope and has become a cornerstone for global peace and stability.

 

习主席年内两访中东欧,李总理出席中国—中东欧国家领导人里加会晤,奏响对欧外交“中东欧协奏曲”,巩固“16+1”合作前行势头,描绘了中国中东欧合作新蓝图。我们成功主办第十八次中欧领导人会晤,中法、中德各领域交流合作机制取得新成果。英国新首相梅表示愿继续致力于打造英中关系“黄金时代”,预示着中英合作绝不会停下脚步,将会给世人带来新的惊喜。

 

President Xi visited Central and Eastern Europe twice in the year, and Premier Li attended the Riga summit of China and Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC). These well-coordinated diplomatic efforts have helped to build momentum and lay out a new blueprint for China-CEEC cooperation. China successfully hosted the 18th China-EU summit, and new progress was made in exchange and cooperation mechanisms with France and Germany. The new British Prime Minister Theresa May expressed Britain’s renewed commitment toward building a “golden era” for UK-China relations. We have reason to believe that China-UK cooperation will continue to move forward and bring pleasant surprise with its progress.

 

面对金砖国家整体增速放缓、外界唱衰金砖声调上升,习主席在金砖国家领导人果阿会晤期间全面总结金砖合作10年成就和经验,坚定金砖成员国合作信心,巩固金砖国家团结,唱响金砖合作光明前景,为加强金砖合作提供强劲动力。

 

Against the backdrop of overall slow-down in the BRICS economies and pessimistic voices on BRICS cooperation, President Xi laid out in detail the achievements and experiences gained in BRICS cooperation over the past decade at the BRICS summit in Goa. This has bolstered confidence and unity among BRICS members, outlined a bright prospect and provided strong impetus for BRICS cooperation.

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